Agile 2012 inside out leading change from the middle

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Large companies are adopt Agile Software Development in greater numbers. They are either adopting top down or bottom up. Left out of this conversation is the crucial role that middle management plays …

Large companies are adopt Agile Software Development in greater numbers. They are either adopting top down or bottom up. Left out of this conversation is the crucial role that middle management plays in an Agile adoption. Using behavioral change tools, lean management tools, this presentation shows how to help management realize their role is to mentor and guide through problem solving.

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  • 1. Inside-Out Leading change from the middle using lean tools and principlesMonday, August 20, 12
  • 2. About MeMonday, August 20, 12
  • 3. Ed Kraay Agile Coach at Yahoo!Monday, August 20, 12
  • 4. My Story • 2003: new development manager, team of 5 • My boss: • Expert in craft of development (did file system and kernel work in MS OS/2) • Believed in not telling people how they should work - mentor, facilitator • 2004: Let me try out Agile in 2004Monday, August 20, 12
  • 5. # of reports enthusiasm.com Influence Monday, August 20, 12
  • 6. About youMonday, August 20, 12
  • 7. How many of you are going through an agile adoption at the moment?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 8. How many of you are in organizations larger than 500 people?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 9. How many direct of you have one or more direct reports?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 10. How many of you are more than three levels from the CEO?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 11. Middle Management: Anyone two levels below the CEO and one level above line workers and professionalsMonday, August 20, 12
  • 12. Outline • Introductions • Some Data • What is Middle Management’s Role Anyway • Key Point and Actions • Lean Management Principles • Apply the modelMonday, August 20, 12
  • 13. Some dataMonday, August 20, 12
  • 14. 25% of companies surveyed have greater than 500 employees up from 5% in 2006 *State of Agile Development Survey Version One 2011Monday, August 20, 12
  • 15. 67% of initial champions in management layer *State of Agile Development Survey Version One 2011Monday, August 20, 12
  • 16. 27% “lack of management support” as barrier to change *State of Agile Development Survey Version One 2011Monday, August 20, 12
  • 17. 26% “general resistance to change” as a barrier to adopting *State of Agile Development Survey Version One 2011Monday, August 20, 12
  • 18. What’s going on here?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 19. Either:Monday, August 20, 12
  • 20. Told to go agile “Top Down” and resists?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 21. orMonday, August 20, 12
  • 22. Middle management are champions but lacks support from upper management?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 23. We will focus on the top first case.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 24. Typical Agile Adoption Change Strategy Top Down All In Level of Change Sponsorship Public Display of Agility Pilot Stealth Mode Bottom Up Types of Agile Adoption - Mike Cohn: http:// www.agilejournal.com/articles/columns/column- articles/734-Monday, August 20, 12
  • 25. Typical Agile Adoption Change Strategy Top Down All In Level of Change Sponsorship Public Display of Agility what happens to middle management? Pilot Stealth Mode Bottom Up Types of Agile Adoption - Mike Cohn: http:// www.agilejournal.com/articles/columns/column- articles/734-Monday, August 20, 12
  • 26. Creative Commons http://www.flickr.com/photos/ artotemsco/4805582233/Monday, August 20, 12
  • 27. What is middle management’s role in an agile organization?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 28. Monday, August 20, 12
  • 29. Really?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 30. Recommendation Do Don’t Do Track tasks Remove Work across Decide and and what roadblocks teams Assign Tasks people are doing Stay abreast of industry Make and technology commitments to developments mgmt on what team can do Coaching Training and and skills Weekly development Weekly status Mentoring staff reports meetings? Performance Recruit, hire, evaluations and build teams career development Input/advice on features and technical difficultiesMonday, August 20, 12
  • 31. Derby on Middle Managers • Want to do a good job, may not know how • Little training in management • Peers perceive them differently now • They are responsible for results over which they have no direct control • They are pulled from demands from above and below • They receive little support from above and below • They have little training in system thinkingMonday, August 20, 12
