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Elaich module 2 topic 2.1 - Knowing the building

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ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.

ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.
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Elaich module 2 topic 2.1 - Knowing the building Elaich module 2 topic 2.1 - Knowing the building Presentation Transcript

  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Knowing the built heritage Module 2 Basic Cour s e Teaching Material Topic 2 . 1 Knowing the building Educational Toolkit
  • Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
  • Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Abstract The current presentation is an overview examining the basic steps on how we know the built heritage. These consist of understanding the building, diagnose the building, understand the structural system, identify the materials and understand the role they have in the behavior of the structural systems, understand that the building is a “living organism” that – like human beings – changes throughout its lifetime, and finally, intervene on a building after an integrated diagnostic study has taken place Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
  • Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Content Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Table of contents of this presentation 2.1.1 How do we approach protection of Cultural Heritage 2.1.2 How do we understand the building 2.1.3 How do we diagnose the building Diagnostic study at the level of archaeological sites Diagnostic study on architectural surfaces Integrated management of documentation and diagnostic study at the level of Historic Cities 2.1.4 How do we understand the structural system 2.1.5 How do we classify historic building materials 2.1.6 How do materials affect the behavior of structural systems 2.1.7 How does the building changes throughout its lifetime 2.1.8 How do we diagnose decay 2.1.9 How do we decide on whether or not to intervene on a building 2.1.10 How do we intervene on a building 2.1.11 How do we manage and use a historic building / site / monument / complex in compatibility with its values 2.1.12 Is it possible to keep Heritage alive without social awareness, without youth initiatives
  • Diagnostic Study Identify the decay mechanisms and assess the decay state of the building Stages of Cultural Heritage Protection Monitoring, Control, Maintenance – Introduction of Quality Control Monitoring of the decay factors and the building’s deterioration Design of Appropriate Conservation Intervention and Materials Intervention study that addresses the decay with an effective & compatible solution Intervention Works Application of designed intervention following strict specifications and procedures Quality Control of Intervention Works Assessment of Intervention Effectiveness through characteristic indices Scientific Support to Decision Making regarding Intervention Necessity Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2 .1 : Knowing the building 2.1.1. How do we approach protection of Cultural Heritage Integrated Documentation Knowing the building
  • Intrinsic Data Extrinsic Data UNDERSTAND THE BUILDING Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, Prof. A. Moropoulou Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2.1.2. How do we understand the building Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2 .1 : Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Documentation / Intrinsic Data
    • General information for the building
    • (general description, type, location, ownership & legal status, etc)
    • Historical documentation
    • Surveying documentation
    • Architectural documentation
    • Archaeological survey documentation
    Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
    • Structural documentation
    • Materials characterization and mapping
    • (type, properties, production technology, compatibility with other materials)
      • - Structural materials
      • - Nonstructural / Decorative / Surfacial materials
    • Documentation of past conservation and/or protection interventions
    • Value of the building
      • - Historical value
      • - Aesthetic value
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The building in the environment Acropolis of Athens THE DECAY PHENOMENA DEVELOP AT THE INTEFACES OF MATERIALS / ENVIRONMENT OR MATERIALS / MATERIALS AND ARE A FUNCTION OF INTRINSIC AND EXTRISIC FACTORS Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Documentation / Extrinsic Data Acropolis of Athens
    • Environmental factors
      • - General climate characteristics
        • Distribution and orientation
        • Amplitude of environmental factors (T0C, RH%, W.R)
      • - Microclimate
        • Orientation of building materials in respect to the environmental factors
        • Effect of the position of a structure in the building
        • Surface morphology of structural and decorative elements
        • Patterns of attack by precipitation
    • Atmosphere
    • - Polluted ( Concentration and distribution of air pollutants)
    • - Marine ( Effect of salt spray)
    • Water
