Dasar Dasar Additive Pelumas

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Dasar Dasar Additive Pelumas

  1. 1. The Basics of Lubricant Additives or It’s Not Just Oil! March 2009© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  2. 2. It’s Not G Just Oil! ro up Ba II se St oc k Viscosity Index Anti- Improvers Oxidants Dispersants Detergents Rust and Corrosion Pour Point Inhibitor Depressants Foam Inhibitors Friction Modifiers Antiwear AgentsG010075© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  3. 3. Typical Lubricant Composition Pour Point Depressant 0-2% Viscosity Modifier 0-15% DI Package 2-30% Base Oil 70-95%© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  4. 4. Formulating a Superior Lubricant Requires Optimizing Additive Combinations to Meet Performance Targets Viscosity Engine Cleanliness Wear Control Fuel Economy Drain Interval Cost© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  5. 5. Graphic Representation of an Additive Molecule Sticky End Slippery Tail Sticky End Slippery Tail Consists of a Surface Consists of a Hydrocarbon Active Group Containing Chain Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, or PhosphorusG010077© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  6. 6. Ashless Dispersants© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  7. 7. Ashless Dispersants Function • Control Sludge and Varnish Formation at Lower Operating Temperatures • Control Thickening Caused by Soot Structure • High Molecular Weight Tail With Surface Active Head Mechanism • Keep Sludge, Soot, and Deposit Precursors Suspended in Oil© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  8. 8. Dispersants Impede Particle Aggregation Rate of Aggregation Slowed (Solid Particles) (Dispersant)G010078© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  9. 9. Dispersant Selection Must Balance Performance Attributes Need to Control Soot Thickening, Sludge Too Much May Hurt Seal Performance (More is Not Always Better!)© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  10. 10. Metallic Detergents© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  11. 11. Metallic Detergents Function • Provide High Temperature Cleanliness • Control Corrosive Wear Types • Metallic Soaps; Normally Na, Ca, or Mg • “Soap” Substrates - Sulfonates - Salicylates - Phenates Mechanism • Neutralize Acids From Engine Blow-By© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  12. 12. Overbased Detergent Soap Basic Molecule Core CaCO3 CaCO CaCO3 3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO 3 CaCO3 CaCO 3 CaCO3G010079© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  13. 13. Detergency in Oils Gum Being Polar, Sticks on Polar Surfaces The Polar Ends of Detergents Also Stick to Polar Surface An Effective Detergent Displaces Gum (Deposits)G010080© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  14. 14. Detergent Selection Balance Cost and Performance Requirements Too Much May Hurt Wear Performance May Use Multiple Types of Detergent Phenates for Higher Temperatures Sulfonates for Lower Temperatures© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  15. 15. Relationship of TBN and Ash 100 Total Base Number (TBN) ASTM D 2896 mg KOH/g 90 80 Marine Oil 70 60 50 Railroad Marine Oil Oil 40 HDMO 30 PCMO 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sulfated Ash, %© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  16. 16. Antioxidants© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  17. 17. Antioxidant Formulation Function • Control Oxidative Decomposition of Oil • Minimize Oil Thickening • Decrease Sludge and Varnish Formation • Decrease Formation of Corrosive Compounds (Acids) Types • Organic – Phenols, Amines • Metal-Containing – Zinc Dithiophosphates (ZDP), Molybdenum Compounds Mechanism • Decrease Rates of Chemical Reactions With Oxygen© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  18. 18. Factors Affecting Oxidation Temperature Catalysts (Metal Ions) Aeration Rate Additive System Base Stock© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  19. 19. Antioxidant Selection Most Performance Comes From the Antiwear Additive (ZDP) Supplement to Meet Sequence IIIE Compatibility With Seals Cost May Use Multiple Antioxidants© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  20. 20. Antiwear Agents© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  21. 21. Antiwear Agent Function • Reduce Wear of Rubbing Metal Surfaces Types • Amine or Metal Phosphites, Phosphates, or Thiophosphates (ZDP) • Boron Compounds • Sulfurized Olefins Mechanism • Adhere to Metal Surfaces, Forming a Protective Film Which Shears Preferentially Under Wear Conditions© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  22. 22. Formation of a Zinc Dithiophosphate (ZDP) Antiwear Film Bulk Oil ZDP ZDP ZDP ZDP Adsorbed ZDP Layer ZDP ZDP ZDP ZDP Metal Surface Metal Surface T T EAA HE H Phosphorous Containing Antiwear Film Metal SurfaceG010081© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  23. 23. Friction Modifiers© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  24. 24. Friction Modifiers Function • Reduce Friction of Rubbing Metal Surfaces Types • Fatty Compounds With Polar Ends • Graphite • Molybdenum Compounds Mechanism • Forms an Easily Shearable Film on Metal Surface© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  25. 25. Lubricated Metal Surfaces With Friction Modifier Present Metal Oxide/Metal Zone Oxide Rich Layer Adsorbed Film of F.M. (Three Stories High) Oil Film Adsorbed Film of F.M. (Five Stories High) Oxide Rich Layer Oxide/Metal Zone MetalG010082© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  26. 26. Asperity Riding on Friction Modifier Layer Moving Asperity Friction Modifier Film (Five Levels Remaining) Oxide LayerG010083© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  27. 27. Antifoam Agent Function • Prevent Oil Loss or Oil Starvation Caused by Foaming • Reduce Oil Aeration Types • Polydimethyl Siloxanes • Polyacrylates Mechanism • Reduce Surface Tension of Oil Causing Bubbles to Collapse© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  28. 