The West on the Eve of a New World Order• The Scientific Revolution -revolution in astronomy -geocentric theory -heliocentric theory• Background to the Enlightenment -reason and scientific method -philosophes (Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot)• Culture in an Enlightened Age -Rococo: decoration and architecture -high culture vs. popular culture
Economic Changes and the Social Order• New Economic patterns -cottage industry -expansion of overseas trade -commercial capitalism• Society in the Eighteenth Century -patterns of social organization -patrician oligarchies -rentiers: living off of investments
Colonial Empires and Revolution in the Americas• The West Indies - “sugar factories”• British North America -Jamestown & Massachusetts Bay• French North America -Jacques Cartier -fur trade, different objective?• The American Revolution -differing conceptions of how the empireshould be governed; role of Salutary Neglect?
Toward a New Political Order and Global Conflict• Prussia: The Army and the Bureaucracy -Frederick the Great (1740-1786) -army= most important state institution• The Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs -Empress Maria Theresa (1740-1780) -administrative reforms -Joseph II (1780-1790): role of philosophy?• Russia under Catherine the Great -policy of favoring landed nobility -Pugachev Rebellion (1773)• Changing Patterns of War -role of the Seven Years War and the Treaty of Paris (1763)
The French Revolution• Background to the French Revolution -social structure of the Old Regime -national debt as a contributing factor• From Estates-General to National Assembly -relationship between the First, Second, and Third Estates? -legal right to act as a national assembly?• Destruction of the Old Regime -abolish rights of landlords and fiscal exemptions of nobles;“Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen”• The Radical Revolution -rise of French nationalism: military connection -Reign of Terror -revolution in Haiti
Age of Napoleon• Rise of Napoleon -born in Corsica 1769 -connections to Florentine nobility -strong military education• Domestic Policies -established peace with the Catholic church, concordat recognizedCatholicism -codification of the laws -a new Civil Code for the French people• Napoleon’s Empire -The Grand Empire, three parts: French empire, dependentstates, allied states. -legal equality, religious toleration, economic freedom -Continental System -Fall of Napoleon