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Elaich module 3 topic 3.6 - Diagnosis of Decay
 

Elaich module 3 topic 3.6 - Diagnosis of Decay

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Diagnosis of Decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Non destructive and instrumental laboratory techniques for diagnosis of decay and assessment of conservation

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    Elaich module 3 topic 3.6 - Diagnosis of Decay Elaich module 3 topic 3.6 - Diagnosis of Decay Presentation Transcript

    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Basic Course Teaching Material Topic 3. 6 Decay and environment Module 3 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Diagnosis of Decay : Methodology, criteria and techniques Non destructive and instrumental laboratory techniques for diagnosis of decay and assessment of conservation Educational Toolkit
    • Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
    • Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Abstract Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Non destructive and instrumental laboratory techniques for diagnosis of decay and assessment of conservation The current presentation examines the main steps of a cultural heritage protection oriented diagnostic methodology, which is the prerequisite for any effective protection or restoration intervention, as it ensures that the intervention itself addresses the main decay problems that monuments are facing. This methodology fuses data from documentation, in-situ measurements with non-destructive techniques, characterization of decay products in the laboratory using analytical techniques, and correlates intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the monument scale, leading to a working hypothesis regarding the acting environmental decay factors and the prevailing decay mechanisms. Parallel simulation of the phenomena under accelerated ageing provide an insight into the kinetics of the decay, allowing a thorough diagnosis of the decay state of monuments. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
    • Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Content Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
      • Table of contents of this presentation
      • 3.6.1 . Diagnosis of decay – Methodology of diagnostic study
        • 3.6.1.1 . Documentation
        • 3.6.1.2 . Monitoring of the acting environmental factors
        • 3.6.1.3 . In situ macroscopic observations for material’s decay state and type and structure’s pathology
        • 3.6.1.4 In situ NDT – Decay mapping (environmental impact assessment)
        • 3.6.1.5 . Building material’s characterization and study of their provenance
        • 3.6.1.6 . In lab study of decay products and mechanisms (microscopic scale)
        • 3.6.1.7 . Correlation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the monument scale
        • 3.6.1.8 . Working hypothesis on the prevalent acting environmental factors and decay mechanisms
        • 3.6.1.9 . Parametric analysis – Simulation of the phenomena under accelerated ageing (comparison of various scenarios)
        • 3.6.1.10 . Diagnosis
      • 3.6.2 . Non-destructive techniques for decay diagnosis
        • 3.6.2.1 . Non-destructive techniques
        • 3.6.2.2 . Validation of non-destructive techniques by laboratory techniques
        • 3.6.2.3 . Integration of non destructive techniques
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1. Diagnosis of decay – Methodology of diagnostic study Documentation In situ macroscopic observations for materials’ decay state and type, and structures’ pathology Monitoring of the acting environmental factors In situ NDT- Decay mapping (environmental impact assessment) Building materials’ characterization and study of their provenance In lab study of decay products and Mechanisms (microscopic scale) Correlation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the monument scale Working hypothesis on the prevalent acting environmental factors and decay mechanisms DIAGNOSIS Parametric analysis - Simulation of the phenomena under accelerated ageing (comparison of various scenarios) Assessment Methodology Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1.1 Documentation Surveying Documentation In order to understand what is the current decay state of the monument, so that we intervene appropriately, the diagnostic study needs to be integrated with historic, surveying, architectural and materials documentation Architectural Documentation Diagnostic Study Integration Complete “ picture ” of the current state of the monument Historic documentation - History of the structure and past interventions - History of the monument system. Study of historic archives and comparison with previous photos & designs Materials Documentation Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
    • Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The existing building materials of monuments have an exposure history to environmental factors that is not readily known Since the effect of the environment on building materials is closely related to their susceptibility to decay, any protection or restoration intervention on monuments, should initiate with a thorough knowledge of the prevailing decay mechanisms and their current decay state 3.6.1.2 Monitoring of the acting environmental factors Microclimate (temperature, humidity, precipitation, speed, direction and frequency of winds, etc.) Pollutants (aerosols, drain waste & leakages, solid waste) Chemical analysis of the soil and monitoring of the rising damp Salts in liquid or solid state Labropoulos K. “ Characterization of wet and dry depositions on the marble surfaces of the archaelogical site of Eleusis – Impact on their decay ” Diploma Thesis, supervisor A. Moropoulou, School of Chem. Eng., NTUA (1995)
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1.3 In situ macroscopic observations for material’s decay state and type and structure’s pathology
      • Materials decay state
      • Type of decay phenomena
      • Record any interventions
      Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques 3.6.1.4 In situ NDT – Decay mapping (environmental impact assessment)
      • Materials mapping
      • Weathering mapping
      • Assessment of environmental effects
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1.5 Building material’s characterization
      • Mineralogical & petrographic analyses
