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Elaich module 6 topic 6.3 - Preservation of Historic Cities
 

Elaich module 6 topic 6.3 - Preservation of Historic Cities

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ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.

ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.
For more information and presentations, please visit: http://elaich.technion.ac.il/
Preservation of Historic Cities

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    Elaich module 6 topic 6.3 - Preservation of Historic Cities Elaich module 6 topic 6.3 - Preservation of Historic Cities Presentation Transcript

    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Architect Prof. Helen Maistrou – National Technical University of Athens Management and Use Module 6 Basic Cour s e Teaching Material Topic 6 . 3 Preservation of Historic Cities The Case of Nafplion - Greece Educational Toolkit
    • Architect Prof. Helen Maistrou – National Technical University of Athens Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
    • Architect Prof. Helen Maistrou – National Technical University of Athens Abstract The current presentation describes the efforts for preserving historic cities, as shown in the case of Nafplion – Greece. Historic cities start with two essential capitals: first their built and natural environment and second their socio – cultural values and any planning process should take these into account. The planning process is then described step-by-step. A SWOT analysis reveals the strengths and weaknesses of this plan, after which the main proposals are presented. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
    • Architect Prof. Helen Maistrou – National Technical University of Athens Content Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
      • Table of contents of this presentation
      • Requirements for a planning process
      • Cultural context
      • Planning process
      • Historic evolution of the City
      • SWOT analysis
      • Main proposals
      • Conclusions
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Historic cities start with two essential capitals: first the ir built and natural environment and second their socio – cultural values. The planning process for their preservation must cover the following:   A. Documentation and evaluation of the historic city. B. Analysis of the existing situation and the conditions of urban life in the historic area. C. Understanding of the transformations of the historic components of the city over time as well as its existing problems. D. Identification of the desired situation, definition of the desired results, choice of the appropriate means to protect all the material and spiritual elements that express the cultural heritage of the historic city and formulation of a management strategy for the sustainable development of the city, that integrates the conservation and restoration goals.
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Planning for the preservation of historic cities is concerned with the conservation of the urban fabric and its cultural content as a whole, and not with architecture alone. Such a planning needs a multidisciplinary approach covering architectural, archaeological, historical, technical, social and economic aspects. It is very important to proceed in a. understanding and evaluation the cultural context and the values of the urban landscape, before any intervention in order to achieve its preservation. b. identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and risks of the city, as well as the present and future needs of the community, in order to assure the quality of life as well as its sustainable development. The historic city of Nafplio 18 th century
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The project has been based on a General Town Plan (1983-85) on a special Town Planning Study (1985-87) that has been held for all neighborhoods of the town, as well as on a series of special projects for the renewal of public space. (1992 – 1994). C. The historic city of Nafplion will serve as a case study of a sustainable planning and design process that has been held for the city, aiming at: ·       Integrated conservation. ·       Improvement of human environment and life quality. ·       Sustainable development.
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage MAP OF THE CITY
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Cultural context defines the character of the city that is mainly composed by : its setting and historic patterns, its spatial elements and urban fabric, its buildings stock, as well as by people living in the city, land use, social and economic structure. Cultural historic context embodies aesthetic, historic, scientific, social and spiritual values for the present and future generations. The significance of the place should guide any planning decisions.
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
      • Τhe planning process for the historic city of Nafplion, has been the following:
      • Understanding and evaluating the character and the quality of the urban landscape, the historical and architectural values of the distinctive neighborhoods, individual buildings, urban tissue, free spaces, etc, in order to preserve and enhance them.
      • B. Understanding the intangible cultural identity of the urban entity -its social, economic and functional characteristics- as well as its evolution in time.
      • C. Identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and risks of the city, as well as the present and future needs of the community, looking at the new and old districts as a whole, in order to assure the quality of life as well as its sustainable development.
      • D. Managing change in a sensitive manner to preserve the character of the locality while permitting necessary development
      • E. Enhance sustainable urban design, through environmental improvements, repair proposals, and regeneration projects.
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The analysis of a historic city focuses first of all, on the general image of the area, which is shaped by the geometrical features and the outline of the built environment in relation with the natural elements of the landscape on which it emerged . Especially crucial is the understanding of: the city ’ s form and structure, depending on the topography of the site, as well as on its history and its archaeology findings, the nature around the city as well as the natural elements in the city,