      • - Aerosol
      • - Rain
      • - Rising damp
      • - Condensation
      • - Salt crystallization
    • Biologic factors (fauna and flora)
    Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Extrinsic Data Acropolis of Athens
    • Usage of building
    • - Building environment / urban and land use & planning
    • - Interior environment
    • - Visitors patterns
    • Mechanical loadings
    • - Temperature fluctuations
    • - Effect of differential thermal expansions of materials
    • - Salt crystallisation
    • - Frost damage
    • - Earthquake vibrations
    • - Abrasion
    Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • 2.1.4 How do we document the building Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2 .1 : Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Surveying Documentation In order to understand what is the current state (decay) of the building, so that we intervene appropriately, surveying, structural and materials documentations need to be integrated with the study of alterations i.e. the diagnostic study Architectural Documentation Structural & Materials Documentation Alterations / Interventions Complete “ picture ” of the current state of the building Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building Integrated Diagnostic Study Combining Documentation and Diagnostic Studies
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2 .1 : Knowing the building Documentation - Diagnostic Study of Archaeological Sites
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building CAD management of data Sarantapichos, Rhodes Erimokastro, Rhodes Moropoulou et als “ Diagnostic study and proposal for the protection and revealing of the Cyclopean and Hellenistic Acropolis of Sarantapicho and Erimokasttro, Kallithea Rhodes ” , 2009 Documentation – Survey of Archaeological Sites
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building GIS management of data Moropoulou et als “ Diagnostic study and proposal for the protection and revealing of the Cyclopean and Hellenistic Acropolis of Sarantapicho and Erimokasttro, Kallithea Rhodes ” , 2009 Documentation – Survey of Archaeological Sites Sarantapichos, Rhodes Erimokastro, Rhodes
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building GIS management of NDT data Moropoulou et als “ Diagnostic study and proposal for the protection and revealing of the Cyclopean and Hellenistic Acropolis of Sarantapicho and Erimokasttro, Kallithea Rhodes ” , 2009 Documentation – Survey of Archaeological Sites Sarantapichos, Rhodes Erimokastro, Rhodes Creation of hyperlink s in ArcGis, with NDT image data at selected positions
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building Architectural Documentation Moropoulou et als “ Diagnostic study and proposal for the protection and revealing of the Cyclopean and Hellenistic Acropolis of Sarantapicho and Erimokasttro, Kallithea Rhodes ” , 2009 Documentation – Survey of Archaeological Sites Architectural documentation of a part of the Masonry at Sarantapichos, Rhodes Architectural documentation of a part of the Gate at Erimokastro, Rhodes
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building Architectural Documentation Moropoulou et als “ Diagnostic study and proposal for the protection and revealing of the Cyclopean and Hellenistic Acropolis of Sarantapicho and Erimokasttro, Kallithea Rhodes ” , 2009 Documentation – Survey of Archaeological Sites Based on Surveying documentation for each stone a 3D model was created and placed in its respective position, both in respect to the general ground plan as well in respect to ground level view, so that a realistic 3D image is created
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building Moropoulou et als “ Diagnostic study and proposal for the protection and revealing of the Cyclopean and Hellenistic Acropolis of Sarantapicho and Erimokasttro, Kallithea Rhodes ” , 2009 Diagnostic Study – Decay Mapping of Archaeological Sites Northwest Walls Erimokastro Extensive biodecay from fungi (50% & 35% Black biodecay (30% & 20%) Cracks and detachment of authentic material (5% & 20%) Crustose epiliphic lichens (13% & 23%)
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building Moropoulou et als “ Diagnostic study and proposal for the protection and revealing of the Cyclopean and Hellenistic Acropolis of Sarantapicho and Erimokasttro, Kallithea Rhodes ” , 2009 Integration Assuming that the Sarantapicho Acropolis is a monument of the Mycenean era, and with the aid of the 3D model of the current state of the gate , a new 3D model was created that depicts an estimation of the gate ’ s original form based on the design and proportion of the gates at Mycenae
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building Diagnostic Study on Historic Buildings / Architectural Surfaces