      Analysis of samples from the monument & from the original quarry Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Moropoulou, A., Zezza, F., Aires Barros, L., Christaras, B., Fassina, V., Fitzner, B., Galan, E., Van Grieken, R., Kassoli-Fournaraki, A., “ Marine spray and polluted atmosphere as factors of damage to monuments in the Mediterranean coastal environment - a preliminary approach to the case of Demeter Sanctuary in Eleusis ” , in Proc. 3rd International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. V. Fassina, H. Ott & F. Zezza, Publ. Sopritendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994) pp. 275-286 Optical Microscopy images from porous stone samples from the Medieval City of Rhodes
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1.5 Building material’s characterization Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
      • Chemical analysis (chemical structure)
      • Physical analysis (e.g. grain size distribution)
      • Physicochemical analysis (e.g. density, porosity, permeability)
      Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P., Bakolas, A., Moropoulou, A., “ Physico-chemical study of cretan ancient mortars ” , Cement and Concrete Research, 33 [5] (2003) pp. 651-661 Chemical Analysis of Cretan ancient mortars Grain size distribution of Cretan ancient mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1.5 Building material’s characterization Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
      • Methodology
      • Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetric Analysis for the classification of Historic Mortars
      Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P., Bakolas, A., Moropoulou, A., “ Physico-chemical study of cretan ancient mortars ” , Cement and Concrete Research, 33 [5] (2003) pp. 651-661 Thermal Analysis of Cretan ancient mortars CO 2 /H 2 O ratio of Cretan ancient mortars Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Bisbikou, K., “ Characterization of ancient, byzantine and later historic mortars by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques ” , Thermochimica Acta, 269/270 (1995) pp. 779-795
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1.5 Building material’s characterization and study of their provenance
      • Mechanical analysis (compression strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, fracture toughness etc)
      Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Correlation between the tensile strength (Fmt.k) and hydraulicity of mortars (inverse CO 2 / structurally bound water) Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Michailidis, P., Chronopoulos, M., Spanos, Ch., “Traditional technologies in Crete providing mortars with effective mechanical properties”, Structural Studies of Historical Buildings IV, ed. C.A. Brebbia, and B. Leftheris, Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton Boston, Vol. 1 (1995) pp. 151-161
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1.5 Building material’s characterization and study of their provenance
      • Neutron Activation analysis
      • (determine the concentration of elements)
      Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Moropoulou, A., Cakmak, A.S., Polykreti, K., “ Provenance and technology investigations of the Agia Sophia bricks ” , J. American Ceramic Society, 85 [2] (2002) pp. 366-372 The possibility the bricks from the dome of Hagia Sophia originating from Rhodes is up to 97% compared with the raw materials of ceramics used in other Byzantine Monuments of Istanbul Description of the sampled bricks and tiles Probabilities of the Hagia Sophia samples belonging to the Istanbul or Rhodes groups
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1.6 In-lab study of decay products and mechanisms (microscopic scale)
      • Systematic & representative sampling of all decay types present in the monument from characteristic locations
      Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Sampling is a crucial process for the in-lab study of the decay products and mechanisms as it has to be representative of all decay types present and be well documented so that correlation with the prevailing environmental factors is feasible Sampling locations in the Medieval City of Rhodes for the study of the decay of the porous stone Moropoulou, A., Theoulakis, P., Chrysophakis, T., “Correlation between stone weathering and environmental factors in marine atmosphere”, Atmospheric Environment, 29, No 8 (1995) pp. 895-903
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1.6 In-lab study of decay products and mechanisms (microscopic scale)
      • Study of the properties of the weathered materials (mineralogical, physical, physicochemical, chemical and mechanical)
      • Study of the decay products (mineralogical, chemical)
      • Comparison of the results between healthy and decayed materials to obtain information regarding:
        • Type and the extent of corrosion
        • State of the corrosion products
        • Physical state of the decayed stone
        • Causes
      Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1.7 Correlation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the monument scale Stochastic correlation of the environmental factors and the materials’ decay data with the use of multi-criteria analysis Moropoulou, A., Theoulakis, P., Chrysophakis, T., “Correlation between stone weathering and environmental factors in marine atmosphere”, Atmospheric Environment, 29, No 8 (1995) pp. 895-903 Case study: Medieval City of Rhodes Justification: The environment is a combination of marine and urban. Due to its location the climate of the City of Rhodes is is characterized by frequent west winds (43%), high relative humidity (70%), high sun exposure (over 200 days / year) and relatively high mean temperatures (13-27 o C) Main decay mechanism : Salt decay – The Rhodes sandstone deterioration appears primarily as an irregular loss of material, following an alveolar weathering pattern, which starts with selective pitting and proceeds to the formation of deep holes and interconnected cavities Principal component analysis: It concerns a multivariate analysis, allowing to create a set of new variables, called principal components, as linear combination of the initial ones. It is a useful technique to reduce the number of variables included in a data set through the establishment of linear combinations between those variables that explain most of the variance.