  • 32. Key PointMonday, August 20, 12
  • 33. Middle management is essential to succeed with agile adoption in large companiesMonday, August 20, 12
  • 34. Your role must shift from fire-fighter to mentor and guide.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 35. Problems present opportunities for you to mentor, serve and lead.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 36. Lean management and social science can help encourage these behaviorsMonday, August 20, 12
  • 37. What you need to do 1. Use the six sources of influence to encourage management to change your behaviors. 2. Pick a problem solving tool (A3, Current Reality Tree and use it to teach system thinking) 3. Find a mentor and menteeMonday, August 20, 12
  • 38. Benefits if you do this • Less firefighting • Build up your organizational immune system • You will frustrate the teams less - more engagement, lower attrition. • You will impress your boss - making it possible to increase your influence across the organization.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 39. Lean ManagementMonday, August 20, 12
  • 40. Taylor "In almost all the mechanic arts the science which underlies each act of each workman is so great and amounts to so much that the workman who is best suited to actually doing the work is incapable of fully understanding this science.."Monday, August 20, 12
  • 41. Monday, August 20, 12
  • 42. Monday, August 20, 12
  • 43. Deming “The greatest waste … is failure to use the abilities of people…to learn about their frustrations and about the contributions that they are eager to make.” “Out of the Crisis” 1982 – Ch.2 -Principles for Transformation-, page 53Monday, August 20, 12
  • 44. Lean Management • Workers have a head as well as hands • Leaders role is to mentor and coach through problem solving • Team / Management create the standardMonday, August 20, 12
  • 45. Managers at Toyota True North High Yes, but Facilitator Coach how? Autonomy Bureaucrat Autocrat Low High Mastery Adapted from Jeffrey Liker: Toyota WayMonday, August 20, 12
  • 46. http://techblog.netflix.com/search/label/chaos%20monkeyMonday, August 20, 12
  • 47. Through Problem Solving • Firefighting? • 6 month Six Sigma Analysis Projects?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 48. Lean “Tools” • Root Cause Analysis • Ishikawa Diagrams Tools can be of value, but the point is not the lean • Cause and Effect Diagrams tool, the point is to train problem solving • A3 Problem Solving Reports • Value Stream Mapping • Kaizen WorkshopsMonday, August 20, 12
  • 49. one Fishb s 5W Di agram hy’s A3 ReportsMonday, August 20, 12
  • 50. Cause and Effect DiagramsMonday, August 20, 12
  • 51. Value Stream MapsMonday, August 20, 12
  • 52. And yet, there is a problem -- how to sustain these changes?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 53. Fortunately, much work on this in the last 7 years David Mann Mike RotherMonday, August 20, 12
  • 54. Lean Management Visual Control Daily Accountability Leader Standard Work Process go seeMonday, August 20, 12
  • 55. Leader Standard Work David Mann, Creating a Lean Culture, Lean Aerospace Initiative Plenary Conference 2005Monday, August 20, 12
  • 56. David Mann, Creating a Lean Culture, Lean Aerospace Initiative Plenary Conference 2005Monday, August 20, 12
  • 57. Visual Controls David Mann, Creating a Lean Culture, Lean Aerospace Initiative Plenary Conference 2005Monday, August 20, 12
  • 58. Coaching Kata mentor target mentee Fog currrent plan do check Establish plan do check target Go See condition plan do checkMonday, August 20, 12
  • 59. Everyone at Toyota has a mentorMonday, August 20, 12
  • 60. The Five Questions* 1. What is the target condition? (The challenge) 2. What is the actual condition now? 3. What obstacles are now preventing you from reaching the target condition? Which one are you addressing now? 4. What is your next step? (Start of next PDCA cycle) 5. When can we go and see what we have learned from taking that step? *Rother, Mike (2009-08-11). Toyota Kata : Managing People for Improvement, Adaptiveness and Superior Results (Kindle Locations 2260-2265). McGraw-Hill. Kindle Edition.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 61. How does this fit with software teams • Tiered Daily Standups • 9:30 - 10:00 Teams Meet, 10-10:15 Portfolio Management Meets • Purpose - Blockers escalated • Benefit - Solve problem when they are easy to solveMonday, August 20, 12
  • 62. How does this fit with software teams • Visual Controls • Kanban Boards • Burn up Charts • Build MonitorsMonday, August 20, 12