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The original use of the city through history, as administrative center and important commercial port (from 16 th to 18 th century) and first capital of the new state before Athens (1828-1834), have created its cultural context. The physical location of the historic center, along with the fortifications for the city's defense and the maritime landscape, are crucial elements for the general image of the city
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The first section of the city completed during the first period of Venetian domination (1389-1540) is characterized by the quaintness of the area and the free arrangement of roads and their adaptation to the intense sloping of the terrain. During the second period of Venetian occupation (1686-1719), we have the development of a second zone where the terrain is more flat and the whole style of the area is more urban. A defensive wall was built along the sea cost that defined to a great degree , the width of the roads running along it. The third zone of the city has been developed through 19th century, after the deliberation of the city from Ottoman invasion THE HISTORIC EVOLUTION OF THE CITY
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The historic center of Nafplion combines the image of a medieval town, characterized by the quaintness of the landscape, the free arrangement of roads, the free placing of monuments within the urban web and the unplanned open spaces, with the image of the cities of 19th and 20th century, which reintroduce the classic model of rectangular forms in the urban tissue.
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The density of structures , the relation between built and open areas, as well as the important buildings – landmarks, the morphological variety of the facades, the quality, the workmanship and texture of the surfaces, the construction materials and the colours used, attribute the unique identity to the old city.
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Some important buildings dating back to the Ottoman or Venetian period of the city, as well as neoclassic buildings dating after the deliberation of the city in 1828, constitute basic elements of the cultural historic context. Few modern buildings, built by famous Greek architects, contribute to the architectural heritage of the city.
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The historic center confronts a great pressure from tourism facilities that displace its traditional functions (residence, trade, services) deteriorate its image and corrode the distinctive features of its historic buildings as well as its social and cultural identity. The residents are being driven away from the historic center, by the increase of land values and by the levels of noise, the proliferation of bars, restaurants and cars.
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage S W O T A N A L Y S I S STRENGTHS Cultural Value. Tourism attraction - Existing income from tourism. Beauty of the place. A living place- Continuity of life and use. Municipality owns some important historic buildings. Appropriate legal framework Nearby natural and cultural attractions and historic sites . WEAKNESSES Poor enforcement of laws. Poor conditions in public space. Lack of open space for the inhabitants in the newer neighborhood of the city. Conflicts between inhabitants and archaeologists. Low housing conditions. Traffic problems and Parking issues. Poor human resources Lack of financial resources
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage WEAKNESSES Deteriorating sea front isolated from the city Incomplete highlight of areas of natural beauty Poor infrastructure. C oncentration of recreation and commerce in the historic center Lack of open spaces and cultural facilities D owngraded the entry roads to the town Concerning the newer neighborhoods
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage S W O T A N A L Y S I S OPPORTUNITIES Highlighting the cultural identity of the city, to attract funding in order to preserve the historic buildings and keep the habitants. Professionals working on the site. Cultural tourism on rise. Municipal and public awareness for the site ’ s problems and importance. Diversity of habitat, activities and cultural traces. THREATS Tourism congestion. Non compatible uses. Lack of control mechanism over publicprivate ownership. Conflicts between tourism and residential activities. Demographic deterioration Housing deterioration Lack of implementation of plans by public authorities.
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage MAIN PROPOSALS Preservation of the existing historic fabric: streets, squares, free spaces and important buildings Improving infrastructure and public facilities, as well as improving the human environmenet and quality of life, through regeneration projects. Enhancement of the waterfront areas as well as areas of cultural interest and natural beauty Preservation of a major place for housing by restricting the availability of space for other functions, promoting functional variety and avoiding urban district mono-functionalism. Upgrade urban voids
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage MAIN PROPOSALS Assure a balance between the various functions of the old and new neighbourhoods of the town Create a sustainable traffic system Improvement of the technical infrastructure of the town. Secure the necessary cultural and social infrastructure by reusing historic vacant public buildings. Upgrading of public spaces in all the neighbourhoods of the city
    • Prof. Helen Maistrou – Topic 6.3: Preservation of Historic Cities Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The act of preservation planning must be the process of Understanding the character and the quality of the urban landscape, its historical and architectural values, individual buildings, urban tissue, green spaces, etc, in order to preserve and enhance them. Understanding the intangible cultural identity of the urban entity -its social, economic and functional characteristics- as well as its evolution in time Identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, risks and development possibilities of each place, and the present and future needs of the community, looking at the new and old districts as a whole, in order to assure the quality of life of their residents, as well as their sustainable development. Managing change in a sensitive manner to preserve the character of the locality while permitting necessary development. Enhance sustainable urban design, through regeneration projects, for upgrading urban voids, the public space, the technical infrastructure, and through reusing vacant buildings and restauring deteriorated building stock. Making the community appreciate the values of their place and participate to the conservation and planning process.