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Sampling: 19 sites throughout the Medieval City of Rhodes (see 3.6.2.6 Systematic & representative sampling) Moropoulou, A., Theoulakis, P., Chrysophakis, T., “Correlation between stone weathering and environmental factors in marine atmosphere”, Atmospheric Environment, 29, No 8 (1995) pp. 895-903 Principal components analysis Step 1 : Selection of variables, from two variable groups: Intrinsic : Chemical analysis concerning soluble salts Variables: Cl - chlorides, SO 4 2- sulphates and HCO 3 - bicarbonates Values: Expressed as percentages of stone dry weight Extrinsic : Environmental conditions prevailing on each sampling point location Variables: Sun Exposure ( SunExp ). The value 1 is given for sampling points with southern orientation, 0.66 for SW or SE and 0.33 for N, NE, NW Sea Exposure ( SeaExp ). The various locations according to the orientation, the height and the sea distance of the masonry are submitted either to direct sea-salt spray absorption and deposition or to sea-salt spray absorption and deposition or to sea-salt solutions accumulation due to capillary and ground water percolation. Values 1, 0.5 and 0.2 are given respectively Air Flow ( AirFlow ). The quantification of this variable is based on the results of research concerning the drastic way that air flow influences the rate of solution evaporation and consequently crystallization processes. As is known, accelerated evaporation leads to granular disintegration. The values given are based on the characteristics of sampling locations concerning the velocity and type of air flow (surface orientation, narrow passages, prominences on the wall etc)
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
      • The six lines intersecting at (0,0) represent the original variables. The length of each vector is proportional to its contribution to the principal components, while the angle between any two is inversely proportional to the correlation between them.
      • “ Cl”, “SO 4 ”, “SeaExp” are strongly correlated and very important for the decay processes appearing at sampling locations 1, 2, ..8.
      • “ HCO 3 ” has a less strong correlation with “SunExp” and is a very influencing variable for sampling points 13, 14, …19.
      • “ AirFlow” and “SunExp” have a weak correlation and both of them seem to influence the group 9, 10, 11, 12.
      Principal components analysis Step 2 : Graphic representation of the whole array of data in 2-D scatterplots Step 3 : Estimation of the role and weight factor of each variable in the two groups Moropoulou, A., Theoulakis, P., Chrysophakis, T., “Correlation between stone weathering and environmental factors in marine atmosphere”, Atmospheric Environment, 29, No 8 (1995) pp. 895-903
      • Assessing and evaluating the validity of the statistically derived classification, by the results of the decay study in the laboratory and in-situ, the following could be derived
      • The prevailing weathering form near the sampling locations of the first group (1,…,8) is alveolar disease . Stone decay appearing through the mechanism of granular disintegration is usually in an advanced stage, following the relatively high levels of Cl -
      • Formation of a hard carbonate crust characterizes the areas near the third group sampling points (13,…,19), following the relatively high levels of HCO 3 -
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
      • Evaluation of data obtained in the laboratory
      • Evaluation of data obtained in-situ with non-destructive measurements
      Conclusions & Creation of a Working Hypothesis 3.6.1.8 Working hypothesis on the prevalent acting environmental factors and decay mechanisms Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques ELAICH – Athens Experimental Course: In situ use of ground penetrating radar at the archaeological site of Eleusis
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.1. 9 Parametric analysis - Simulation of the phenomena under accelerated ageing (comparison of various scenarios) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques The simulation of the decay phenomena in a laboratory allow s for detailed monitoring – under controlled conditions – of the time evolution of decay and for collection of data quantifying its mechanism. Furthermore, it is a useful assessment method for the effectiveness of various protection interventions Salt spray chamber Durability of surface protection interventions against salt spray Environmental Test Chamber Wetting – Drying cycles Durability of materials against decay factors (Temperature, relative humidity, pollutant gases, UV radiation) Durability of materials against decay from salt crystallization
