Brand personality

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Brand identity

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  • Kapferers branding model (prism) is excellent! However, the slide here showing "the six - sided prism" is wrong on the "Reflection" aspect. Reflection is about how the consumer perceives the typical target group/audience of the brand (hence, there must be some allignment between "self-image" and "reflection"). Also the "culture" aspect is kind of wrong: Culture is not necessarily country specific. It is the history, values and heritage of the brand. Otherwise good stuff :)
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Brand personality

  1. 1. CHAPTER 13 BRAND IDENTITY
  2. 2. BRAND IDENTITY • Brands came into existence to satisfy certain qualities, to serve certain targets, to symbolize some values, and to stand for some emotions. Companies create and build brands for some reason. • Brand identity is the purpose for which the brand is born. • Brand identity goes much further than image though brand image being the customer’s perception, helps create the brand identity. Brand image is about what we know of the brand in the past and ignores the future.
  3. 3. POSITIONING • Positioning is about placing the brand in the mind of the customer and communicating the relevant values to the consumers with respect to other brands that operate in the market, making it distinguishable from competing brands. • Positioning can be changed even in a short span of six months to one year whereas brand identity remains for quite a long time.
  4. 4. DIMENSIONS AND IDENTITY • Brand identity as the sum of the brand expressed in terms of product, organization, person, and symbol. • Brand identity structurally has two dimensions, the inner core identity and the outer core identity containing all the above dimensions.
  5. 5. BRAND AS A PRODUCT • These include the impact of product class association, various attributes of the product, the perceived quality of the product from the consumers, the occasion for the usage of the product, the type of users using the product, and the country of origin issues. BRAND AS AN ORGANIZATION • The corporate identity, the organizational values and associations as well as the general organizational attributes also form a part of identity.
  6. 6. BRAND AS A PERSON • Personification, in the literal sense, means making a non-living thing as a living thing and viewing it as a person. Here, the brand, a nonliving thing is visualized as a person or an animal, and the attributes and qualities associated with that person or animal are supposed to form part of the brand’s identity too. BRAND AS A SYMBOL • The visual description that come to the mind when you think of brand is called visual imagery. • Visual Imagery is that aspect of visual association when we think of a brand like coca cola’s bottle.
  7. 7. INNER AND OUTER IDENTITY • Core identity represents the fundamental values and beliefs that it stands for. It is the essence of the brand – the heart and soul of it. It may be drawn from the organizational values also. Though core identity may be reduced to a few words, a statement or slogan does not make an effective identity representation. CORE IDENTITY • It is the essence of the brand. EXTENDED IDENTITY • It is what the brand stands for or where the brand is known. VALUE POSITION • The advantage you get from a certain feature of the brand. An expressive form of the brand.
  8. 8. THE SIX – SIDED PRISM • Jean – Noel – Kapferer proposed brand identity based on a prism having six elements. It also sums up the various tangible and intangible aspects of the brand. • PHYSIQUE – this forms the basis of the brand. • PERSONALITY – personality here means personification of the brand. The brand personality is perceived as a person or an animal. • CULTURE – the country of origin of the brand that is seen as a product attribute forms the culture. • RELATIONSHIP – it is the understanding between the consumer and the organization. • REFLECTION – this is the consumer’s perception of the brand and its values. • SELF-IMAGE – this is about what the consumer thinks about himself or herself.
  9. 9. MULTIPLE IDENTITIES • There is yet another possibility that the brand has multiple identities. • EX. Worldwide, TIDE detergent brand is perceived as a premium brand and ARIEL brand as a middle-class brand, whereas in India, ARIEL is a premium brand and TIDE happens to be perceived as a middle-class brand. • The brand identity is adapted to the local conditions in most transnational brands. Multiple Identities cannot be completely different from each other. They should reflect some common associations, some common values or some reflections of the other identity.
