Elaich module 4 topic 4.2 - What can be done?

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ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.
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What can be done?

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Elaich module 4 topic 4.2 - What can be done?

  1. 1. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta The Conservation Process Module 4 Basic Cour s e Teaching Material Topic 4.2 What can be done? Educational Toolkit
  2. 2. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta
  3. 3. Abstract Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage What do conservators do when they are hidden away behind scaffolding? Why do conservation works seem to take a long time to be completed? The building may need strengthening, dirty surfaces may need to be cleaned or harmful chemical changes may need to be stopped. Conservators perform different types of hands-on conservation treatments or remedial treatments . These treatments are designed case by case and we will learn more about some of them. Conservation hands-on treatments are not enough to keep heritage sites in the best possible condition! The long-term preservation of the heritage site can only be attained by reducing the causes of deterioration before intervening directly on the site, promoting the appropriate use of the site, and setting up a suitable long-term maintenance plan . Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta
  4. 4. What can be done? Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
  5. 5. 3. Addressing aesthetic issues (restoration) Effectiveness <ul><li>Investigating the problems and their origin (see modules 2 and 3), and finding a way to eliminate them or at least “disactivate” them, is the most effective way of preserving cultural heritage. </li></ul>Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. JoAnn Cassar and Roberta De Angelis – University of Malta What can be done? 1. Addressing the causes of deterioration!!!! (preventive conservation) 2. Strengthening the material/structure (remedial treatments = hands-on conservation intervention) 2. Only after having addressed the causes of deterioration the hands-on intervention can take place! At first the original materials may need to be stabilised to prevent their loss... 3. ... then the appearance of the deteriorated areas (for example losses of stone) can be “improved” paying attention not to overdo it, not to spoil the original and true nature of the building.
  6. 6. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage This wall painting is located right below the dome What can be done? Do you notice anything peculiar about the deterioration of this painting? Losses are located along the joints of the stone support... Can you think why? Let’s see as an example this wall painting This is a problem clearly due to water infiltration. (detail) View from the exterior of the building
  7. 7. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage What can be done? View from the exterior of the building (detail) Inspection of the roof shows that the waterproofing membrane covering the masonry is damaged and allows water in!!! Before repairing the damage on the painting, or even cleaning the painting, it is necessary to stop water infiltration , since this is causing the problem! Would you first clean the painting or repair the roof of the building?
  8. 8. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage What can be done? Hands-on conservation intervention Monitoring, maintenance & proper use Module 4 Modules 5 & 6 ? Understanding the heritage site and its problems Addressing the causes of deterioration (preventive conservation) Investigations! (history, materials, deterioration, etc.) See modules 1, 2 and 3 see Module 3 Before conservation After conservation Long-term preservation!
  9. 9. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage What can be done? Hands-on conservation intervention Module 4 It takes place AFTER the site and its deterioration have been recorded (photos, drawings, reports) and understood, and the causes of deterioration addressed To strengthen the building and its materials Before conservation After conservation
  10. 10. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Hands-on conservation intervention <ul><li>A conservation intervention includes many different conservation treatments... We will soon see some of them, in particular... </li></ul><ul><li>Structural works </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul><ul><li>Mortar repairs and pointing </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul>However, it is important to know...
  11. 11. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Hands-on conservation intervention 2. Treatment trials 1 Before starting any conservation hands-on work on the building, a detailed plan listing and explaining all necessary treatments (for example cleaning, consolidation, etc.) is prepared. This is called Treatment proposal. ©Mystic Arts, LLC
  12. 12. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Hands-on conservation intervention 2 Each treatment is first tested on small areas of the building to check that the materials and methods used by conservators are safe. These tests are called Treatment trials or tests . Scientific investigations are often used at this stage to help evaluate materials and methods used. whitewash uncovered areas Cleaning tests performed with different cleaning agents to remove the whitewash covering a wall painting
  13. 13. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Hands-on conservation intervention Observations, decisions and treatments are documented with drawings, photographs and written statements at every stage. This helps to keep a record of what is done on the building – a sort of a “medical record” of the building – so that in the future curators or conservation specialists will have a better idea of the origin of problems and solutions implemented. 3 And now, let’s see some treatments...
  14. 14. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Structural works <ul><li>Structural problems need to be tackled immediately by professionals including engineers. </li></ul><ul><li>This may also include works to strengthen foundations. </li></ul>Severely deteriorated column 1 3 2
  15. 15. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Cleaning <ul><li>Cleaning is the treatment through which foreign (=non-original) materials are removed from a surface. These may include dirt, but also old restoration materials (inappropriate repairs, rusty nails, etc.), biological films and vegetation. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all of these materials might need to be removed! </li></ul><ul><li>Usually materials that are removed are those that bring along harmful effects. </li></ul>cleaned not cleaned
  16. 16. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Cleaning <ul><li>Cleaning can be perfomed with different materials, tools and methods. Conservators may use sponges, toothbrushes, scalpels, electric devices – even laser! – besides a wide range of chemicals. It all depends on how delicate the original surface is and on the type of dirt that can be removed. </li></ul>toothbrush scalpel gloves to protect hands sponges <ul><li>Cleaning requires a very careful approach since, if not carried out well, some of the original materials can be taken away in the process! “Special” chemicals and methods need to be used which do not harm the surface to be cleaned! </li></ul>brush mask for chemicals
  17. 17. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Consolidation <ul><li>Consolidation allows making a material “sound” again i.e. re-establishing the cohesion of a material which is crumbling or weakened by decay. </li></ul>Crumbling surface Image courtesy of Rosanna Piter http://www.rosiepiter.com/clipart_illustrations/syringe_with_blood_drop_0071-0902-0318-2431.html
  18. 18. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Consolidation <ul><li>During consolidation a “special” liquid – a consolidant – is applied to the crumbling material. The consolidant is absorbed, and after a while, it hardens re-establishing the cohesion of the material. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation requires a careful approach! If the consolidant is not chosen well, it may change the colour of the stone or bring along negative effects especially in the long term. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different consolidants, and conservators can apply them using different methods, for example by brush, or spray, syringes or pipettes, poultices, etc. </li></ul>pipette syringe brush
  19. 19. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Mortar repairs and pointing <ul><li>Losses of stone, or cracks are filled in with mortar (a paste which after a while hardens). </li></ul><ul><li>Even the joints of stone blocks, if the original mortar is lost or damaged, are filled in with mortar – a treatment called pointing. </li></ul>trowel Carl is re-pointing a stone wall Alexandra and Becky are mixing mortar
  20. 20. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Protection <ul><li>A treated surface may need a final protective coating – a thin “transparent” layer applied to the surface usually by brush or spray. </li></ul><ul><li>Often such coatings offer protection against liquid water. They must however allow the passage of water vapour and cannot be applied if soluble salts are present in the masonry. </li></ul>A protective coating has been applied to this surface. This prevents the drops of water from being absorbed drops of water

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