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques NTUA uses an Angelantoni Industrie S.p.A ACS DCTC600P salt spray chamber, consisting of a fibre-glass reinforced plastic test chamber where the samples are placed, a shell-type heating system (to control chamber temperature), a salt solution tank (NaCl), a salt solution atomization system (spray nozzle), a compressed air supply, and a transparent plastic hood for observation of the tests. Salt solution (NaCl) is sprayed onto the specimens at 100% R.H. and controlled temperature. Drying is allowed to take place with or without the aid of air flow. If required, additional salt-spray cycles can be added or continuous salt-spraying can be employed. After the end of the test, specimens are removed and their decay is examined Salt spray chamber Weight variation values of untreated and treated porous stone as a function of days of exposure Moropoulou, A., Kouloumbi, N., Haralampopoulos, G., Konstanti, A., Michailidis, P., “Criteria and methodology for the evaluation of conservation interventions on treated porous stone susceptible to salt decay”, Progress in Organic Coatings, 48 [2-4] (2003) pp. 259-270
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Environmental test chamber Accelerated aging tests (SO 2 . 95% Relative humidity, T=25 o C) for various mortar types Dry weight concentration of bisulfite or sulfuric salts NTUA uses an Angelantoni Industrie S.p.A ACS GTS environmental chamber, which consists of a temperature controlled and humidity controlled chamber in which SO 2 gas is fed at a controlled flow. Temperature and relative humidity can be programmed to increase/decrease/stabilized as required by the test specifications. Optionally, other pollutant gases can be fed, or the chamber be equipped with UV lamp for specific tests. Relevant data C. Sabbioni, “ Assessment of damage caused by air pollution ” ITECOM Advanced Study Course and Materials for the Conservation of Monuments, 8-20/12 Athens, (2003)
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Wetting - Drying cycles Variation of the environmental conditions enhance decay of materials. One test to study material’s decay and assess the effectiveness of protection/conservation interventions is to expose them in a variable environment such as immersion in a liquid followed by drying under controlled conditions (drying rate, temperature) and repeat of this wetting – drying cycle Selection of the immersion solution and the drying temperature depends on the corrosive environment to be studied. Assessment of decay of the material under study is performed after the completion of each wetting-drying cycle or after a predetermined number of cycles. This is typically done by weighing the material and calculating the weight loss or weight gain of the samples
      • Salt crystallization test results
      • Cycle description
      • Commision 25-PEM Test No V.1b, sodium suplphate immersion - drying cycles, Materiaux et Constructions, 13 (75)
      • a. 2 hours immersion in 15% Na 2 SO 4 solution
      • b. 20 hours drying at 75 o C
      • c. 2 hours at room temperature
      • 20 hours curing in an atmosphere with a high relative humidity
      • 2 hours at room temperature
      C Consolidation treatment: Calcium hydroxide suspension 10% (w/v) F Water repellency treatment: Fomblin CO Slate fluoroelastomer (100g/m 2 ) CF Combination of C & F Moropoulou, A., Theoulakis, P., Dogas, Th., “ The behaviour of fluoropolymers and silicon resins as water repellents under salt decay conditions in combination with consolidation treatments on highly porous stone ” , Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage, 3 (1994) pp. 113-122
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques DIAGNOSIS - RESULTS 3.6.1.10 Diagnosis Diagnostic study at the acropolis of Sarantapicho and the acropolis of Erimokastro, Rhodes, NTUA (2008) See Module 5 – Topic 5.1.2 Non Destructive testing and Quality Control on monuments for monitoring the decay state and the compatibility of conservation interventions Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA For more information:
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.2 Non Destructive Techniques for decay diagnosis
      • Destructive sampling is prohibited in the conservation of historic monuments
      • They offer certain unique capabilities in a variety of applications
      Non-Destructive Techniques (NDT) are used in Cultural Heritage protection because: Ultrasonics Infrared Thermography Fibre Optics Microscopy Digital Image Processing Ground Penetrating Radar Colorimetry
      • Applications
      • Materials quality control , as well as for technology assessment regarding the production of advanced materials
      • Environmental impact assessment - materials and weathering mapping
      • Evaluation of conservation materials compatibility and conservation interventions effectiveness on the scale of architectural surfaces and historic masonries
      • Strategic planning for the conservation interventions .