28. Viscosity Modifiers© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  29. 29. Viscosity Modifiers on Temperature Dependence of Viscosity Viscosity Modifiers Are Materials (Usually Polymers) Which Improve (i.e., Increase) the VI of a Base Oil SN 250 SN 250 Base Oil + Viscosity Modifier (High VI) SAE 10W Max SAE 10W Max Viscosity SAE 30 Min SAE 30 Min SN 100 SN 100 Temperature Viscosity Modifier (VM’s) Viscosity Index Improvers (VII’s)© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  30. 30. Viscosity Modifier Mechanism Increasing Temperature Polymer Molecule Oil Associated With Polymer Increasing Viscosity Contribution (Increasing Effective Size of Polymer)G010075© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  31. 31. Pour Point Depressants© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  32. 32. Pour Point Depressants Function • Reduce Viscosity Increase at Low Temperatures Resulting From Wax Crystallization • Improve Low Temperature Pumpability Structure • Organic Polymer Mechanism • Promote Formation of Smaller, Rounded Particles Which Are Less Likely to Form Interlocking Crystals© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  33. 33. Pour Point Depressants Wax Crystal Morphology Without PPD With PPDG010084© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  34. 34. Other Additives (See Supplemental Materials) Corrosion Inhibitors Demulsifiers Emulsifiers EP (Extreme Pressure) Agents Metal Deactivators Rust Inhibitors© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  35. 35. Some Key Points to Remember Additives Are Carefully Balanced to Enable Base Oils to Meet Defined Performance Criteria More is Not Necessarily Better Additive Interactions Are Strong Developing a Successful Formulation Requires Extensive Testing and Verification Chevron Experience and Commitment to Technical Excellence is Key© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  36. 36. The Basics of Lubricant Additives Supplemental Information© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  37. 37. Global Lubricants Questions© 2006 Chevron Corporation11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina
  38. 38. Where Additives Are Used Stabilizers And Dyes Metal Deactivators Extreme Pressure Friction Modifiers Antifoam Agents Antiwear Agents Viscosity Index Rust Inhibitors Often Used Demulisifiers Antioxidants Depressants Dispersants Emulsifiers Detergents Pour Point Improvers Additives Occasionally Used Engine Oils Crankcase Engine Oil Automatic Transmission Fluid Rear Axle Lubricants Manual Transmission Lubricants Power Steering Fluid Body/Chassis Greases Shock Absorber Fluid Pre-Lubricants Industrial Oils Turbine and Other R&O Fluids Antiwear Hydraulic Fluids Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluids Metalworking Lubricants Industrial Gear Oils Plant Machinery Greases Paper Machine Oils Soluble Oils© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  39. 39. Additives Commonly Found in Lubricants Additive What It Does How It Works Antiwear • Minimizes wear caused by metal-to- • Additive reacts chemically and Agent metal contact during conditions of forms a film on metal surfaces mild boundary lubrication. under normal operating conditions. Antioxidant or • Inhibits varnish and sludge formation. • Slows the rate of reaction with Oxidation oxygen by interruption of chain • Reduces viscosity increase resulting Inhibitor reactions or by decomposing from oil oxidation. reactive peroxides. • Reduces formation of corrosive acids. Demulsifier • Loosens and breaks stable emulsions. • Lowers emulsion stability. Corrosion • Prevents corrosive attack on • Forms a film on nonferrous metallic Inhibitor nonferrous metallic surfaces. parts thus protecting them from attack by contaminants in the oil. Detergent • Prevents oxidation products (gums) • Chemically react with oxidation which have formed in the oil from products (gums) so that they sticking to metal parts. remain soluble in the oil and do not stick to metal surfaces. • Neutralizes acidic contaminants. • Metallic Base Reacts With Acid Dispersant • Keeps oxidation products separated • Additive adsorbs on surface of gum and suspended in the oil, retards particles or soot and inhibits formation of sludge and reduces soot agglomeration. related viscosity increase.© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.
  40. 40. Additives Commonly Found in Lubricants (Continued) Additive What It Does How It Works Extreme Pressure • Prevents welding and subsequent wear • Additive combines chemically with surface to (EP) Agents or seizure of contacting metal parts form a surface film. under extreme or shock load • Reaction usually occurs at high temperatures, conditions. which result when asperities collide. Emulsifier • Promotes rapid mixing of oil and water • Reduces interfacial tension and permits promoting formation of a stable intimate mixing of oil and water. emulsion. Foam Inhibitor • Prevents formation of stable foam. • Promotes combination of small bubbles into large bubbles, which in turn collapse more easily. Friction Modifier • Alters coefficient of friction. • Forms an easily shearable film on metal surfaces. Metal Deactivator • Reduces the catalytic effect of metals • Forms an inactive film on metal surfaces by on oxidation rate. combining with metallic ions. Rust Inhibitor • Prevent rusting of ferrous (iron or • Forms a film on ferrous parts thus protecting steel) machine parts. them from water or other destructive materials. Pour Point • Lowers the pour point and enables the • Changes the size and shape wax crystals. Depressant lubricant to flow at low temperature. Viscosity Modifier • Reduces rate of change of viscosity • Polymers uncoil as temperature rises, thus (VM) or Viscosity with temperature and makes possible increasing their effective size and viscosity. Index Improver the formulation of multigrade oils. (VII)© 2006 Chevron Corporation Copyright 2006 Chevron Global Lubricants, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Global Lubricants11/06 JobbersChevronPhaseI LubAdd RFarina All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited.

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