A SEMINAR REPORT ONHIV AIDSPRESENTED BYEKUNDAYO SAMUEL ADEBOWALEMATRIC NO: 0903010023DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCESJOSEPH AYO BABALOLA UNIVERSITY,IKEJI-ARAKEJI,OSUN STATE.MARCH, 2013
OUTLINE INTRODUCTION. STRUCTURE, INFECTION AND TRANSMISSION OF HIV SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION. INTRODUCTION AND ORIGIN AIDS. PREVALENCE, CAUSE AND SYMPTOMS OF AIDS. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF AIDS. CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION.
•HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is aRetrovirus that causes AIDS by infecting replicatingin, and killing helper T cells (CD4 cells) of theimmune system it belongs to the family Lenitvirus•They infect Vital cells of the immune system suchas the helper T cells. (specifically CD4 T cells),macrophages, and dendritic cellsINTRODUCTION AND ORIGIN OF HIV
STRUCTURE OF HIVPlate 1: Structure of HIVSource: Encarta Dictionaries
INFECTION Viruses such as HIV cannot grow orreproduce on their own, they need toinfect the cells of a living organism inorder to replicate (make new copiesof themselves).◦ There are two types of infection Acute infection (between 2-4 weeks post exposure) Chronic infection (between 2 weeks and 20 years postexposure)
PLATE 2: Viral particles on a cell surfaceSOURCE: Encarta Dictionaries
Plate 3: An Immunocompromised patientSource: www.patient.co.uk
TRANSMISSIONPlate 4: Transmission of HIVSource: www.nckansil.com
SYMPTOMS Flu-like illness Rash Swollen glands for a brief period Other infections
Plate 5: Viral rash on skinPlate 6: Viral rash on tongueSource: hardinmd.lib.uiowa.ed
TESTING FOR HIVThere are various types of HIV test, butthe most commonly used are The antibody or enzyme-linkedimmunodeficient assay or enzymeimmunoassay also known as EIA orELISA test - detects HIV antibodies in apersons blood STRIP TEST imunochromatographicstrips, the most recent development,potentially require only one step andincorporate both antigen and signalreagent into a nitrocellulose strip
Prevention Preventing sexual transmission of HIV Preventing transmission of HIVthrough blood Preventing mother to childtransmission of HIV
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome AIDS is caused by HIV damaging theimmune system cells until the immunesystem can no longer fight off otherinfections that it would usually be able toprevent. It takes around ten years on average forsomeone with HIV to develop AIDS.
Number of people living with AIDS in 2010Total 53,700,000Adults 30,800,000Women 19,400,000Children (<15 years) 3,500,000People newly infected with HIV in 2010Total 5,600,000Adults 5,100,000Children (<15 years) 500,000AIDS deaths in 2010Total 7,100,000Adults 6,700,000Children (<15 years) 400,000All figures are estimatesSource: World Health Organization;Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)Table 1: Total AIDS cases around the world as at
CAUSES OF AIDS There are two types of this virus: HIV-1 andHIV 2, which are the primary cause of AIDS◦ Inside the body HIV enters cells of the immunesystem, especially white blood cells known as Tcells◦ HIV attack are specialized “helper” T cells knownas CD4 cells. When HIV infects a CD4 cell, itcommandeers the genetic tools within the cell tomanufacture new HIV virus◦ The loss of CD4 cells endangers health becausethese cells help other types of immune cellsrespond to invading organisms
SYMPTOMS OF AIDSFlu-like symptoms;◦ such as; fever, sore throat, headache,skin rash, tender lymph nodes, and avague feeling of discomfort.Opportunistic infections;◦ such as; Pneumocystis pneumonia,tuberculosis, viral opportunistic infections,cancers, neurological disorders
DAIGNOSING AIDS The diagnosis of AIDS can be madeby counting the CD4 cells, if it fallsbelow 200 cells per microliter of blood A diagnosis of AIDS can also be madewithout confirmation of CD4 levels ifsomeone who has no other reason forimmune system damage develops anopportunistic disease.
TREATMENT contd. Post-exposure prevention;administering antiretroviral drugswithin 24 hours after exposure to HIVcan protect a person from becominginfected with the virus Development of new drugs Treatment of opportunistic infections;such asclarithromycin or azithromycinto prevent Mycobacterium avium
Conclusion HIV test shouldn’t be done using theimmunochromatographic strips.Rather, the method of assay of virusesshould be used, because the viruscannot be detected in the windowstage.