Congress of vienna (1814 15)
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Congress of vienna (1814 15)

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18th and 19th Century Europe

18th and 19th Century Europe

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Congress of vienna (1814 15) Congress of vienna (1814 15) Presentation Transcript

  • Napoleon Defeated  April 1814—Napoleon is forced to abdicate by a coalition of countries: Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain & other minor states  Napoleon goes into exile on the island of Elba  Louis XVIII installed as King of France
  • Congress Meets  Sept 1814—Quadruple Alliance (GB, Austria, Prussia & Russia) Meet in Vienna to redraw map of Europe they decide: France returned to pre- revolutionary borders Kingdom of Netherlands created as buffer to France Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in Italy restored & other parts of Italy annexed by Austria German States on left bank of Rhine annexed by Prussia Russia takes large part of Poland and all of Finland
  • The One Hundred Days  March 1815: Napoleon escapes to France and deposes Louis XVIII  June 1815: Defeated at Waterloo and sent to St Helena where he dies in 1821  Congress continues and imposes a 700 million francs reparation & Army of occupation on France
  • Assessment of the Results of Congress of Vienna  Treaty of Vienna created  Minimum resentment in France  Leaders create balance of power in Europe —no long lasting major war in Europe until WWI  Preserve the traditional political way— monarchy  Advocates of Democracy and Nationalism disappointed  Forces of change are defeated—for now
  • The Concert of Europe & Competing Ideologies 1815-1848
  •  Challenged the authority of the Monarchies in Europe  Exposure by some to the revolutionary ideas of France increased desire for change  Nationalistic feelings among various ethnic groups grew  Traditional reaction  Creation of Concert of Europe
  •  Quadruple Alliance: Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia -France Joins Fun Later  Dominated by traditional autocratic leaders  Set up by Congress of Vienna and its goals were: Contain France Maintain a balance of power Uphold agreements of Congress of Vienna Prevent rise of another Napoleon  Kept peace until the late 1820’s Czar Alexander I Prussian PM Karl August von Hardenberg
  •  Autocratic countries: Austria, Prussia & Russia  Led by Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria  Metternich’s goals: Preserve monarchies Keep change from happening too quickly Maintain equilibrium among nations in Europe Metternich
  •  Social/Economic Rise of middle class Rise of urban workers Shifts in population to cities  Political/Nationalistic Demands on traditional aristocracy to share power Demands by ethnic minorities for more power  Resistance to change
  • ON THE LEFT (people who wanted change): Socialism—govt. controls important sectors of economy & redistributes wealth, “workers unite”  Classical Liberalism (Republicanism)—modern self- government (parliaments), free trade & free press, representative democracy, equality, constitutional monarchies, less power for church ON THE RIGHT (people who did not want change):  Conservatism—Change slowly, if at all, but keep most traditional roles for monarchies & church  Reactionary Conservatism (Absolutism)—Go back in time & restore monarchies & church to full power Nationalism—independence or autonomy for national groups, called for revolutions