  • Mela Palace – Neoclassical Architecture Mela Palace underwent major restoration interventions during the 1970s , where only the external masonries were preserved with totally or partially reconstruction of the facades and the respective architectonic ornaments, in an attempt to imitate the original designs. Moreover, the internal parts of the building were reconstructed employing reinforced concrete. The intense polluted city environment of Athens centre accelerates the natural aging of the building materials of the construction Therefore, periodical conservation interventions are required and applied . Moropoulou et als “Strategic planning of compatible materials and conservation interventions for the preservation of the facades of the Mela Palace historic building located in the centre of Athens” 2003 Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Materials mapping based on physicochemical characteristics & macroscopic-microscopic morphological characteristics Moropoulou et als “Strategic planning of compatible materials and conservation interventions for the preservation of the facades of the Mela Palace historic building located in the centre of Athens” 2003 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Decay mapping, based on physicochemical characteristics & macroscopic - microscopic morphological characteristics Moropoulou et als “Strategic planning of compatible materials and conservation interventions for the preservation of the facades of the Mela Palace historic building located in the centre of Athens” 2003 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Decay mapping – Decay patterns presence percentage Moropoulou et als “Strategic planning of compatible materials and conservation interventions for the preservation of the facades of the Mela Palace historic building located in the centre of Athens” 2003 The area measurement of decay layers in CAD, contributes decisively to the integrated planning of the environmental management in order to reduce the negative impact of the natural & manmade environment on historic buildings. Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage See Module 3 EXERCISE Decay in lab and on Monument scale From salt decay in lab to exercise salt decay pathology on the monument: The case of the Medieval City of Rhodes Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building Integrated Management of Documentation and Diagnostic Study at the level of Historic Cities
  • 2.1.4 How do we understand the structural system See Module 2 – Topic 2.4 Historic structural systems - behaviour and typical damages Types of structural members and their effect on the behaviour of historic structures - Methods for the in situ investigation of historic structures Prof. E. Vintzileou, NTUA Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building For more information:
  • 2.1.5 How do we classify building materials Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2.1.5. Definition of building materials What are the building materials? The materials that are used to construct and allow operation of a Technical Work Note: Technical Work is any construction that fulfills certain requirements, it is supported on solid ground or is connected to it with some form, regardless of the depth this solid layer is into and it can withstand various effects from the environment Every technical work is constructed of one or more building materials which are combined and placed in a pattern according to the predefined architectural plan BUILDING SYSTEM It deals with the rules that govern the combination and adjoining of materials for the construction of a work and the methods and patterns of their placement and of their performance in bearing all kind of loads BUILDING MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY It deals with the description of the materials and the methods of their preparation, their properties and their performance Acropolis of Athens Photo courtesy of A. Moropoulou Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2.1.5. Selection of building materials What properties should a material have to be used as a building material? The selection of the appropriate building material or a combination of building materials for each technical work is often a complicated process that depends on various factors. There should exist knowledge regarding:
    • The materials’ properties
    • Their performance under the loads (mechanical strength and stresses) that will be subjected at the technical work
    • The compatibility between the materials used and the between the materials and the environment in which the structure functions
    • The environmental impact
    • The availability and the cost of the materials
    Acropolis of Athens Photo courtesy of A. Moropoulou Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2.1.5. History - evolution of building materials
    • The neolithic period which spans from 7.000-3.000B.C. reveals a very advanced cultural stage, with houses of rectangular rooms and tombs concentrated in cemeteries outside the settlements. It is effectively where the concept of Building Technology is developed. This is evidence by the remnants of various neolithic sites, In the neolithic, mud brick houses started appearing that were coated with plaster . The growth of agriculture made permanent houses possible. Doorways were made on the roof, with ladders positioned both on the inside and outside of the houses. The roof was supported by beams from the inside. The rough ground was covered by platforms, mats, and skins on which residents slept. Known settlements of this period in Greece are the Sesklo and Dimini.