      • Environmental management for the protection of Cultural Heritage
      Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.2.1 NDT - Ultrasonics Basic Principles Measures the velocity of ultrasounds traveling through a media, which depends on the media’s density and the presence of voids and cracks. Applications Estimation of the depth of the decay patterns (crusts, cracks etc), evaluation of the effectiveness and the depth of penetration of restoration interventions. NTUA uses a Portable Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Indicating Tester (PUNDIT) with transducers of various frequencies Depth of Crust where V s , V D , are the ultrasonic velocities in the healthy and damaged part of the stone, respectively and l o the distance between the transducers where a change in slope of the distance-time curve is observed Evaluation of Pilot Consolidation Interventions: Penetration depth of consolidation material Moropoulou, A., Tsiourva, Th., Theoulakis, P., Christaras, B., Koui., M., “ Non destructive evalution of pilot scale treatments for porous stone consolidation in the Medieval City of Rhodes ” , PACT, J. European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology, 56 (1998) pp. 259-278 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques G. Batis, A. Moropoulou “ Non-destructive testing of materials – Ultrasonics ” in Laboratory notes of the Course 5202 “ Building Materials ” School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, pp. 69-77 (2011)
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.2.1 NDT - Infrared Thermography (IRT) Basic Principles Measures the thermal radiation (infra-red range in the electromagnetic spectrum) emitted by materials and renders an image of the surface area in pseudo-colors which are related to a temperature scale Applications Identification of decay patterns on monuments, assessment of physicochemical compatibility of materials & structures, detection of defects in materials or structures, study of water transport mechanisms NTUA uses FLIR System B200 IR camera [7.5-13 μm / Thermal sensitivity 70mK] Evaluation of restoration materials: Monument scale Venetian Fortifications of Heraklion Pentelic Marble, Athens Academy Before cleaning After cleaning Cleaning Method : wet micro blasting method, particles of spherical calcium carbonate, d< 80μm, P<1 atm, suspension’s proportion 2:1 Evaluation of pilot cleaning interventions: Monument scale The incompatibility of replacement stones is indicated by the difference in temperature compared with the historic materials Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Avdelidis, N.P., Moropoulou, A., “ Applications of infrared thermography for the investigation of historic structures: a review study ” , Journal of Cultural Heritage, 5 [1] (2004) pp. 119-127 Moropoulou, A., Avdelidis, N.P., Delegou, E.T., Koui, M., « Infrared thermography in the evaluation of cleaning interventions on architectural surfaces » , in Proc. INFRAMATION Int. Conf. on infrared thermography, Orlando (2001) pp. 171-175
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.2.1 NDT - Fibre Optics Microscopy (FOM) Basic Principles Captures images in the visible spectrum. Image is transmitted via optical fibres and then transformed into electric signals which are stored in a video unit or digitized and stored on a computer Applications Identifies differences in the texture and composition of surfaces, materials classification, microstudy of the decay phenomena, evaluation of restoration interventions ELAICH – Athens Experimental Course: In situ use of fibre optics microscopy to identify the decay patterns on marble surfaces at the archaeological site of Eleusis Investigation of materials’ surface morphology Evaluation of consolidation interventions 6 th Century Mosaic (x50) , Hagia Sophia, Dome Weathered Mortar Surface (x50) , Hagia Sophia, N/W Outer Narthex 10 th Century Mosaic (x50) , Hagia Sophia, Dome Inner Part of Compact Mortar Surface (x 2 5) , Hagia Sophia, N/W Outer Narthex Clay Plaster (x 2 5) , Stadiou Historic Building in Athens Interface of Cement Plasters (x 2 5) , Stadiou Historic Building in Athens Untreated Surface, Rhodes Porous Stone (x50), Surface treated with PH ( pre-ydrolysed ethyl silicate with amorphous silica ) ( x50) Surface treated with PL ( aqueous colloidal dispersion of silica particles ), (x50) After consolidation treatments, information regarding microstructural modifications of porous materials, as well as the deposition mechanism of the applied materials, can be obtained by using fibre optics microscopy Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Photos 1, 2, 4, 5: Moropoulou et als (2002b), Photos 3, 6: Moropoulou et als (2005), Photos 7-9: Moropoulou et als (2000a, 2000b) 1 2 3 4 5 6
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.2.1 NDT - Digital Image Processing (DIP) Basic Principles Depending on the material type, the surface texture and morphology, and the decay state, a variation of the reflectance and absorption of electromagnetic radiation is observed, which can be identified. Applications Images from FOM, IRT, Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy are digitally processed identifying differences in texture and decay state of surfaces, lithotypes, and allowing material and decay mapping Decay Mapping, National Library of Athens Basic Principle Microstructural analysis – Image Pro X Change of the energy content of the gray levels. The position on the x-axis is determined by the color of the material, the dispersion of the values can be correlated to the characteristics of the material and its decay state. The degree of weathering of the material is related to the width (x-axis) of the gray levels; the width increases with increasing decay state Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Kapsalas et als (2007) 1. Optical microscopy image 2. Conversion to grayscale – Gray level histogram 3. Process – Segmentation / Threshold 4. Microstructural analysis A. Moropoulou, A. Konstanti “ Laboratory notes on digital image processing ” , Interdepartmental Postgraduate Course “ Protection of monuments, sites and complexes ” , Nat. Techn. Univ of Athens Moropoulou, A., Koui, M., Theoulakis, P., Kourteli, Ch., Zezza, F., “ Digital Image Processing for the Environmental Impact Assessment on Architectural Surfaces ” , J. Environmental Chemistry and Technology , 1 (1995) pp. 23-32
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.2.1 NDT - Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Basic Principles A short electromagnetic pulse (10MHz – 10GHz) is produced and propagated into the structure, part of the pulse energy is reflected (due to the presence of internal interfaces between materials of different dielectric constant), rendering a 2-D or 3-D image of the sub-surface Applications Reveal internal structure of masonries, location of cavities, identification of detachments and internal cracks, assessment of decay depth NTUA uses the MALÅ ProEx system with 1.6GHz and 2.3GHz antennas and RadExplorer v.1.41 software Decay state of the structure - Church of the Holy Sepulchre Evaluation of the decay state of mosaics – Hagia Sophia (Left) Presence of two cracks (T1 & T2) that penetrate the external layer of the Katholikon Dome Base. (Right) Presence of three double reinforcing bars A1, A2, A3 and a reinforcing matrix 5x5 cm B1 (Moropoulou et als Report to the Patriarchate of Jerusalem on NDT Assessment of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, NTUA, 2011) Katholikon NW Dome base (exterior) Katholikon north view of the north masonry (interior of the church) Areas around the revealed mosaic where the presence of void spaces below the plastered mosaic layer has been identified by ground penetrating radar The space indicated with dashed line is possibly filled with mortar and bricks. Care should be taken at this junction area regarding the cohesion of the preserved mosaic with its support mortar and the structure (Moropoulou et als, 2012) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Basic Principles Colorimetry involves the use of a spectrophotometer of visible light to measure the color coordinates of architectural surfaces as these are modified due to environmental impact and/or protection interventions Applications Identification of decay patterns, evaluation of the effectiveness of cleaning interventions on architectural surfaces Evaluation of decay patterns on pentelic marble – Academy of Athens AA2: grey crust AA3: dust fall AA4: washed out surface AA6: black-grey crust AA7: area of grey veins Estimation of color parameters’ modification of different decay patterns on exterior marble surfaces ΔΕ *ab=[( Δ L*) 2 + ( Δ a*) 2 +( Δ b*) 2 ] 1/2 NTUA uses the spectro-color DRLANGE color-pen: Color measurements evaluated in L*a*b* color system Aesthetic parameters: ΔC*ab < 0  less saturated areas after cleaning Δa* < 0  greener (less red) Δb*<0  bluer (less yellow) ΔL*ab > 0 so higher luminosity values after cleaning Validation according to ASTM D2244-93 Standard Test Method Colorimetry Biscontin, G., Bakolas, A., Bertoncello, R., Longega, G., Moropoulou, A., Tondello, E., Zendri, E., “Investigation of the effects of the cleaning procedures applied to stone surfaces”, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology IV, Vol. 352, ed. J.R. Druzik, P.B. Vandiver, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1995) pp. 857-864 Moropoulou, A., Delegou, E.T., Avdelidis, N.P., Koui., M., “Assessment of cleaning conservation interventions on architectural surfaces using an intergrated methodology”, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VI, Vol. 712, ed. P. Vandiver, M. Goodway, J.R. Druzik, J.L. Mass, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (2002), pp. 69-76 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Validation of NDT by Laboratory Techniques