  10. 10. Chapter 14 - Brand Image Brand Identity – is what the brand managers think about the brand. It is the cause. • Ex: It is communicated to customers in many ways like advertising, packaging, performance of the brand, after sales service, etc. Brand Image – is what the customers think about the brand. It is the effect. It is the essence of all the impressions or imprints about the brand that have got imposed on the consumer’s mind. • Ex: Head n’ Shoulders – Anti-Dandruff shampoo
  11. 11. Error – failure of the brand to deliver its promises, word of mouth, litigation filed against the brand expectations of the customer, emotional associations of the individual customer with the brand. • Ex: Ineffective whitening cream. Imagery – is the customer seen from the perspective of the product. • Ex: The imagery of the user of ponds is an Indian woman who is an achiever and is confident to step out and take the world on. Thus, Ponds has a secular imagery since it goes against the tradition and gives a new dimension to the beauty and womanhood.
  12. 12. • Brand Networking Technique – a drawing of network diagram based on the consumers experiences about the brand. The name of the brand is written in a circle at the center and is connected with the other circles by lines which carry a ‘+’ or ’-‘ sign indicating their favorable and unfavorable experience with the brand. • Ex:
  13. 13. Focus Groups/Focus Group Discussion – used to effectively identify images perceived by the consumers for the brand in focus. • Ex: Photo Sort, wherein customers are asked to chose photos that best represents the products/brands.
  14. 14. Constructive Techniques Word association – the brand name or advertisement slogan is given and consumers are asked to state the things that come to their mind. • Ex: LG “Life’s Good” Sentence Completion – is a slight modification where consumers are given an open-ended statement. • Ex: “I use Nokia mobile because…” Scenario Projection – respondents are shown some scenarios and asked to sate their responses. • Ex: Respondents may be shown a scene where a group of youngsters are chatting and sharing ‘Ruffles’ potato wafers. They may then be asked to imagine themselves to be a part of the crowd and asked questions relating to the experience of having ‘Ruffles’ in that situation
  15. 15. • Factor Analysis – is then used to identify the primary factors, which influence the image of the brand. It is a data reduction technique and hence the initial set of variables in the questionnaire would be grouped into appropriate factors. The factors which explain the maximum variability of the sample could be considered as those explaining the image of the brand. • Ex: Hypothetical table, which indicates the perception of patients towards H-World, the chain of hospitals. (1Partially Agree, 5-Completely Agree) Variables Satisfactory timings for outpatients Prescribed medicines are satisfactory Consulting after surgery is done satisfactorily Rating 5 3 1
  16. 16. BRAND PERSONALITY
  17. 17. Introduction • Brand identity and brand image helps brand managers to formulate strategies to make consumers relate to the product in a much easier way • Brand Personality- it is based on the premise than consumers prefer something that exhibits their characteristics or their ideal values.
  18. 18. Some Indian Examples of Brand Personality The devil of “Onida” represents high technology and proved to be one of the successful brand personalities in India.
  19. 19. • Sunsilk in India Sunsilk has a caring, nurturing, gentle feminine Personality. The adverstisement, packaging, and nature of the product convey the same.
  20. 20. • Product Anthropomorphism- Zoo Zoo • Brand Personification- Attaching traits • Product Personality and Gender-feminine vs masculine • Product Personality and Geography- country of origin • Personality and Color-
  21. 21. Brand Anatomy of Coke Essence:Yout h Benefit: Joyous Environment Attribute: A Frizzy Drink (Vivaciousness)
  22. 22. Brand Personality Analysis of Santro car Sensory Emotional Rational Small Light Fresh Bubbly Light-Hearted Convenient Youthful Dependable Fun Car Manoeuvrable Quick
  23. 23. When it necessary to have a brand personality • Brand personality is important when the product is socially conspicious ( products like automobile, clothing) or when the availability scarce ( as in the case of luxury goods) or when it is complex product ( in case of hi-tech products, consumers rely on image rather on the features of the product which is a bit difficult to comprehend) or when the target audience is highly self-concious.
  24. 24. Tools to Build/ Understand Brand Personality • Brand Personality Scale The five main personality factors as identified by Aaker are sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness.