    • The urban architecture of the urban architecture of the early bronze age (3000-2000B.C.) is more advanced and complex. Representative examples of such architecture are the House of the Tiles at Lerna and the “White House” at the archaeological site of Kolona at Aigina with corridors separating the rooms. The materials used are the same as those of the previous period. The construction of homes with stone foundations and brick superstructure is continued.
    • The architecture of the middle bronze age (2000-1600B.C.) is not as impressive as that of the previous period. The quality of the urban architecture does not present any clear improvement at the beginning of the Mycenaean period despite the construction of fine tombs. Information about the Mycenaean period is obtained by Homer. From his stories we deduce that the houses are built with brick, the roof is from straws covered with clay plaster , and we are informed about the palaces of Agamemnon and Ulysses. The architecture of the period is limited to the palaces.
    Mycenae , Lions gate
    • Late bronze age . (1600-1050B.C). It is the period of the first Mycenaean kingdoms. Representative examples of this architecture are the Mycenaean palaces and the fortifications of Mycenae and Tirinth. These are massive works constructed of stones where the gaps in between are filled with stones of smaller size. The main component of construction is stone , which is preferred even for the construction of impressive vaulted tombs
    Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2.1.5. History - evolution of building materials
    • The protogeometric period (1050-900B.C.), is the transitional stage from the late bronz to the geometric period and is not characterized by architecture but rather by pottery .
    • During the geometric period (900-700BC) the construction of monumental temples with wooden pillars starts, that follow the prevalent architectural orders of the era, i.e. the doric order and the ionic order . Representative examples are the temple of Hera at Samos, the Apollo temple at Aetolia and the temple of standing Artemis in Sparta. The tomb complexes are simple, compared to the Mycenaean tombs. Regarding the residential architecture it does not appear to be luxurious and it does not present any monumental character. The foundations and the lower part of the buildings is made of rubble stones whereas the upper structure is made of adobe bricks . Representative example of this architecture is mansion B at Thermes in Aetolia. In this monument the pillars are wooden, which is the oldest form of pillars in Greek Architecture.
    • During the archaic period (7th – 6th c. B.C) and especially at its beginnings, at the 7th c., the residential construction continued to be simple like the previous period. At the 6th c., the ionic order prevails at the Aegean region and its development can only be discerned at the Hera temple at Samos. The pillars are made of wood, whereas the capitals are made of stone and are found in Aeolida (Artemis temple in Efessos) whereas the doric order is found in continental Greece, and prevails in the next century.
    • Representative example of the architecture of the 5th c . is the Parthenon which with its design attempts to erase the optical illusions. The temple is made completely of Pentelic marble and originates from the first period of the classical age that starts from the conclusion of the Greek-Persian wars. This event marks the beginning of the second period, the start of the Peloponnesian war. Examples of the change of thinking is the two ionic temples in Acropolis, the Erectheion and the temple of Athena Nike both made of marble
    Acropolis of Athens Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2.1.5. History - evolution of building materials
    • The architecture of the 4th c . preserves the equilibrium between the classical forms but begins to revolve around the human and the nature . It is the period when religious architecture is generalized and public buildings are constructed. Many of the later are built during the Hellenistic period (3rd c. BC – 1st c. BC), and the private houses are becoming more luxurious with elaborate decorations. The architecture of the period focuses on the construction of large building complexes . The three architectural orders continue to co-exist, not immiscible but in various combinations. During this period monumental buildings such as the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus and the altar of Zeus at Pergamon
    • The following period, the roman (31 – 337AC) highlights the social imparity. The majority of the population lives in hovels whereas the residences of the rich are impressive . Representative is the trend of constructing luxurious villas and heated spa. During this period mortars are used to bind the materials and their use is extensive . Of course, this practice was already known to Greeks, since traces of mortars were found in houses at Delos (2nd c. BC). The mortars of this period are classified as crushed brick mortars
    Rotunda, Thessaloniki
    • With the establishment of Christianity (approximately 324AC) starts a new era in history and in particular in art history and architecture. In the vast Byzantine empire a variety of structure of all types were constructed though most of which are not conserved. From the monuments of the Byzantine period it is mostly fortification structures that are conserved and only rarely monasteries and houses . This is because during this period emphasis is given on religious architecture. Churches are monuments that are constructed to stand throughout the centuries .