Macroscopic investigation: Classification in order of increasing degree of alveolar decay (V = max) Microstructural investigation (Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry): Pore volume distribution for each degree of alveolar decay DIP Moropoulou, A., Koui, M., Kourteli, Ch., Achilleopoulos, N., Zezza, F., “Digital image processing and integraded computerised analysis for weathering on planning conservation interventions on historic structures and architectural complexes”, in Proc. EURISCON Conference on European Robotics, Intelligent Systems and Control, Publ. International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (1999) Theoulakis, P., Moropoulou, A., “Microstructural and mechanical parameters determining the susceptibility of porous building stones to salt decay”, Construction and Building Materials, 11, No. 1 (1997) pp. 65-71 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Validation of NDT by Laboratory Techniques Hard Carbonate Crust: Medieval City of Rhodes (Combined assessment with the use of NDT and validation with SEM) Fibre Optics Microscopy Digital Image Processing Scanning Electron Microscopy Alveolar Weathering Medieval City of Rhodes (Combined assessment with the use of NDT and validation with SEM) Fibre Optics Microscopy Digital Image Processing Scanning Electron Microscopy Moropoulou, A., Koui, M., Tsiourva, Th., Kourteli, Ch., Papasotiriou, D., “ Macro- and micro non destructive tests for environmental impact assessment on architectural surfaces ” , Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology V , Vol. 462, ed. P.B. Vandiver, J.R. Druzik, J.F. Merkel, J. Stewart, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1997) pp. 343-349 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 3.6.2.3 Integration of Non Destructive Techniques In-situ NDT Validation by Lab Techniques Advanced Spatial Data Management & Assessment Methods
      • Monument Scale
      • Materials Characterization
      • Evaluation of Materials Compatibility
      • Environmental Impact Assessment
      • Integrated Projects
      • Strategic Planning of Conservation Interventions on Historic Buildings
      • Strategic Planning of Environmental Management as a Tool for a Sustainable Preservation of Historic Cities
      Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques REFERENCES
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Avdelidis, N.P., Moropoulou, A., “Applications of infrared thermography for the investigation of historic structures: a review study”, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 5 [1] (2004) pp. 119-127 Batis G. Moropoulou A. “Non-destructive testing of materials – Ultrasonics” in Laboratory notes of the Course 5202 “Building Materials” School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, pp. 69-77 (2011) Biscontin, G., Bakolas, A., Bertoncello, R., Longega, G., Moropoulou, A., Tondello, E., Zendri, E., “Investigation of the effects of the cleaning procedures applied to stone surfaces”, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology IV, Vol. 352, ed. J.R. Druzik, P.B. Vandiver, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1995) pp. 857-864 Kapsalas, P., Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P., Zervakis, M., Delegou, E.T., Moropoulou, A., “Optical inspection for quantification of decay on stone surfaces”, J. NDT&E International, 40 (2007) pp. 2-11 Labropoulos K. “Characterization of wet and dry depositions on the marble surfaces of the archaelogical site of Eleusis – Impact on their decay” Diploma Thesis, supervisor A. Moropoulou, School of Chem. Eng., NTUA (1995) Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P., Bakolas, A., Moropoulou, A., “Physico-chemical study of cretan ancient mortars”, Cement and Concrete Research, 33 [5] (2003) pp. 651-661 Moropoulou, A., Theoulakis, P., Dogas, Th., “The behaviour of fluoropolymers and silicon resins as water repellents under salt decay conditions in combination with consolidation treatments on highly porous stone”, Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage, 3 (1994) pp. 113-122 Moropoulou, A., Zezza, F., Aires Barros, L., Christaras, B., Fassina, V., Fitzner, B., Galan, E., Van Grieken, R., Kassoli-Fournaraki, A., “Marine spray and polluted atmosphere as factors of damage to monuments in the Mediterranean coastal environment - a preliminary approach to the case of Demeter Sanctuary in Eleusis”, in Proc. 3rd International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. V. Fassina, H. Ott & F. Zezza, Publ. Sopritendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, Venice (1994) pp. 275-286 Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Bisbikou, K., “Characterization of ancient, byzantine and later historic mortars by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques”, Thermochimica Acta, 269/270 (1995) pp. 779-795 Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Michailidis, P., Chronopoulos, M., Spanos, Ch., “Traditional technologies in Crete providing mortars with effective mechanical properties”, Structural Studies of Historical Buildings IV, ed. C.A. Brebbia, and B. Leftheris, Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton Boston, Vol. 1 (1995) pp. 151-161 Moropoulou, A., Koui, M., Theoulakis, P., Kourteli, Ch., Zezza, F., “Digital Image Processing for the Environmental Impact Assessment on Architectural Surfaces”, J. Environmental Chemistry and Technology, 1 (1995) pp. 23-32 Moropoulou, A., Theoulakis, P., Chrysophakis, T., “Correlation between stone weathering and environmental factors in marine atmosphere”, Atmospheric Environment, 29, No 8 (1995) pp. 895-903
