Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Elaich module 6 topic 6.6 - The megalithic temples of Malta

359

Published on

ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage. …

ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.
For more information and presentations, please visit: http://elaich.technion.ac.il/
The megalithic temples of Malta - World Heritage Sites studies and conservation

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
359
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – University of Malta Management and Use Module 6 Basic Cour s e Teaching Material Topic 6 . 6 The megalithic temples of Malta - World Heritage Sites studies and conservation Educational Toolkit
  • 2. Prof. JoAnn Cassar – University of Malta Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
  • 3. Prof. JoAnn Cassar – University of Malta Abstract The current presentation concerns the megalithic prehistoric temples of Malta, including the studies which led to the decision to shelter the temples from adverse environmental factors. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
  • 4. Prof. JoAnn Cassar – University of Malta Content Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Table of contents of this presentation 2.1.1 Age and location 2.1.2 Conservation challenges 2.1.3 The way forward Scientific Committee 2.1.4 Studies carried out over the years Materials Environment Other studies 2.1.5 Protection for the temples 2.1.6 What do the sites look like now? 2.1.7 Managing the sites
  • 5. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens The Maltese megalithic temples Built during the period 5000 2500 BC In the Mediterranean this is the period between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age The best preserved ones are those of Ħ a ġ ar Qim, Mnajdra, Tarxien and Ġ gantija. The Maltese Islands cover an area of only 316 km 2
  • 6. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens World Heritage Temple sites Ħa ġ ar Qim and Mnajdra
  • 7. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens World Heritage site Tarxien Temples
  • 8. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens These temples are the oldest free-standing structures in the world (Renfrew, 1973)
  • 9. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Conservation challenges Materials Environment
  • 10. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens <ul><li>Built of the local Globigerina and Coralline Limestones, these temples currently have a number of problems, including those associated with the deterioration of materials as well as structural problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic properties together with the harsh surrounding environment act to give rise to material loss and structural problems. </li></ul>Entrance to Ġgantija Temples
  • 11. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens The construction of the temples <ul><li>Built of megaliths up to 6.40m long </li></ul><ul><li>The layout consists of adjacent curved apses </li></ul><ul><li>External walls were often built of Coralline Limestone </li></ul><ul><li>Internal walls and decorative elements were built of Globigerina Limestone. </li></ul>Ġ gantija temples in Gozo
  • 12. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens The way forward
  • 13. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Scientific committee <ul><li>A scientific committee was set up in 1999 by the Government of Malta to study and give advice on the preservation of the temples. </li></ul><ul><li>The committee identified the main cause of deterioration as the harsh environmental factors affecting the material content, and structural integrity, of the sites. </li></ul><ul><li>It was recommended that the sites be protected from the effects of these adverse factors by means of a reversible, open sided shelter . The construction of the shelters on site began in 2008 and aims at protecting the site for a period of between 25 and 30 years. </li></ul>
  • 14. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Studies carried out over the years
  • 15. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Materials <ul><li>Both the Globigerina and the Coralline Limestones are subject to deterioration, giving rise to a number of serious challenges in the conservation of these important temple sites. </li></ul>The Mnajdra Temples
  • 16. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Globigerina Limestone … has been widely used in the temples Ħ a ġ ar Qim Mnajdra
  • 17. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Utilised for internal walls and decorative elements Decorated block in Globigerina in the Tarxien temples
  • 18. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Studies on stone <ul><li>1985 – 1991: Bilateral project Museums Department Malta and University of Florence, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>2005 – 2006: Heritage Malta and Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC), Italian National Research Council (CNR). </li></ul>
  • 19. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Stone sampling - 2005 <ul><li>To evaluate the damage and identify the natural and anthropogenic causes of deterioration, and to confirm previously derived conclusions. </li></ul>
  • 20. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Environmental monitoring <ul><li>2005 – 2006 - carried out by Heritage Malta staff and colleagues from the Istituto di Scienza dell’Atmosfera e del Clima – CNR ISAC Bologna Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>One year of monitoring funded by the 2003 EU Pre-Accession funding programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Still being continued by Heritage Malta staff. </li></ul>
  • 21. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Environmental parameters being monitored <ul><li>Air temperature and Relative Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Wind – speed and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Biological organisms </li></ul>
  • 22. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Other studies <ul><li>Surface parameters (temperature and moisture) </li></ul><ul><li>Biological surveys and studies </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological studies </li></ul><ul><li>Laser scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration monitoring </li></ul>
  • 23. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Protection for the temples
  • 24. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens <ul><li>In order to try to mitigate unfavourable and fluctuating environmental conditions, and reduce their effects on the temple materials and structure, it was decided to cover the temples with a roof – the recommendation was made by the Scientific Committee set up for the conservation of the Megalithic Temples and was approved by Cabinet. The sheltering project aims at protecting the site for a period of between 25 and 30 years. </li></ul><ul><li>This is to protect these sites until such time that, through further intense study, a possible solution be found that could possibly mitigate the effect of such factors. </li></ul><ul><li>A design was chosen on the basis of an international competition. </li></ul>
  • 25. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens <ul><li>Intense monitoring of the surrounding environment, commenced one full year before the construction of the shelters, and is being continued even after the shelters were constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>Post sheltering data is being compared with data gathered before, the interpretation of which will give a better understanding of the complex interaction between the environment and materials. </li></ul><ul><li>The period of sheltering will buy precious time in which to study how the temples can be better preserved, for the enjoyment of the present and future generations. </li></ul>
  • 26. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens The shelter: details <ul><li>Material of the cover: </li></ul><ul><li>Cable-net/Textile/Hybrid/Foil Fabric </li></ul><ul><li>Type (code) sheerfil I and sheerfil II </li></ul><ul><li>Material Fabric/Foil Glass fabric coated PTFE </li></ul><ul><li>Main dimensions and form: </li></ul><ul><li>Covered surface (m 2 ) 4500 </li></ul><ul><li>Total length (m) 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Total width (m) 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum height (m) 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum free span (m) 70 </li></ul>
  • 27. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Putting up the shelter at Ħa ġ ar Qim
  • 28. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens What do the sites look like now?
  • 29. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Thee The shelters have drastically changed external appearance of the site
  • 30. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens Once inside the site, they have however improved its legibility
  • 31. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens How are the conservation issues explained to visitors? The new visitor centre introduces visitors to the conservation issues and how they have been addressed, before they visit site
  • 32. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar – Topic 6: Management and use Acropolis of Athens <ul><li>Visitors feel site is more cared for and respected </li></ul><ul><li>New technology is serving an ancient monument </li></ul><ul><li>Better sense of entering an architectural volume </li></ul><ul><li>interiors ‘feel larger’, closer to original grandeur </li></ul><ul><li>Diffused light has improved legibility of detail </li></ul><ul><li>Changed acoustics add to feeling of an interior, more respectful behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Human comfort - visitors spend more time </li></ul>How has public responded to shelters?

×