    Daphni Monastery, Athens Course ELAICH Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2.1.5. History - evolution of building materials Post Byzantine period (1453- early 19th c. ) . Stone, wood and fired ceramic were the basic building materials Medieval City of Rhodes Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building Neoclassical architecture period ( mid-18th - 19th c. ) . Stone, wood and fired ceramic were still the basic building materials Greek Parliament, Athens Architect: Ernst Ziller
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2.1.5. History - evolution of building materials
    • Since the Second Industrial Revolution (~1850), new building materials were developed due to the discovery of new forms of energy which allowed higher treatment temperatures for the raw materials and the creation of new materials.
    • Iron, initially in the form of cast-iron , later as common steel and nowadays as high strength steel enhanced the construction of large technical works due to its significant properties.
    • Cement, was used initially as a bonding material much as lime, but with better properties. Artificial stones were manufactured containing cement, sand and aggregates. With the introduction of reinforcement steel bars, the modern reinforced concrete was created. The last 150 years, the non-reinforced and reinforced concrete are the main building materials for most types of technical works
    Athens, Korai Square Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage See Module 2 – Topic 2.5 Historic building materials: Stones, ceramics, mortars Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA See Module 2 – Topic 2.6 Historic materials of architectural surfaces: Mosaics Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA For more information: Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • 2.1.6 How do materials affect the behavior of structural systems Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage ROLE OF MATERIALS IN STRUCTURAL DAMAGE DUE TO EARTHQUAKES
    • Damage occurs usually when vmax > 10 mm / sec
    • The DIN standard anticipates that :
    • - strong buildings can withstand 5 < vmax < 30 mm / sec whereas
    • - historic building or buildings 2 < vmax < 5 mm / sec
    Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building When the structure has sustained prior damage, or the materials’ properties have deteriorated (e.g. due to aging or decay), the possibility of exceeding a specific damage threshold for any given earthquake load (ground acceleration) increases Fragility curves
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage ROLE OF MATERIALS’ PROPERTIES ON FINITE ELEMENT MODELING BEHAVIOR The characterization of the various building materials and the measurement of their actual properties allowed for a reaslistic approach of Hagia Sophia’s response to seismic risks Cakmak, A.S., Moropoulou, A., Mullen, C.L., “ Interdisciplinary Study of Dynamic Behaviour and Earthquake Response of Hagia Sophia ” , J. Soil dynamics and earthquake engineering, 14 , No 9 (1995) pp. 125-133 Based on the results of the design study of compatible repair mortars and the dynamic simulation of the monument’s optimized response by the improved finite element model , extensive repair of the monument using the suggested mortar syntheses was accomplished . The suggested syntheses proved a satisfactory behavior during the 1999 earthquake Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • 2.1.7 How does the building changes throughout its lifetime Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
    • Modern structures of reinforced cement concrete experience the end of their lifetime within 70 years in aggressive marine and polluted atmospheres
    • The massive urban development that took place after the end of World War II is now facing its limits
    • Historic buildings and monuments arriving intact through millenniums and centuries up to today, are “ teaching lessons ” of sustainability
    • On the contrary, conservation interventions and repaires with modern, incompatible to historic structures materials are proved to limit their lifetime
    Medieval City of Rhodes Photo courtesy of N. Kasseris
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Cracking – Weathering of stone 19 th cent. Evans Restoration of Knosos Palace in Crete Knossos Palace has survived from 1500B.C. up to today In contrast, Evan’s restoration in 1920s had a lifetime of almost 70 years until the end of ’90s Since the 2000s Restoration of Restorations proved the lifetime limits Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
    • LIFETIME ENGINEERING
    • Quality of life cycle
    • Efficiency of life cycle
    • Human factors
      • Functionality
      • Health
      • Safety
      • Usability
    • Financial factors
    • Acquisition cost
    • Synthesis cost
    • Maintenance cost
    • Recycling cost
    • Availability
    • Cost / Properties