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Moropoulou, A., Koui, M., Tsiourva, Th., Kourteli, Ch., Papasotiriou, D., “Macro- and micro non destructive tests for environmental impact assessment on architectural surfaces”, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology V, Vol. 462, ed. P.B. Vandiver, J.R. Druzik, J.F. Merkel, J. Stewart, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1997) pp. 343-349 Moropoulou, A., Tsiourva, Th., Theoulakis, P., Christaras, B., Koui., M., “Non destructive evalution of pilot scale treatments for porous stone consolidation in the Medieval City of Rhodes”, PACT, J. European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology, 56 (1998) pp. 259-278 Moropoulou, A., Koui, M., Kourteli, Ch., Achilleopoulos, N., Zezza, F., “Digital image processing and integraded computerised analysis for weathering on planning conservation interventions on historic structures and architectural complexes”, in Proc. EURISCON Conference on European Robotics, Intelligent Systems and Control, Publ. International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (1999) Moropoulou, A., Theoulakis, P., Tsiourva, Th., Haralampopoulos, G., “Compatibility evaluation of consolidation treatments in monuments scale”, PACT, J. European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology, 59 (2000) pp. 209-230 Moropoulou, A., Haralampopoulos, G., Tsiourva, Th., Theoulakis, P., Koui, M., “Long term performance evaluation of consolidation treatments in situ”, Scienza e Beni Culturali XVI, ed. G. Biscontin, G. Driussi, Publ. Arcadia Ricerche S.r.l. (2000) pp. 239-25 Moropoulou, A., Avdelidis, N.P., Delegou, E.T., Koui, M., «Infrared thermography in the evaluation of cleaning interventions on architectural surfaces», in Proc. INFRAMATION Int. Conf. on infrared thermography, Orlando (2001) pp. 171-175 Moropoulou, A., Cakmak, A.S., Polykreti, K., “Provenance and technology investigations of the Agia Sophia bricks”, J. American Ceramic Society, 85 [2] (2002) pp. 366-372 Moropoulou, A., Avdelidis, N.P., Delegou, E.T., Gill, C.H., Smith, J., “ Study of deterioration mechanisms of vitreous tesserae mosaics ” , Scienza e Beni Culturali XVIII, ed. G. Biscontin, G. Driussi, Publ. Arcadia Ricerche, (2002) pp. 843-851 Moropoulou, A., Delegou, E.T., Avdelidis, N.P., Koui., M., “Assessment of cleaning conservation interventions on architectural surfaces using an intergrated methodology”, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VI, Vol. 712, ed. P. Vandiver, M. Goodway, J.R. Druzik, J.L. Mass, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (2002), pp. 69-76 Moropoulou, A., Kouloumbi, N., Haralampopoulos, G., Konstanti, A., Michailidis, P., “Criteria and methodology for the evaluation of conservation interventions on treated porous stone susceptible to salt decay”, Progress in Organic Coatings, 48 [2-4] (2003) pp. 259-270 Moropoulou, A., Avdelidis, N.P., Delegou, E.T., “NDT and planning on historic buildings and complexes for the protection of cultural heritage”, Cultural Heritage Conservation and Environmental Impact Assessment by Non-Destructive Testing and Micro – Analysis, ed. R.Van Grieken, K. Janssens, Publ. Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, (2005) pp. 67-76
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 3.6: Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Moropoulou A. (Scientific Responsible), A. Bakolas, E. Delegou, M. Karoglou, N. Katsiotis, K. Labropoulos “Report to the Patriarchate of Jerusalem on NDT Assessment of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre”, National Technical University of Athens, (2011) Moropoulou A. I., Labropoulos K. C., Katsiotis N. S. “Application of ground penetrating radar for the assessment of the decay state of Hagia Sophia’s mosaics” Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A & B, in press (2012) Sabbioni C. “Assessment of damage caused by air pollution” ITECOM Advanced Study Course and Materials for the Conservation of Monuments, 8-20/12 Athens, (2003) Theoulakis, P., Moropoulou, A., “Microstructural and mechanical parameters determining the susceptibility of porous building stones to salt decay”, Construction and Building Materials, 11, No. 1 (1997) pp. 65-71