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ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.

ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.
For more information and presentations, please visit: http://elaich.technion.ac.il/
Tourism and monuments

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    Elaich module 6 topic 6.1 - Tourism and monuments Elaich module 6 topic 6.1 - Tourism and monuments Presentation Transcript

    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – National Technical University o f Athens Management and Use Module 6 Basic Cour s e Teaching Material Topic 6 . 1 Tourism and monuments Educational Toolkit
    • Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – National Technical University of Athens Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
    • Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – National Technical University of Athens Abstract
      • The current presentation examines the phenomenon of tourism with emphasis in cultural tourism and its impact on monuments.
      • Tourism has become nowadays a social, financial and cultural phenomenon.
      • Cultural tourism is an alternative form of tourism, which is developed in order to face the negative impact of massive and uncontrolled tourist influx on monuments and sites.
      • Various international organisations are facing the negative impact of mass tourism and specific Tourism Charters have been developed in this direction.
      • The processes of circuits and cultural routes in cultural tourism are examined.
      • The case of Greece is presented, where culture is regarded as the wealth of the country and characteristic examples of Greek monuments and archaeological sites are given.
      • The need of a management plan for the protection and organizing of the visits at monuments and sites is considered to be indispensable for facing the negative impact of mass tourism.
      • Tourism is contributing to the integration of cultural heritage in economy and the integration of cultural heritage in European economic policies is responding to this target.
        • Finally, the demand for a sustainable and responsible cultural tourism for the elimination of the negative consequences of tourism towards monuments and sites is presented.
      Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
    • Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – National Technical University of Athens Content Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Table of contents of this presentation 6.1.1 The phenomenon of tourism 6.1.2 Cultural tourism 6.1.3 International organisations and Charters’ development facing negative impact of mass tourism 6.1.4 Tourist development endangering local reception societies 6.1.5 Circuits versus cultural routes 6.1.6 The case of Greece 6.1.7. Cultural properties: basic elements of the touristic image of Greece 6.1.7.1 The Athens Acropolis and its monuments 6.1.7.2 Archaeological Site of Delphi 6.1.7.3 Archaeological Site of Olympia 6.1.8 The need of a management plan 6.1.8.1. The New Acropolis Museum - a typical example for Greece 6.1.9. Tourism contributing at a steady pace to the integration of cultural heritage in economy 6.1.10 Demand for a sustainable and responsible cultural tourism
    • 6.1.1. The phenomenon of tourism Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Tourism: A universal and non reversible phenomenon In the second half of the 20th century, tourism developed and became a complex social, financial and cultural phenomenon, acquiring mass dimensions The tendencies developing in the domain of tourism are reinforced by the generalized urbanization, urging city-dwellers to escapade from time to time, for vacation or leisure Pic.1: Athens Greece The repercussions of tourism The developing tendencies of tourism exercise pressure on naturally and culturally interesting areas. Pic.2: Piazza Navona, Rome
    • 6.1.2. Cultural Tourism Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Meaning the visit of monuments, ensembles and sites, is rising to become an alternative form of tourism, aiming at compensating the repercussions and especially the alterations and destructions brought on the cultural and natural environment from the massive and uncontrolled tourist influx. The management of tourist influx Adopt policies to manage the tourist influx and to delimitate tourism servicing and facilities within tolerable boundaries, as well as the carrying capacity which will guarantee the entirety and the use of monuments in cultural and natural sites Pic.3: Historical centre of Rome The respect of authenticity and of the variety that tourist destinations have in the matter of cultural values is a condition for safeguarding their attractiveness. Pic.4: Gold and Silver art craft, Mdina, Malta
    • 6.1.3. International organisations and Charters’ development facing negative impact of mass tourism Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
      • Twelve years after drafting the Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (Venice Charter, 1964), international governmental and non governmental organizations, among which the :
      • World Tourism Organization - WTO
      • International Council of Monuments and Sites - ICOMOS
      • are expressing their worry on the negative impact of mass tourism.
