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ELAICH - What's wrong?... Prevention is better than cure!

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ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage: What's wrong?... Prevention is better than cure!. For more information and presentations, visit: http://elaich.technion.ac.il/

ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage: What's wrong?... Prevention is better than cure!. For more information and presentations, visit: http://elaich.technion.ac.il/


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  • 1. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta The Conservation Process Module 4 Basic Cour s e Teaching Material Topic 4.1 What’s wrong?... Prevention is better than cure! Educational Toolkit
  • 2. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta
  • 3. Abstract Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Just like detectives who look for clues to solve a crime, a team of experts (conservators, scientists, architects, art historians, archaeologists, engineers, etc.) work together to investigate the problems of heritage sites. The main objective of this investigative process is to try to get to the origin of the problem/s (i.e. the causes of deterioration), so that this/these can be removed or at least reduced before intervening directly on the heritage site . Addressing the causes of deterioration before “touching”the building, cleaning it or repairing its damage is the most efficient way of ensuring the long-term preservation of any heritage site. Would you clean or paint the walls of your house if rainwater is seeping through its roof or would you first repair the roof? Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta
  • 4. What are the risks to our built heritage? Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta
  • 5. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Does our cultural heritage have a definite “lifetime”? Our cultural heritage cannot last forever. Its deterioration can be slowed down but cannot be stopped. Sometimes deterioration is visible... Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta Sometimes it is not... Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum (3600-2500 BCE), Malta Wall painting (1903), Malta
  • 6. Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta Deterioration All materials which make up our cultural heritage, whether heritage sites, monuments or objects, are deteriorating as a result of physical, biological and/or chemical changes that occur over time. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Abbatija tad-Dejr , archaeological site, Malta
  • 7. Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta Heritage has been threatened by natural causes of deterioration, and over the last hundred years also by social and economic pressures, such as urban development , tourism and war . Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Threats Jerash, Jordan Amman, Jordan
  • 8. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta Natural threats – can be slow
  • 9. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta . .. or drastic
  • 10. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta Human threats – can also be drastic Bamiyan (Afghanistan) - statue of taller Buddha before (left) and after destruction (right) by the Taliban regime in 2001. Photo on the right is by Carl Montgomery [© CC-BY-2.0 (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons 1963 2009
  • 11. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage ... or slow Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta Ħaġar Qim temple, Malta Jerash, Jordan
  • 12. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta NATURAL CAUSES HUMAN CAUSES Earthquakes, floods, storms, fire, hurricanes, (...) Anything else? Inappropriate temperature and/or humidity, erosion, dissolved salts, light, dust (...) Neglect, heavy traffic (pollution, vibrations), tourism, inappropriate restoration works, ignorance, lack of appropriate legislation (...) Thefts, vandalism, war, urban development (...) Anything else? Based on de Guichen’s diagram in Youth and the Safeguard of Heritage, ICCROM, 2000: 19
  • 13. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage General rule ... Archaeological sites are usually threatened by climatic fluctuations, as well as man-made problems which can include theft, vandalism, illicit excavations, neglect and tourism Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta Mnajdra Temples, Malta Threats to historical centres include urban sprawl (including roads, parking, modern buildings, tourism infrastructures, etc.), incorrect use of buildings, traffic, pollution, tourists, all made worse by the lack of adequate legislation
  • 14.
    • What type of damage do you see on this building?
    • Which parts of the building does it affect?
    • What could be the causes?
    Look at this building: Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta