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Elaich module 2 topic 2.3 - The integration of art, material and structure in built heritage

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ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage. …

ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.
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The integration of art, material and structure in built heritage

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  • 1. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz - Technion Israel Institute of Technology Knowing the built heritage Module 2 Basic Cour s e Teaching Material Topic 2 . 3 The integration of art, material and structure in built heritage Educational Toolkit
  • 2. Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz - Technion Israel Institute of Technology Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union Photographs: Courtesy of Anna Lobovikov-Katz
  • 3. Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz - Technion Israel Institute of Technology Abstract Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Buildings and other objects of the built heritage possess different values (see Module 1) and combine art, technology and material. Often structural elements whose primary role is to provide the building’s stability, are artistically shaped. In such cases structural elements have a dual function: technological/structural and artistic/ architectural. The current presentation is an overview of this subject. It explains and illustrates through examples, this “dual” aesthetical-technological role of structural elements, and the vice versa structural role of some architectural elements. It is targeted at developing a basic understanding of the integrity and mutual influence of art, material and structure in the built heritage.
  • 4. Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz - Technion Israel Institute of Technology Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Content of Topic 2.3 2.3 The integration of art, material and structure in built heritage 2.3.1. General introduction 2.3.2. Case studies: columns, arches, vaults, cupolas, etc. Content
  • 5. 2.3.1. General introduction Cultural Heritage: What is it? Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide
      • According to the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius, architecture should be characterized by stability , use , and beauty .
      • The building’s stability is guaranteed by proper planning of its structure, proper choice and use of materials and technologies.
      • At the same time, certain proportions of structural elements could be perceived by the human eye as beautiful.
      • Structural elements and details can be shaped on purpose as works of arts, e.g. sculptures.
  • 6. 2.3.1. General introduction Cultural Heritage: What is it? Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide
      • People feel comfortable with certain proportion ratios and certain colors. This “comfortable” feeling changes from culture to culture, due to traditions and different ideas about what is considered beautiful.
      • If the structure of the building has “good proportions” it can be a masterpiece in itself, without relation to any “added” artistic, e.g. sculptural elements. If you enter such building, famous for its harmony of proportions – you just feel it – no lecture or special course needed 
      • For centuries architects searched for ideal proportions, trying to develop universal formulas of beauty and ensure the beauty of buildings through certain calculations and geometry.
    Albertina, Vienna
  • 7. 2.3.1. General introduction Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide
      • This is an example of the golden ratio which was used from ancient times. We are much more dependent on aesthetic traditions of the past than one might think. Even in modern life we “touch” golden proportion each time when we take a sheet of paper for the computer printer, - the paper is cut precisely according to the golden ratio, or, as it is called “ divine proportion ”.
    Illustration: Courtesy Avraham Katz
  • 8. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Supporting elements Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented. In this example in Ljubljiana, Slovenia, structural elements are covered with plaster moldings, in accordance with traditional local building techniques and the architectural design of the period when it was built. 2.3.2. Case studies
  • 9. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Supporting elements Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented. They might be protruding parts of the stones built into the stone wall. They might be of a simple design, like these corbels supporting a functional element in the fortifications of the city walls of Jerusalem.
  • 10. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Supporting elements Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented. They might be protruding parts of the stones built into the stone wall. They might be of a simple design, like these corbels supporting a functional element in the fortifications of the city walls of Jerusalem.
  • 11. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Supporting elements They might be protruding parts of the stones built into the stone wall. They might be of a simple design, like these consoles supporting fortifications elements of the Castle of Saumur, Val de Loire, France, built about 600 years ago. Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented.
  • 12. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Supporting elements These protruding parts of the stones built into the stone wall. They might have different shapes, like in this mediaeval design in France. Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented.
  • 13. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Supporting elements This single, seemingly always “small” element may have a tremendous influence on the image of the whole part of the city – traditionally Mediterranean protruding windows, supported by corbels, in La Valetta, Malta. Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented.
  • 14. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Columns’ capitals The tops of columns traditionally have ‘capitals’ – a decorated part which is an intermediate element between the column and the load of the upper parts of the building. In different epochs they were shaped differently and there are a great number of remarkable capitals through the history of built heritage. 2.3.2. Case studies
  • 15. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Columns’ capitals The tops of columns traditionally have ‘capitals’ – a decorated part which is an intermediate element between the column and the load of the upper parts of the building. In different epochs they were shaped differently and there are a great number of remarkable capitals through the history of built heritage.
  • 16. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Columns and pilasters (half- or part-columns attached to the façade) were sometimes an integral part of the architecture of the entire building. Columns