  25. 25. Analysis using brand personality scale Sincerity Characteristics Down to Earth Family –oriented, Small town, Blue-collar, All American, Conventional Honest Sincere, Real, Ethical, Thoughtful, Caring Wholesome Original, Ageless, Clasic, Genuine, Old-fashioned Cheerful Sentimenteal, Friendly, Warm, Happy Excitement Daring Trendy, Exciting, Offbeat, Flashy, Provocative Spririted Cool, Young, Lively, Adventurous, Outgoing Imaginative Unique, Humorous, Surprising, Artistic, Fun Up-To-Date Independent, Contemporary, Innovative, Aggresive Competence Reliable Hard-working, Secure, Efficient, Trustworthy, Careful Intelligent Technical, Corporate, Serious Successful Leader, Confident, Influential Sophistication Upper Class Glamorous, Good Looking, Pretentious, Sophisticated Charming Feminine, Smooth, Sexy, Gentle Ruggedness Outdoorsy Masculine, Western, Active, Athletic Tough Rugged, Strong, No-nonsense
  26. 26. • Three Models to Build Brand Personality Aakers states the 3 models namely as: 1.Self-expression Model -states that the consumer sees the brand as the kind of person he/she wishes to be Example: This is the case with Royal Enfield’s Bullet. The rider is considered to be very masculine when he rides the bike. Bullet’s personality is one that represents a “macho” character.
  27. 27. • Three Models to Build Brand Personality 2. Relationship Basis Model - is liking to associate with a personality exhibited by the brand drives the purchase. The consumer wants to establish friendship with the brand and the brand need not represent their characteristics or their aspirational values. Example: ‘Eureka Forbes’ is seen as a friend for life and would fit this explanation of brand personality
  28. 28. • Three Models to Build Brand Personality 3. Functional Benefits Representation model -the brand personality is used as a vehicle to state the benefits of the brand. Example: Devil Onida
  29. 29. • Building Brand Personality via the 4 P’s and Packaging The 4 p’s of mktg- product, price, place and promotion along with packaging needs to be effectively handled to build a personality. Relationship between consumers and brand personality Brand / Product Related Activity Cues Obtained Keeps repositioning its brand No stable personality Same character kept unchanged Consumers get comfortable with the personality High price and exclusive distribution Sophisticated Frequent Promotions Uncultured and Cheap Sponsors relevant shows Helpful and Supportive Offers a lot of warranty Reliable and Dependable
  30. 30. • Building Brand Personality via Adverstisement The elements of advertisement which can be used for building brand personality: 1.User Imagery 2.Endorser 3.Execution-related elements 4.Consistency
  31. 31. • Building Brand Personality Bottom-up This method takes an entirely different route. The personality here is not used to convey the identity, rather it intacts what the consumers want from a brand of that category. It uses four-step processing defining the target audience, finding out what they need, want and like, build a consumer personality profile, and creating the product personality to match that profile.
  32. 32. • Building Brand Personality Bottom-up 1.Direct elicitation techniques - the consumers are given a questionnaire, which contains statements describing the brand users along with the characteristics of the brand.
  33. 33. • Building Brand Personality Bottom-up 2. Indirect elicitation techniques - techniques such as word association, sentence completion, scenario projection psychodrama, photosor, personification, personalit/uniqueness traits, brand marriage, obituary, collage and analogies and methapors used to find out what kind of personalities are generally asociated with the brand.
  34. 34. Chapter 16 Brand Positioning and Repositioning
  35. 35. • Positioning – the act of placing the product in the mind of the prospect. • Brand Positioning – act of designing the company’s offer and image so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the target customer’s mind.
