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ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.

ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.
For more information and presentations, please visit: http://elaich.technion.ac.il/
Earthquake resistant mortars

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    Elaich module 2 topic 2.7.2 - Earthquake resistant mortars Elaich module 2 topic 2.7.2 - Earthquake resistant mortars Presentation Transcript

    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Knowing the built heritage Module 2 Basic Cour s e Teaching Material Topic 2 . 7.2 Earthquake resistant mortars Educational Toolkit
    • Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.
    • Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Abstract Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage This presentation discusses the basic steps of the reverse engineering methodology that is required in order to design and manufacture earthquake resistant restoration mortars compatible with the historic building materials and demonstrates how such mortars are applied in pilot masonries used to study their dynamic behavior
    • Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Content Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Table of contents of this presentation The concept of Reverse Engineering Step 1: Characterization of the historic mortars Step 2: Selection of raw materials and compositions Step 3: Preparation of restoration mortars Step 4: Assessment of the restoration mortars’ properties Step 5: Optimization based on mortars’ characteristics Step 6: Pilot in-situ application on the masonry scale Application: Historic Masonry in Hagia Sophia
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Reverse engineering methodology Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars A NESSESARY & APPROPRIATE METHODOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMPATIBLE RESTORATION MORTARS BASED ON CRITERIA THAT ORIGINATE FROM EXPERIENCE WITH HISTORIC MORTARS: Acropolis of Athens REVERSE ENGINEERING Simulation of the properties of historic mortars Improved properties of the compatible mortars Reproducibility and control of the production technology
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Reverse engineering methodology
      • Step 1: Characterization of the historic mortars
      • Step 2: Selection of raw materials and compositions
      • Step 3: Preparation of restoration mortars
      • Step 4: Assessment of the restoration mortars’ properties
        • Optimization of the technical characteristics of the fresh mortars with the criteria of the “water content” and “workability”
        • Assessment of the mortars during their setting and hardening
      • Step 5: Optimization based on mortars’ characteristics
      • Step 6: Pilot in-situ application on the masonry scale
      • Application: Historic Masonry in Hagia Sophia
      Acropolis of Athens Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 1. Characterization of historic mortars Mechanical tests (compressive / flexural strength)_____________mechanical properties Mercury intrusion porosimetry_______________________microstructural characteristics Water capillary rise tests_________________% absorbed water, capillary rise coefficient Optical / fibre optics / electron microscopy____microstructural characteristics and texture Thermal analyses_____________________________________phases and composition X-Ray Diffraction analysis_______________________________________crystal phases Other Non Destructive Techniques (DIP, IR Thermography, Ultrasonics, colorimetry, etc.) Acropolis of Athens Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake Resistant Mortars Acropolis of Athens Prof. A. Cakmak (PU), Prof. A. Moropoulou (NTUA) At the Dome of Haghia Sofia, Istanbul 1995
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 1. Characterization of historic mortars Acropolis of Athens Correlation between the tensile strength and the CO2 / structurally bound water ratio CO2 / structurally bound water vs. CO2 (%) Classification of the historic mortars with thermal analysis and mechanical tests Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 1. Characterization of historic mortars Acropolis of Athens Assessment of the Microstructural Characteristics of Historic Mortars – Acceptable Limits for Restoration Mortars Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 2. Selection of Raw Materials Acropolis of Athens BINDERS Lime Putty Ca(OH)2 ~83%, CaCO3 ~15%, free water content ~58% , bulk density ~0,82 g/cm3 Raw material: Quicklime. This is added to water and a chemical reaction occurs which is termed as slaking. The resulting mixture is sieved and left to mature for at least 3 months. During this time the liquid slaked lime thickens to the consistency of toothpaste and is pure white in color Natural Hydraulic Lime (NHL) Raw material: limestone containing clay or other silica impurities. The limestone is burnt (~900oC) and then slaked (conversion of CaO to Ca(OH)2 without hydration of hydraulic phases), but a harder set is obtained because calcium silicates and aluminates form in the presence of water as well as calcium carbonate from carbonation. It can set under water hence the term hydraulic. NHL is graded by strength into three types 2, 3.5 and 5. These are