Elaich module 2 exercise 2.a - Demonstration of density – porosity measurements

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Demonstration of density – porosity measurements

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Elaich module 2 exercise 2.a - Demonstration of density – porosity measurements

  1. 1. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural HeritageEducational Toolkit Exercises Basic Course Cours Module 2 Knowing the built heritage Exercise 2 .A Demonstration of density – porosity measurementsProf. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens
  2. 2. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries. This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms. Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden. Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens
  3. 3. The porous structure ofmaterials and the study of their compatibility in relation to water and soluble salts transport phenomena Prof. Antonia Moropoulou 3
  4. 4. DEMONSTRATIONOF DENSITY – POROSITY MEASUREMENTS Prof. Antonia Moropoulou 4
  5. 5. [ Items needed: Pebbles of various sizes, water, beaker, ruler, balance]Step 1. Separate pebbles into three or four similar sizes dStep 2. Weigh the empty beaker (Wo) Measure the beaker’s diameter (d) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou 5
  6. 6. Step 3. Fill the beaker with large pebbles. Do not shake. Weigh the beaker with the pebbles. This is weight W1 HStep 4. Slowly pour water into the beaker until it just covers the last top pebbles. Weigh the beaker with the pebbles and water. This is weight W2 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou 6
  7. 7. Step 5. Calculate the apparent density of the large pebbles Weight of pebbles W1 − W0ρb = = Apparent volume of pebbles d2 π H 4Step 6. Calculate the true density of the large pebbles Weight of pebbles W1 − W0ρs = = True volume of pebbles d2 π H − (W2 − W1 ) ρ water 4Step 7. Repeat steps 3-6 for all other pebble groups. Discuss the density values obtained Prof. Antonia Moropoulou 7
  8. 8. Step 8. Calculate the porosity of the “pebble cylinder” which emulates the microstructure of a porous stone Volume of pores (W2 − W1 ) ρ waterP = = Total volume d2 π H 4Step 9. Repeat step 8 for all other pebble groups. Discuss the porosity values obtainedStep 10. MIX ALL PEBBLES TOGETHERStep 11. Repeat steps 3-6 using the mixed collection of pebbles. SHAKE when pouring them into beaker. Discuss the different values of apparent density and true density obtainedStep 12. Repeat step 8 using the mixed collection of pebbles. Discuss the different porosity value obtained Prof. Antonia Moropoulou 8

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