Elaich module 4 topic 4.5 - Requirements for compatible materials

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ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.
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Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions

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Elaich module 4 topic 4.5 - Requirements for compatible materials

  1. 1. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – National Technical University of Athens The Conservation Process Module 4 Basic Cour s e Teaching Material Topic 4.5 Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions Educational Toolkit
  2. 2. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – National Technical University of Athens Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.
  3. 3. Abstract Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – National Technical University of Athens The current presentation presents the basic requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions. In the past, incompatible conservation interventions and the use of incompatible materials has caused significant defects and enhanced the decay of monuments. Nowadays, it is imperative before any intervention is performed on a historic building / monument, to follow the guidelines of the Venice Charter that aim to avoid or minimize the possibility of an inappropriate and/or long-term dangerous intervention. In this framework, the most common interventions (cleaning, consolidation, restoration materials) applied on monuments as part of an integrated protection plan should adhere to the basic principles of compatibility with the historic materials and reversibility (i.e. they should be able to be removed if decided). Topics in this module and on Module 5 will cover these protection interventions in more detail
  4. 4. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.5: Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions Protection, conservation and restoration of built cultural heritage is a multidisciplinary field , and embraces many actions. Therefore, scientists and technicians have to approach the problem of protecting our cultural heritage at various levels . Sanctuary of Demeter, Eleusis Photo courtesy of A. Moropoulou
  5. 5. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.5: Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions Assessment of intervention effectiveness Compatible intervention Risk assessment for further deterioration Identification of prevailing decay mechanisms Decay diagnosis and mapping Basic steps in Heritage protection 
  6. 6. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.5: Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions The challenging issue facing Cultural Heritage protection is that we have to treat existing historic building materials that have been subjected to the deteriorating effects of time and environment , rather than having complete freedom to design and manufacture new/modern materials Historic bridge at Agrafa, Greece Rion – Antirion Bridge, Greece
  7. 7. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.5: Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions From past experience there can be no generally applicable treatment for a given type of material The damage inflicted reflects the environment to which the structure has been exposed, as well as its history (duration of exposure, past interventions etc.) Acropolis of Athens Photo courtesy of K. Labropoulos
  8. 8. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.5: Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions COMPATIBILITY REVERSIBILITY Nowadays, it is imperative before any intervention is performed on a historic building / monument, to follow the guidelines of the Venice Charter that aim to avoid or minimize the possibility of an inappropriate and/or long-term dangerous intervention FROM TO As main criteria to judge the acceptability of materials and conservation interventions
  9. 9. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.5: Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions In the past, incompatible conservation interventions and/or the use of incompatible materials has caused significant defects and enhanced the decay in historic buildings/monuments Decision making regarding conservation interventions should be based on established specifications , criteria and methodology to ensure the sustainability of buildings
  10. 10. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Cracking – Weathering of stone Evans Restoration of Knosos Palace in Crete Knossos Palace has survived from 1500B.C. up to today Evan’s restoration of Knosos Palace in early 1900s triggers at the end of the 20 th century degradation of original materials due to the use of reinforced concrete which reached its end of lifetime Duplication of today: Restoration of Restoration!!! – Vicious Circle Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.5: Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions Example: Incompatibility of cement mortars in restoration interventions
  11. 11. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.5: Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions Use of cement mortars in restoration interventions of historic masonries Incompatibility: Waterproofing of architectural surfaces Use of cement mortars to waterproof domes which are decorated with frescoes Non-reversible destruction of the transparent secondary recrystallized calcite layer that seals the fresco
  12. 12. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.5: Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions Critical Problems of Conservation Material & Interventions Empiricism and not Scientific Approach, due to: <ul><li>Lack of proper diagnostic study </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentary and often contradictory conservation interventions without strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughtless use of incompatible materials </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of in-depth research on current conservation materials and interventions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fear” of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>(if something “works” why change it?) </li></ul><ul><li>Problems that become more severe due to the variety of the traditional/historic materials </li></ul>
  13. 13. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.5: Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions C OMPATIBLE M ATERIALS & C ONSERVATION I NTERVENTIONS Preconsolidation ( only on cases of extreme decay ) Cleaning ( mechanical, physical or chemical removal of surface depositions ) Consolidation ( Rehabilitation of the cohesion of the decayed materials ) Surface protection ( Protection from the environmental factors ) Restoration materials ( compatible with the historic materials of the masonry ) Treatment against rising damp ( allowing structure to “breath” ) Continuous monitoring and control of the effectiveness of conservation interventions (damage indices) See Module 4 - Topic 4.6: Criteria and methodology for cleaning – pilot applications and case studies (Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA) See Module 4 - Topic 4.7: Criteria and methodology for consolidation– pilot applications and case studies (Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA) See Module 4 - Topic 4.8: Reverse engineering for compatible and performing restoration materials – case studies (Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA) See Module 5 - Topic 5.1.2: Non Destructive Testing and quality control on monuments for monitoring the decay state and the compatibility of conservation interventions (Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA)

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