  36. 36. • MultiDimensional Scaling (MDS) • -- is a class of procedures that represent perceptions and preferences of respondents spatially by means of visual display. -- is a data analysis method which is widely used in marketing and psychometrics. The aim of the method is to build a mapping of a series of individuals from a proximities matrix between these individuals. • Spatial Maps – geometric relationships among points in a multidimensional space. • Direct approach – the similarity judgments are taken
  37. 37. • Derived approach -- the attribute ratings are taken as inputs for MDS. • Image profile analysis –another tool used for brand positioning. The attributes of the brands are listed and the respondents are asked to rate the attributes of all the brands. • Correspondence analysis – used to position a brand with certain attributes. An ideal brand based on the attributes listed can also be formed making use of correspondence analysis
  38. 38. • Brand repositioning – not a very uncommon in the market and is supposed to be a dynamic process, the time frame being different for different brands.
  39. 39. CHAPTER 17 BRAND LOYALTY
  40. 40. BRAND LOYALTY • “The biased, behavioural response, expressed over time, by some decision-making unit, with respect to one or more alternative brands out of a set of such brands, and is a function of psychological(decision-making evaluative)processes.” – Jacoby and Chesnut(1978)
  41. 41. BRAND LOYALTY MEASUREMENT MODELS 1. PREFERENCE BEHAVIORAL MODEL - measures the preference and switching behaviour of the customer on a single brand. - behavioural and attitudinal approaches to brand loyalty are covered in this model.
  42. 42. Last brand purchase /Preferred brand Brand 1 BRAND 1 X Brand 2 Brand 3 1 BRAND 3 2 BRAND 4 3 TOTAL X+1+2+3 X Y Brand 4 TOTAL BRAND 2 X Z A B Y+X X C X+Z D E FOCUS – represents the proportion of sales that come from who identify the brand as the most preferred. GRAVITY - proportion of preferred sales that are converted to sales.
  43. 43. Example: preference behaviour of smokers Last brand purchase /Preferred brand GF KINGS WILLS LIGHTS OTHERS TOTAL GF KINGS 120 20 5 5 150 WILLS 17 175 2 6 200 LIGHTS 2 0 18 0 20 OTHERS 4 24 0 22 50 TOTAL 143 219 25 33 420
  44. 44. Preference behaviour matrix BRANDS GRAVITY FOCUS GF KINGS .80 .83 WILLS .87 .79 LIGHTS .72 .90 OTHERS .66 .44
  45. 45. 2. PURCHASE PROBABILITY MODEL - called Scaled Probability of Purchase. - estimate of a household’s choice of various brands is taken as a starting point. It focused on the brands that are frequently bought and based on the behaviour of the consumer and not on the attitudes.
  46. 46. Example: • Consider a hypothetical market that has only two brands- brand 1 and brand 2. Everyone in the market will buy whichever brand is on sale that week and there is also situation that each brand is cheaper half of time. Observed Purchasing Fraction of Population Brand 1 loyalists 0.25 Brand 2 loyalists 0.25 Neither Loyal to 1 or 2 0.50 Fitting the beta – binomial to this date gives us a1=a2=infinity.
  47. 47. 3. BRAND LOYALTY ANALYSI WITH MARKOV CHAINS - Used to forecast long term market shares in oligopolistic markets, extensively used in game theory problems. - STATE- the random variables. - T – taken in a given set of time. - P – transitional probabilities - X – example space or state space.
  48. 48. STRATEGIES TO BUILD BRAND LOYALTY • Dependent on emotional attachment towards the brand. • Carefully cultivated to an extend by marketers reflecting the aspirations of the customers. • Repeat advertising and promotional offers can create awareness and build brand recognition among customers.
  49. 49. • Published information in print and electronic media enhances the brand awareness and increases business equity. • Brand names are equally important, hence communication through any media should be consistent and persistent. • Loyalty may also be carefully built by offering specialized programs, encouraging customers to be a part of that programme.
  50. 50. BUILDING LOYALTY THROUGH STRATEGIC DIFFERENTATION • 1. BENEFITS OF PRODUCTS – the benefits derived from products by the consumer should be unique from other products. • 2. EMOTIONAL BENEFITS – delivering a product benefit by itself may not create brand loyalists. There should be some emotional benefit of the brand apart from the product benefit.
  51. 51. • 3. BRAND PESONIFICATION – forms the customer’s perception about the brand’s personality.

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