    • 6.1.3. International organisations and Charters’ development facing negative impact of mass tourism Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage WTO and ICOMOS among 17 international organizations suggesting cultural tourism as an alternative contributing to the discovery-exploration, but also to the preservation-protection of cultural and natural heritage. Pic.5: Grande Place, Brussels The Venice Charter and the Cultural Tourism Charter were prophetic. Long before the Brundtland report and Agenda 21 (Rio 1992), they actually introduced in action the notion of sustainability, acknowledging the need to bequeath to future generations the heritage rendered to us by our ancestors. The Charter on Cultural Tourism (Brussels 1976)
    • 6.1.3. International organisations and Charters’ development facing negative impact of mass tourism Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The Charter on Sustainable Tourism (Lanzarotte 27-28 April 1995) Within the context of the International Conference on sustainable tourism the need to base touristic development on sustainability criteria is recognized and the promotion of alternative forms of tourism is deemed a necessary element. The New Charter of Cultural Tourism adopted by ICOMOS (Mexico 1999) Considers cultural tourism as a factor of great educational and social importance. However, cultural tourism can develop into a factor of negative pressure for sensitive sites, when the number of visitors exceeds their carrying capacity and even more so when the existing infrastructure is limited or insufficient.
    • 6.1.4. Tourist development endangering local reception societies Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
      • to definitely lose their cultural identities
      • to destroy the authenticity and importance of their cultural heritage
      Pic.6, 7: Mdina, Malta The result is that The reception communities realize that the buying capacity of tourists threatens the tangible and intangible values of their culture, but they are often incapable of resisting to it. Tourists receive a staged reconstitution, the shadow of the authentic culture they would like to discover.
    • 6.1.5. Circuits vs Cultural Routes Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Circuits constitute a practical method for tourism professionals, allowing them to intensify and multiply the occasions for visits in cultural sites and goods, as well as the possibilities to participate in cultural events organized in a commercialized logic Pic.8: Pantheon, Rome Cultural tourism is a procedure for the enlargement of cultural horizons, for the quest for knowledge, thought and emotion, through the discovery of heritage and according to the principle of Charter for Cultural Routes of ICOMOS (2008) Cultural Routes represent interactive, dynamic and evolving processes of human intercultural links that reflect the rich diversity of the contribution of different people to cultural heritage
    • 6.1.6. The case of Greece Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
      • According to the Hellenic
      • Ministry of Culture :
      • 331 listed
      • archaeological sites
      • 909 monuments
      • 236 museums
      • 17 World Heritage
      • Properties
      Culture is the wealth of Greece !
      • According to the National
      • Statistics Service,
      • for 2008 visitors were in:
      • archaeological sites 7.262.471
      • museums 2.452.964
    • 6.1.6. The case of Greece Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
    • 6.1.7. Cultural properties : basic elements of the touristic image of Greece Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Tour operators exploit to the maximum the tourists ’ interest in culture, by systematically steering their circuits towards the most popular and important cultural properties. Pic.9: Parthenon, 1929 Photographed by Nelly Pic.10: Knossos Palace, Crete, Created by X. Perakis, 1949
    • 6.1.7. Cultural properties: basic elements of the touristic image of Greece Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The Athens Acropolis and its monuments Archaeological Site of Delphi Archaeological Site of Olympia Three characteristic examples
    • 6.1.7.1 The Athens Acropolis and its monuments Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Universal symbols of the classical spirit and civilization, form the greatest architectural and artistic complex bequeathed by Greek Antiquity to the world. Inscription date: 1987 Criteria I , II , III , IV , VI 1.071.000 visitors in 2008 = 5% of tourists in Greece 5.000 visitors / day Pic.11: Acropolis, Athens, Greece
