Seminar presentation on HIV at Joseph Ayo Babalola Uni

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Seminar presentation on HIV at Joseph Ayo Babalola Uni

  1. 1. A SEMINAR REPORT ONHIV AIDSPRESENTED BYEKUNDAYO SAMUEL ADEBOWALEMATRIC NO: 0903010023DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCESJOSEPH AYO BABALOLA UNIVERSITY,IKEJI-ARAKEJI,OSUN STATE.MARCH, 2013
  2. 2. OUTLINE INTRODUCTION. STRUCTURE, INFECTION AND TRANSMISSION OF HIV SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION. INTRODUCTION AND ORIGIN AIDS. PREVALENCE, CAUSE AND SYMPTOMS OF AIDS. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF AIDS. CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION.
  3. 3. •HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is aRetrovirus that causes AIDS by infecting replicatingin, and killing helper T cells (CD4 cells) of theimmune system it belongs to the family Lenitvirus•They infect Vital cells of the immune system suchas the helper T cells. (specifically CD4 T cells),macrophages, and dendritic cellsINTRODUCTION AND ORIGIN OF HIV
  4. 4. STRUCTURE OF HIVPlate 1: Structure of HIVSource: Encarta Dictionaries
  5. 5. INFECTION Viruses such as HIV cannot grow orreproduce on their own, they need toinfect the cells of a living organism inorder to replicate (make new copiesof themselves).◦ There are two types of infection Acute infection (between 2-4 weeks post exposure) Chronic infection (between 2 weeks and 20 years postexposure)
  6. 6. PLATE 2: Viral particles on a cell surfaceSOURCE: Encarta Dictionaries
  7. 7. Plate 3: An Immunocompromised patientSource: www.patient.co.uk
  8. 8. TRANSMISSIONPlate 4: Transmission of HIVSource: www.nckansil.com
  9. 9. SYMPTOMS Flu-like illness Rash Swollen glands for a brief period Other infections
  10. 10. Plate 5: Viral rash on skinPlate 6: Viral rash on tongueSource: hardinmd.lib.uiowa.ed
  11. 11. TESTING FOR HIVThere are various types of HIV test, butthe most commonly used are The antibody or enzyme-linkedimmunodeficient assay or enzymeimmunoassay also known as EIA orELISA test - detects HIV antibodies in apersons blood STRIP TEST imunochromatographicstrips, the most recent development,potentially require only one step andincorporate both antigen and signalreagent into a nitrocellulose strip
  12. 12. Prevention Preventing sexual transmission of HIV Preventing transmission of HIVthrough blood Preventing mother to childtransmission of HIV
  13. 13. AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome AIDS is caused by HIV damaging theimmune system cells until the immunesystem can no longer fight off otherinfections that it would usually be able toprevent. It takes around ten years on average forsomeone with HIV to develop AIDS.
  14. 14. Number of people living with AIDS in 2010Total 53,700,000Adults 30,800,000Women 19,400,000Children (<15 years) 3,500,000People newly infected with HIV in 2010Total 5,600,000Adults 5,100,000Children (<15 years) 500,000AIDS deaths in 2010Total 7,100,000Adults 6,700,000Children (<15 years) 400,000All figures are estimatesSource: World Health Organization;Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)Table 1: Total AIDS cases around the world as at
  15. 15. CAUSES OF AIDS There are two types of this virus: HIV-1 andHIV 2, which are the primary cause of AIDS◦ Inside the body HIV enters cells of the immunesystem, especially white blood cells known as Tcells◦ HIV attack are specialized “helper” T cells knownas CD4 cells. When HIV infects a CD4 cell, itcommandeers the genetic tools within the cell tomanufacture new HIV virus◦ The loss of CD4 cells endangers health becausethese cells help other types of immune cellsrespond to invading organisms
  16. 16. SYMPTOMS OF AIDSFlu-like symptoms;◦ such as; fever, sore throat, headache,skin rash, tender lymph nodes, and avague feeling of discomfort.Opportunistic infections;◦ such as; Pneumocystis pneumonia,tuberculosis, viral opportunistic infections,cancers, neurological disorders
  17. 17. DAIGNOSING AIDS The diagnosis of AIDS can be madeby counting the CD4 cells, if it fallsbelow 200 cells per microliter of blood A diagnosis of AIDS can also be madewithout confirmation of CD4 levels ifsomeone who has no other reason forimmune system damage develops anopportunistic disease.
  18. 18. TREATMENT Antiretroviral Therapies◦ Nucleoside analogues (also callednucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors(NRTIs)) (1987); zalcitabine(Hivid), stavudine (Zerit), lamivudine (Epivir)◦ Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptaseinhibitors (NNRTIs) (1996); nevirapine(Viramune), delavirdine (Rescriptor)◦ Protease inhibitors (1995); saquinavir(Invirase)◦ Fusion inhibitor (2005); maraviroc (Selzentry)
  19. 19. TREATMENT contd. Post-exposure prevention;administering antiretroviral drugswithin 24 hours after exposure to HIVcan protect a person from becominginfected with the virus Development of new drugs Treatment of opportunistic infections;such asclarithromycin or azithromycinto prevent Mycobacterium avium
  20. 20. Conclusion HIV test shouldn’t be done using theimmunochromatographic strips.Rather, the method of assay of virusesshould be used, because the viruscannot be detected in the windowstage.

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