  • 63. How does this fit with software teams • Leader Standard Work • Team Lead Leader Standard Work - Note standups they go to, impediments that were raised • Daily Accountability Process • Impediments with Owners • Backlog of A3 Improvement Proposals • Go and SeeMonday, August 20, 12
  • 64. How to make change stick.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 65. Marshmallow Test http://www.eatmedaily.com/2009/09/psychological-experiments-in-self-control-the-marshmallow-test/Monday, August 20, 12
  • 66. identify key behaviors -> get results you want, sustain the changeMonday, August 20, 12
  • 67. Step 1 • Identify a vital behavior • Think of “positive deviance” • A scenario where you or a manager you coached exhibited positive behavior • Usually in an environment where you typically exhibited a negative behaviorMonday, August 20, 12
  • 68. Identify Vital Behavior • Think of a behavior for management that, more than anything else, will help you succeed. • They are usually challenging or outside your comfort zone.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 69. Six Sources of Influence Will Skill Individual Visit your Default Surpass your Future limits Harness peer Find strength in Team pressure numbers Invert the Change the Structural Economy environmentMonday, August 20, 12
  • 70. What will make the behavior motivating? • Visit your default future. What happens if you don’t change? • Really visit it.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 71. Six Sources of Influence Will Skill Individual Visit your Default Surpass your Future limits Harness peer Find strength in Team pressure numbers Invert the Change the Structural Economy environmentMonday, August 20, 12
  • 72. What do you need to learn? • Do a skill scan. • Brainstorm at least 3 skills with your neighbor that would help you achieve your vital behavior.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 73. Six Sources of Influence Will Skill Individual Visit your Default Surpass your Future limits Harness peer Find a coach, Team pressure social network Invert the Change the Structural Economy environmentMonday, August 20, 12
  • 74. Who can you ask to motivate or coach you? • Identify “enemies” or people who keep you from exhibiting the behavior you want to see • Brainstorm ways to turn these enemies into friends.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 75. Six Sources of Influence Will Skill Individual Visit your Default Surpass your Future limits Harness peer Find a coach, Team pressure social network Invert the Change the Structural Economy environmentMonday, August 20, 12
  • 76. Who can you turn to to improve your skills and hold you accountable? • Identify a peer, mentor or a coach • Make the commitment to talk with them about supporting youMonday, August 20, 12
  • 77. Six Sources of Influence Will Skill Individual Visit your Default Surpass your Future limits Harness peer Find a coach, Team pressure social network Invert the Change the Structural Economy environmentMonday, August 20, 12
  • 78. What incentives can you offer? • Be careful. As Dan Pink’s work shows, incentives can reduce our desire to complete complex work • Think of non-monetary incentives • What about donating to a non-charity in 30 days if you don’t keep up with your behavior?Monday, August 20, 12
  • 79. Six Sources of Influence Will Skill Individual Visit your Default Surpass your Future limits Harness peer Find a coach, Team pressure social network Invert the Change the Structural Economy environmentMonday, August 20, 12
  • 80. How can you make you environment conducive to excercising your vital behavior? • Identify 3 things with your neighbor that you can do to make the physical environment more conducive to lean leadership.Monday, August 20, 12
  • 81. Under the creative commons license • Man getting squeezed: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ pyhooya/2326244567/ • Chicken: http://www.flickr.com/photos/locomotion/ 3556879530/ • Expert: http://www.flickr.com/photos/raster/ 3380860520/ • Eye: http://www.flickr.com/photos/capsicina/ 138910801/Monday, August 20, 12
  • 82. References • Mann, David. "Creating a Lean Culture Process Focus and Leader Standard Work." Lecture. Lean Aerospace Initiative Plenary Conference. 23 Mar. 2005. LAI MIT. Lean Advancement Initiative, 28 Mar. 2005. Web. 15 Aug. 2012. <http://lean.mit.edu/downloads/doc_download/591-creating-a-lean-culture- process-focus-and-leader-standard-work>. • Mann, David. Creating a Lean Culture: Tools to Sustain Lean Conversions. New York: Productivity, 2005. Print. • Patterson, Kerry. Influencer: The Power to Change Anything. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print. • Rother, Mike. Toyota Kata: Managing People for Improvement, Adaptiveness, and Superior Results. New York: McGraw Hill, 2010. Print.Monday, August 20, 12