    • Social factors :
    • Traditional construction techniques
    • Aesthetics
    • Architectural styles
    • Lifestyle
    • Environmental factors :
    • Raw materials environmental cost
    • Cost of energy
    • Environmental impact
    • Cost of waste disposal
    LIFETIME ENGINEERING OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage LIFETIME ENGINEERING OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building Time or cycles Properties or cost Properties after repair Properties’ specifications or cost Functional life Economic life Repair & Maintenance Properties without repair Cost without repair Cost after repair
  • 2.1.8 How do we diagnose decay Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building The diagnosis of decay should follow an integrated methodology of : DIAGNOSTIC STUDY See Module 3 – Topic 3. 6 Diagnosis of decay: Mechanisms, criteria and techniques Non destructive and instrumental laboratory techniques for diagnosis of decay and assessment of conservation Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA For more information:
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The diagnosis of decay should follow an integrated methodology of : DIAGNOSTIC STUDY Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building Medieval City of Rhodes
  • 2.1.9 How do we decide on whether or not to intervene to protect the building Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building See Module 5 – Topic 5.1.2 Non Destructive testing and Quality Control on monuments for monitoring the decay state and the compatibility of conservation interventions Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA For more information:
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The monitoring of materials lifecycle (properties, characteristics and cost) should be continuous and comprehensive to warn on necessary interventions Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Scientific support to decision making
    • The development of a decision making support system should concern:
    • Decision making regarding the selection of the most appropriate conservation materials and interventions
    • Lifetime prediction
    • The assessment of the socio-economic impact of the interventions
    • Assessment of the sustainability
    Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • 2.1.10 How do we intervene on a building Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building See Module 4 – Topic 4.6 Criteria and methodology for cleaning – pilot applications and case studies Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA For more information: See Module 4 – Topic 4.8 Reverse Engineering and performing restoration materials – case studies Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA See Module 4 – Topic 4.5 Requirements for compatible materials and conservation interventions Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA See Module 4 – Topic 4.7 Criteria and methodology for consolidation – pilot applications and case studies Prof. A. Moropoulou, NTUA
  • C ONSERVATION M ATERIALS & I NTERVENTIONS Preconsolidation ( only on cases of extreme decay ) Cleaning ( mechanical, physical or chemical removal of surface depositions ) Consolidation ( rehabilitation of the cohesion of the decayed material ) Surface protection ( protection of building materials from environmental factors ) Restoration ( compatible materials & interventions ) Treatment against rising damp ( allowing masonries to “breath” ) Integration Restoration of the unit (structural interventions) Reconstruction of the building (architectural interventions ) Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building
  • 2.1.11 How do we manage and use a historic building / site / monument / complex in compatibility with its values See Module 1 VALUES AND AWARENESS Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building For more information: See Module 6 MANAGEMENT & USE
  • 2.1.12 Is it possible to keep Heritage alive without social awareness, without youth initiatives See Module 1 VALUES AND AWARENESS Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building For more information: See Module 6 MANAGEMENT & USE
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building It is possible to keep Heritage alive!! Knowledge, innovation, technology are available, but the priority is given by social awareness and youth initiatives
  • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 2.1: Knowing the building EDUCATION is an integral element of Cultural Heritage protection ELAICH – Athens Experimental Course: Acropolis of Athens ELAICH – Istanbul Experimental Course: Hagia Sophia ELAICH in EUROMED is a pilot context Because in the Mediterranean Basin, mutual understanding between people and nations with different histories, religions, beliefs, cultures and peace is a prerequisite to sustain World ’ s Cultural Heritage transpassing frontiers and civilizations