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Collectivization 5 y ps


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  • 1. ‘‘100 Years in 10’: The100 Years in 10’: The Impact of the 1Impact of the 1stst & 2& 2ndnd Five-Five- Year Plans in the USSR,Year Plans in the USSR, 1928-371928-37
  • 2. The First Five-Year Plan: TheoryThe First Five-Year Plan: Theory  End of NEP—back to Socialist Accumulation Theory  Little more than broad targets to increase production in: – Industry by 180% – Consumer Goods by 70% – Agriculture by 55%  The ‘quotas’ were overly optimistic  Stalin called for ‘5yp in 4’
  • 3. The First Five-Year Plan: RealityThe First Five-Year Plan: Reality  Stalin’s call for 1st 5-Year Plan in Nov 1928 came as a surprise  Little guidance was given to officials on how to do it, & it led to forced collectivization  By 1929 Stalin needed a scapegoat for agricultural failures—blamed the kulaks (“wealthy” peasants)  Undertook 3 campaigns:
  • 4. 1. Grain Procurement1. Grain Procurement Urban activists were sent into the countryside to collect grain—16 million tons collected Those who opposed were labeled ‘kulaks’, arrested, and their property was confiscated
  • 5. 2. Dekulakisation2. Dekulakisation  Campaign against ‘Kulak speculators’—who were they?  “Liquidate kulaks as a class”  Around 15% of all households were affected  Escalated to destroy peasant way of life  Over 200k persons killed, jailed or exiled to Siberia
  • 6. 3. Mass Collectivization3. Mass Collectivization (kolkhoz)(kolkhoz)  By 1934, 75% of peasant households had been collectivized  Targets were given but not much guidance as to how  Collectivization and liquidation worked together  Opposition and protest led to disruption of supplies  Property and livestock were destroyed
  • 7. Retreat from Collectivization?Retreat from Collectivization?  Unrest threatened spring sowing/planting  Stalin pressured by top officials to retreat from collectivization  He blamed officials for misunderstanding his orders  Many abandoned collectives, those captured were sent to gulags
  • 8. ““Victory” over the PeasantsVictory” over the Peasants  Once the 1930 crop was harvested collectivization continued unabated  25 million households were soon in 250k collective farms—90% + of peasant population  Organized like traditional villages but govt-controlled
  • 9. How the Plans WorkedHow the Plans Worked  Gosplan  Economy run as if at war  State controlled all aspects of the economy  Huge new party & gov’t empire created  Economic policy zigzagged  Industrialization by military- style mobilization
  • 10. Political GoalsPolitical Goals  Showpiece schemes were favored over economically sound projects  ‘Gigantomania’ favored by politicians with little engineering background  These projects drained resources from needed projects  Political rivals fought over resources
  • 11. Palace of Soviets, Scale Comparison with Highest Buildings of the World, 1931-1932, USSR The Palace of the Soviets Started in 1937 Broken down to make bridges in 1941
  • 12. Tatlin’s Tower -Artist Vladimir Tatlin attempts to erect constructivist monument in early 1920’s St. Petersburg -Made of iron, glass and steel ‘the first monument without a beard’
  • 13. Worker EnthusiasmWorker Enthusiasm  ‘Shockworkers’ pushed for higher production  Record breaking was encouraged:  Extra privileges were given to those who succeeded  Those who did not give the needed resources were called ‘Wreckers’  Over time skilled workers moved up in the party and production stagnated
  • 14. Managing ChaosManaging Chaos  Enterprises had one-person leadership, but watched by the party  This led to resentment  Goals kept changing leading to managers and workers breaking rules  Managers and local Party officials worked together
  • 15. End of 1End of 1stst Five-Year PlanFive-Year Plan  By end of 1st 5-Year Plan (1928-32), advances in industry were offset by agricultural collapse  Oil, steel and coal production all more than triple  A return to grain requisition  Protests & arrests continued  Nothing prepared USSR for horrors to come
  • 16. Russia’s industrial output hadRussia’s industrial output had surpassed France, Japan, Italy andsurpassed France, Japan, Italy and maybe even Britain by the late 1930’smaybe even Britain by the late 1930’s “Stalinism is one way of attaining industrialization just as cannibalism is one way of attaining a high protein diet.” -Nikolai Bukharin
  • 17. Popular Riddle Among SovietPopular Riddle Among Soviet Workers:Workers: “Why were Adam and Eve like“Why were Adam and Eve like Soviet citizens? BecauseSoviet citizens? Because they lived in paradise and hadthey lived in paradise and had nothing to wear.”nothing to wear.”
  • 18. Famine 1932-3Famine 1932-3  The winter of 1932-33 saw a terrible famine in the rural areas—10 million died  Worst in Ukraine—6-7 million died of starvation  Stalin criticized Party officials for the problem.  Many were arrested for sabotaging his plans  By 1934 the worst was over
  • 19. A ‘Terror’ Famine?A ‘Terror’ Famine? Many historians see the famine as intentional Goal: to break the peasants, especially the kulaks There were other factors: – Weather – Decline in livestock – Lack of transportation – Misleading data
  • 20. Start of 2Start of 2ndnd Five-Year Plan, 1934Five-Year Plan, 1934  After horrific effects of 1st 5YP, Stalin waited 2 years before beginning 2nd 5YP  2nd 5YP focused on – increasing consumer/industrial goods – raising living standards – raising productivity & quality  At first, success in increasing annual output
  • 21. 22ndnd 5YP Boom (1934-6)5YP Boom (1934-6)  Number of industrial plants increased from 1,500 to 4,500  1937 production was 5X 1928 levels  Increase mostly in heavy industry; consumer goods remained scarce  Allocation of resources and pay based on effort led to development of class divisions
  • 22. The Stakhanovite MovementThe Stakhanovite Movement  Alexei Stakhanov  “Record-breaking coal miner —227 tons in 1 shift”  Became model for all workers to follow
  • 23. End of 2End of 2ndnd Five-Year Plan (1936-7)Five-Year Plan (1936-7)  Effects of 2nd 5YP: – Shortages in skilled labor – Disruption in production – Bottlenecks in inventories – Paralysis in leadership – Shortages in expertise – Rearmament—rise of Hitler – Poor harvest in 1936 – Hard winter in 1937 – Slump in world trade  Stalin moved to the left  Purges of opponents accelerated