termed, feebly hydraulic, moderately hydraulic and eminently hydraulic AGGREGATES Sand Washed yellow-colored river-sand of silicate nature, Limestone sand can be used due to compatibility with the binder phase, Grain size distribution according to application, No impurities such as salts, clay-earths etc. Crushed Brick Grain size distribution 1-6mm, total porosity ~30%, bulk density: 1.89 g/cm3, Raw material of the crushed bricks should contain small quantities of CaCO3 ADDITIVES Earth of Milos – Natural Pozzolanic Additive High content of amorphous glassy phases, total silica 65% finer than 64μm: 88, percentage active silicon >20% Brick Powder – Artificial Pozzolana, Total silica 58%, % finer than 64μm: 94, percentage active silicon >20% The selection criteria of the raw materials are based on studies of historic mortars and extensive lab experience Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 2. Selection of Compositions Lime Mortars Lime putty with sand, sand-brick, fine sand Binder / aggregate ratio 1:2 – 1:2.5 Hydraulic Mortars Hydraulic lime with sand, sand-brick, fine sand Binder / aggregate ratio 1:3 Mortars with Pozzolanic Additives Lime putty / ceramic powder (2:1) with sand, sand-brick Binder / aggregate ratio 1:2.5 Lime putty / Earth of Milos (2:1) with sand, sand-brick Binder / aggregate ratio 1:2.5 Comparison Mortars with Lime – Cement Lime putty / cement (1:4 to 1:1) with sand, sand-brick Cement to sand ratio 1:3 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 3. Preparation of Mortars Mixing procedure: Mix the binder along with the pozzolanic additive using the appropriate content of water (as determined by the flow table test) Add gradually the premixed aggregate materials Technical Characteristics of the fresh mortars: Air content Bulk density Retained water Consistence – flow table test Characterization Methods Differential Thermal Analysis – Thermogravimetry Carbonation / development of hydraulic phases Microstructural Investigation with Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry Assessment of the compatibility of historic mortars Mechanical Properties Response to the structural - static specifications Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 4. Assessment of Mortars During their Setting and Hardening Period Cement - lime mortars Low percentage cement mortars have a behavior similar to lime mortars. A separation of phases between cement and lime is observed, thus the binder material lucks cohesion High percentage cement mortars have high mechanical strengths but their microstructure is incompatible After 9 months Cement in any percentage is incompatible in restoration mortars for historic masonries Hydraulic lime mortars Chemically bound water after only 15 days of hardening. High mechanical strength. High hydraulicity Typical Lime Mortars Lowest carbonation rate (it continues even after 9 months). Rate increases after 3 months. Mechanical strength is developed in relation with the carbonation rate Pozzolanic Mortars (ceramic powder, earth of Milos) Average values of carbonation rates. Significant amount of chemically bound water. The ceramic powder and the earth of Milos help the development of hydraulic phases improving the mechanical strength Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 5: Optimization - Standardization OPTIMIZATION OF RAW MATERIALS Characteristics should fulfill specifications and should correspond to the role of the material in the mortar system Reproducibility of raw materials (controlled industrial production) Binders
      • Lime Putty
      • Produced in Crete
      • Traditional
      • Lime Powder
      • Controlled industrial
      • production
      • Natural Hydraulic Lime
      • CEN 459-1 1997 standard
      Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 5: Optimization - Standardization Additives
      • Earth of Milos
      • Controlled industrial
      • production
      • Ceramic Powder
      • From solid stones
      • Industrial production
      Aggregates
      • Sand
      • Siliceous from
      • Strimona River
      • Crushed brick
      • Wide grain size distribution
      • Controlled industrial production
      Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 5: Optimization - Standardization Optimization of the Binder / Additives / Aggregates Ratio Increase the binder phase by 5-10% Improvement of the mechanical properties and the microstructure Binder / additives = 1:1 Enhancement of the hydraulic character of the mortar Optimization of the Production Technology Saturation of the crushed brick Avoid problems with mortar setting Improved mixing procedure Mix the binder with the additives and all the necessary water and slowly add the aggregates Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 1-5: Conclusions The Study of the Historic Mortars Provides the Acceptable Limits for the Properties and Characteristics of Restoration Mortars The Quality and the Grain Size Distribution of the Raw Materials of Restoration Mortars Should Fulfill the Specifications set by these Acceptable Limits, to Achieve Full Compatibility
      • Critical Parameters for Improved Mechanical Strength of Restoration Mortars:
      • Quality and the Fineness of the Binder Material
      • Binder / Aggregates ratio
      • Aggregates’ Grain Size Distribution
      Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 6: Pilot Application of Restoration Mortars Characterization of Historic Mortars Design of Compatible Restoration Mortars Optimization & Standardization Pilot Application of Restoration Mortars Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Pilot Application of Restoration Mortars The structural system of the Church is characterized by a masonry with joints of large thickness (almost 1,5 times the thickness of the brick) and strong crushed brick mortars Historic Masonry in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Pilot Application of Restoration Mortars Low dynamic modulus of elasticity and relatively high flexural strength In this way, the materials contributed to the earthquake resistance of the monument Characteristics of the historic mortars used in Hagia Sophia Hydraulic nature of the binder A mixture of coarse ceramic fragments (<15mm) and sand was used as aggregates These mortars may be considered as early examples of reinforced concrete Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars Material E d (MPa) F f (MPa) Mortar 0.66 0.7-1.2 Brick-mortar 1.83 - Brick 3.1 -
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Pilot Application of Restoration Mortars Site of Pilot Application of Restoration Mortars Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Applied Restoration Mortars Mortar with Lime Putty & Brick Powder as a pozzolanic additive and aggregate mixture of Sand and Crushed Brick (LPPBSCB) Mortar with natural Hydraulic Lime & Brick Powder as a pozzolanic additive and aggregate mixture of Sand and Crushed Brick (HLPBSCB) Mortar with Lime Putty & earth of Milos as a pozzolanic additive and aggregate mixture of Sand and Crushed Brick (LPMCSCB) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage For the same value of ground acceleration and for the same construction the possibility of certain level of damage depends on the mechanical characteristics of the structural materials ( compressive strength, tensile strength , modulus of elasticity ) New Tool Fragility Curves Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Study of static behavior of pilot masonry Construction of 3 thick Joints brick masonry walls for each type of concrete. Walls Dimensions: 1.00mx1.50mx0.35m Joint width: 3.5cm Determination of masonry compressive strength and shear/displacement diagram Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Study of masonry dynamic behavior Construction of 2 parallel masonries walls with dimensions 2.70m x 2.00m x 0.35m that will be connected by a concrete plate. The test specimens will be tested under white noise excitation, in order the dynamic characteristics (natural period and damping) to be determined. Consequently the test specimen will be excited by an input motion of varying amplitude. Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage EVALUATION OF THE PILOT MASONRIES’ BEHAVIOR AT THE SEISMIC SIMULATOR (SHAKING TABLE) NTUA LABORATORY OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING The results confirm the conclusions of the finite element model analysis. The pilot masonries are bearing an earthquake simulation of 7 R magnitude Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage REFERENCES Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Bisbikou, K., “Characterization of ancient, byzantine and later historic mortars by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques”, Thermochimica Acta, 269/270 (1995) pp. 779-795 Cakmak, A.S., Moropoulou, A., Mullen, C.L., “Interdisciplinary Study of Dynamic Behaviour and Earthquake Response of Hagia Sophia”, J. Soil dynamics and earthquake engineering, 14, No 9 (1995) pp. 125-133. Cakmak, A.S., Erdik, M., Moropoulou A., “A joint program for the protection of the Justinian Hagia Sophia”, in Proc. 4th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. A. Moropoulou, F. Zezza, E. Kollias & I. Papachristodoulou, Publ. Technical Chamber of Greece, Rhodes, Vol. 4 (1997) pp. 153-171. Cakmak, A.S., Moropoulou, A., Erdik, M., “Dynamic behaviour and earthquake response of Hagia Sophia”, PACT, J. European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology, 56 (1998) pp.31-47. Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Moundoulas, P., Cakmak A.S., “Compatible restoration mortars, preparation and evaluation for Hagia Sophia earthquake protection”, PACT, J. European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology, 56 (1998) pp. 79-118. Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Moundoulas, P., Cakmak, A.S., “Compatible restoration mortars for Hagia Sophia earthquake protection”, Advances in Earthquake Engineering 4, Earthquake Resistant Engineering Structures, ed. G. Oliveto, C.A. Brebbia, Publ. Wessex Institute of Technology (1999), pp. 521-531. Erdik, M., Cakmak, A.S., Moropoulou, A., Yuzugullu, O., Durukal, E., “Earthquake protection of Hagia Sophia”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, (2002). Moropoulou A., Aggelakopoulou E., Athanasiadou K., Xatziantoniou K., Kollias S., “Repair mortars for the Byzantine masonries restoration interventions”, Advances in Earthquake Engineering IV, Earthquake Resistant Engineering Structures, ed. G. Latini, C.A. Brebbia, Publ. Wessex Institute of Technology (2003) pp.253-262. Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.7.2: Earthquake resistant mortars