    • 6.1.7.2. Archaeological Site of Delphi Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The sanctuary of Delphi, in the 6th century B.C. was the religious centre and symbol of unity of the ancient Hellenic world Inscription date: 1987, Criteria I , II , III , IV , VI 205.000 visitors in 2008 Pic.12, 13: Deplhi, Greece
    • 6.1.7.3. Archaeological Site of Olympia Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage In addition to temples, there are the remains of all the sports structures erected for the Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia every four years begging in 776 B.C. Inscription date: 1989 Criteria I, II, III, IV, VI 355.619 visitors in 2009 Pic.14, 15: Olympia, Greece
    • 6.1.8. The need of a management plan Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage A management plan for the protection and organizing of the visits at monuments and cultural sites is essential, in order to deter the negative consequences observed by the pressure exerted by tourists. Pic.16: Narni, Italy In order to respond to the tourist demand, many countries strive to improve and differentiate the presentation of their cultural heritage. Pic.17, 18, 19: Arles, France
    • 6.1.8.1. The New Acropolis Museum- a typical example for Greece Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Opened its gates to the public in June 2009 Pic.20, 21, 22, 23: Acropolis museum, Athens, Greece Intensification   of visits During the three months since its inauguration, visitors reached almost 15.000 people each day, meaning 1.500 – 2.000 persons per hour, mainly foreigners
    • 6.1.9. Tourism contributing at a steady pace to the integration of cultural heritage in economy Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Pic.24, 25: Quebec, Canada
    • 6.1.9. Tourism contributing at a steady pace to the integration of cultural heritage in economy Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Key to the European Policy is : The RENEWAL of interest about cultural heritage, which can be considered as a “ resource ” that must be preserved for its tangible and intangible aspect. Pic.26: Temple of Apollon, Delphi, Greece
      • The integration of cultural heritage in the European economic policies
        • LEADER,
        • INTERREG
        • PHARE
      • have been responding to this target.
      • RAPHAEL program is the only one for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage
    • 6.1.10. Demand for a sustainable and responsible cultural tourism The need to adopt a moral and responsible attitude of tourists Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Tourists ask for more and more attractions and cultural experiences, even if it is to cost them more, while their presence alone suffices to put a negative pressure on the welcoming societies and sites. Pic.27: Acropolis, Athens, Greece Moreover, the magnification of the financial importance that cultural resources have within the context of the European Union, due to the increasing tourist demand, constitutes a seriously puzzling given, in the sense of the principles of sustainable tourism! Pic.28: Festival of Mdina, Malta
    • 6.1.10. Demand for a sustainable and responsible cultural tourism Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
      • Matters in priority :
      • the protection of local cultures,
      • the control of the commercialization of cultural goods,
      • the safeguard of cultural diversity,
      • the demand for the participation of local communities in decision-making concerning the management of their cultural heritage
      • The most substantial matter is however the safeguarding of the mechanisms allowing the local communities not only to participate in these decisions , but also to define the character , the dimensions , the financial , cultural and the ecological restrictions considered necessary to impede the negative consequences from the irrational tourist activity aimed at cultural sites and goods.
    • Images source Prof. Sofia Avgerinou Kolonias – Topic 6.1: Tourism and monuments Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Pictures 9, 10: Greek Tourism Organization Pictures 22, 23: ArchDaily, Broadcasting Architecture Worldwide, www.archdaily.com All the other pictures are from personal archive Websites www.unwto.org/infoshop www.unesco.org/ Sustainable Tourism Programme www.icomos.org http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/services/tourism/policy-areas/measures.htm http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/services/tourism/index_en.htm "2002 Cape Town Declaration on Responsible Tourism in Destinations" . http://www.icrtourism.org/Capetown.shtml "Ethical Consumer Report 2007" . http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk/images/pdf/ethical_consumer_report_2007.pdf . "Responsible Tourism and the Market" . http://www.haroldgoodwin.info/resources/goodwin.pdf .