  • 17. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide In Villa Imperiale in Stra, Veneto, Italy, four figures of the central part of the façade combine the features of “sculptured” columns, or pilasters, while two corresponding details on the far left, and two on the far right from the entrance, are reduced to some version of corbels. Supporting elements/ columns/ pilasters
  • 18. 2.3.2. Case studies Cultural Heritage: Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide One of the most famous examples in the history of architecture, is probably the sculptures-columns – cariatides - of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens. Column=sculpture There are abundant examples of shaping a structural element as a sculpture – or, vice versa giving a sculpture a structural role of an element supporting a certain part of a building, the sculpture=column, has been known since ancient times.
  • 19. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide This capital (upper part) of a column is shaped as a head of a woman. Actually, the whole column is a sculpture. “ Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Building, Vienna, built in 1870. Column=sculpture
  • 20. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide In a wider setting – the structure of the concert hall is based on columns and walls supporting beams and a flat ceiling “ Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Building, Vienna, built in 1870. Column=sculpture
  • 21. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide “ Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Building, Vienna, built in 1870. In this building paintings cover structural surfaces – e.g. ceiling, walls, gallery. Painting
  • 22. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Perfect acoustics “ Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Building, Vienna, built in 1870. A unique combination of form, proportions, materials and decorative elements – including relative size and location of each part and element, resulted in excellent acoustics of this concert hall – one of the best in Europe. Decoration Materials Proportions
  • 23. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Another type of structural system - vaults, are exposed here and are part of the design of this interior (inner) space. Two artistic-aesthetical factors here: decoration (painted surfaces of vaults) and the proportions of the vaults and ratio of their height and width to the other parts of this entrance space to the building. “ Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Building, Vienna, built in 1870. Vaults’ decoration
  • 24. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Vaults might be very complex. Physics (statics) of vaults may result in a structure of outstanding architectural/ aesthetical value. Vaults’ structure
  • 25. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Vaults might be very complex. Physics (statics) of vaults may result in a structure of outstanding architectural/ aesthetical value. Vaults’ structure
  • 26. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Vaults might be very complex. Physics (statics) of vaults may result in a structure of outstanding architectural/ aesthetical value. Vaults’ structure
  • 27. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Vaults’ structure Vaults might be very complex. Physics (statics) of vaults may result in a structure of outstanding architectural/ aesthetical value, and of an important impact on the interior spaces of buildings and on the image of the city. San Marco Basilica and Palazzo Ducale, Venice
  • 28. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Basilica Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy Bare vaults and arches without any decoration, might be of a significant architectural value, due to balanced proportions. Vaults and arches
  • 29. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna Bare vaults and arches without any decoration, might be of a significant architectural value, due to balanced proportions. Vaults and arches
  • 30. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Shoenbrunn, Vienna This simple garden structure has no decorative architectural elements – its structure is its architectural aesthetics. Vaults and arches
  • 31. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Venice And yet sometimes it is impossible to divide between the décor and the structure – the décor is the structure itself. The deliberate use of different materials create the color contrast in this building. Vaults and arches
  • 32. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Venice The use of Domes in building construction enables coverage of large areas to achieve impressive heights and bring in the light from above. Due to these features, domes often play an important role in the architectural image of a city, and spaces covered by domes are focal points in the interior of these buildings. Domes
  • 33. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide San Pietro Cathedral, Rome The use of Domes in building construction enables coverage of large areas to achieve impressive heights and bring in the light from above. Due to these features, domes often play an important role in the architectural image of a city, and spaces covered by domes are focal points in the interior of these buildings. Domes
  • 34. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Arches, vaults, domes Arches, vaults and domes are often combined into one whole structure, like in this example, the Galleria Umberto in Naples (Napoli), Italy (initiated 1880-s) – one of the largest and most famous arcades in Italy. Its unique architectural aesthetics is steeped in the industrial use of metal and glass in building construction which spread widely at the end of the 19 th century.
  • 35. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Décor and structure This façade is actually one large sculpture. Most of its sculptural décor does not bear structural function. However, its structural elements were provided a “sculptural finish” as well. Hotel De Ville, Grand Place, Brussels
  • 36. 2.3.2. Case studies Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2.3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide Structural integrity Structural integrity can be seen not only in the selected elements of the buildings. Structural systems influence the whole image of the building, e.g. early mediaeval vaults required solid thick walls which, in turn, resulted in small windows, while already in the Gothic period the development of the vaults allowed spatial vaults system bearing on columns rather than on walls, which was expressed in both interior and exterior (façades) of the buildings, etc. In this building in Venice, the architecture of the façade explains the load distribution of the whole structure – upper stories are “light” visually, while the lower part looks “heavy” because it has to bear all the weight of the upper stories.
  • 37. © Anna Lobovikov-Katz Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Thank you for attention Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. Slide © Anna Lobovikov-Katz