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Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study 2011–2012

Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study 2011–2012

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    ALA Journal Summer 2012 ALA Journal Summer 2012 Document Transcript

    • SUMMER 2012 THE MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study 2011–2012LIBRARIESCONNECT COMMUNITIES
    • New books from alastore.ala.orgNew & booksBestselliNg from neal-schuman.com Neal-Schuman is now an imprint of the ALA.ALA Store purchases fund advocacy, awareness, and accreditation programs for library professionals worldwide.
    • CONTENTS AMERICAN LIBRARIES | Digital Supplement | Summer 2012 Special Report: Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study 2011–20125 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY An overview of the 2011–2012 Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study findings.10 PUBLIC LIBRARY FUNDING LANDSCAPE At the same time that demand for critical services has increased, many state and local libraries face continued funding challenges.18 PUBLIC LIBRARY TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE U.S. public libraries are investing in a range of innovative technology and Internet services to ensure all people are able to thrive online.32 REPORTS FROM THE FIELD Findings from interviews with public library and state library staff in Georgia and Idaho. 3445 STATE SUMMARY DATA State-level public library data for 48 states and the District of Columbia. Departments OPINION AND COMMENTARY 4 SPECIAL REPORT Strength in Numbers  BY LAMAR VEATCH ISBN 978-0-8389-9394-8 2 INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 95 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 9 780838 994948
    • CONTENTS AMERICAN LIBRARIES | D I G I TA L S U P P L E M E N T | SUMMER 20125 List of Figures 7 Figure A-1: U.S. Public Library Challenge: Use vs. Funding, 21 Figure C-4: Public Access Workstation Replacement Proce- FY2011-2012 dure, by Metropolitan Status 8 Figure A-2: U.S. Public Libraries: Trends in e-books and e- 21 Figure C-5: Public Access Workstation Replacement Sched- access ule, by Metropolitan Status 9 Figure A-3: Urban/Rural Digital Divide 21 Figure C-6: Public Access Workstations Additions, by Met- 11 Figure B-1: Public Library Systems Average Total Operating ropolitan Status Expenditures Change, FY2008 to FY2013 22 Figure C-7: Average Public Access Workstations Additions 11 Figure B-2: Public Library Systems Cumulative Change in due to BTOP/BIP Awards, by Metropolitan Status Full Time Equivalent Staff FY2010–FY2012, by Metropoli- 22 Figure C-8: Sources of IT Support Provided to Public tan Status Library Outlets, by Metropolitan Status 12 Figure B-3: Average Percentage Change FY2008 to FY2013 23 Figure C-9: Bandwidth Speeds at Public Libraries Total Operating Expenditures by Type 24 Figure C-10: Public Library Outlets Maximum Speed of 12 Figure B-4: Average Percentage Change FY2008 to FY2013 Public Access Internet Services, by Metropolitan Status Urban Total Operating Expenditures by Type 24 Figure C-11: Public Access Wireless Internet Connectivity 12 Figure B-5: Average Percentage Change FY2008 to FY2013 in Public Library Outlets, by Metropolitan Status Suburban Total Operating Expenditures by Type 25 Figure C-12: Adequacy of Public Library Outlets Public Ac- 13 Figure B-6: Average Percentage Change FY2008 to FY2013 cess Internet Connection, by Metropolitan Status Rural Total Operating Expenditures by Type 25 Figure C-13: Public Library Outlets Offering Formal or 13 Figure B-7: Public Library Systems Operating Budget Informal Technology Training Availability, by Metropolitan Change, FY2009–FY2012, by Metropolitan Status Status 14 Figure B-8: Public Library Systems Cumulative Budget 26 Figure C-14: Formal Technology Training Classes Offered Change FY2010–FY2012, by Metropolitan Status by Public Library Outlets, by Metropolitan Status 14 Figure B-9: Public Library Systems Technology Budget 27 Figure C-15: Online Resources and Services that the Library Change FY2012, by Metropolitan Status Makes Available to Patrons 15 Figure B-10: Average Percentage Change, FY2010–FY2012 28 Figure C-16: Public Library Systems Use of Social Media Total Technology-Related Operating Expenditures, by Type Technologies and Metropolitan Status 28 Figure C-17: Public Library Systems Use of Mobile Technol- 15 Figure B-11: Average Percentage of Public Library Systems ogy, by Metropolitan Status that Applied for an E-Rate Discount, FY2012 29 Figure C-18: Job-seeking Services Provided by Public 16 Figure B-12: Regional Changes in State Funding for Public Library Outlets, by Metropolitan Status Libraries, FY2012 30 Figure C-19: E-government Roles and Services of Public 19 Figure C-1: U.S. Public Libraries: Sole Community Provider Library Outlets, by Metropolitan Status of Free Access to Computers and Internet 20 Figure C-2: Average Number of Public Access Internet advertisers | page Workstations, by Age and Metropolitan Status American Library Association ALA Editions | Cover 3 20 Figure C-3: Sufficiency of Public Access Internet Worksta- Neal-Schuman | Cover 2 Booklist | Cover 4 tions, by Metropolitan Status ALA TechSource | 31
    • Contributors | MASTHEADAMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION Judy Hoffman is Project Manager for the ALA Office for Research and Statistics. She joined the office in November 2010 after working for over 11 years as marketing communications specialist for the North Suburban Library System, a multitype system supporting libraries in the Chicago suburbs. Previously, Hoffman held positions in the satellite communications THE MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION and advertising industries in Chicago and New York. She holds a B.A. in Speech Communications from the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign. Denise M. Davis is deputy director of Sacramento Public Library (SPL) since October 2010. Prior to joining SPL, Davis directed the ALA Office for 50 E. Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611 americanlibrariesmagazine.org Research and Statistics, leading many research activities for ALA to expand email americanlibraries@ala.org the knowledge base of the field, to understand association membership toll free 800-545-2433 plus extension trends, and to collect useful statistics about all types of libraries. Among local 312-944-6780 • fax 312-440-0901 that work was the ongoing study of Public Library Funding and Technology online career classified ads: JobLIST.ala.org Access. Davis has worked in a variety of capacities in academic, state, and public libraries, and with the National Commission on Libraries and Editor and PublisherInformation Science. Laurie D. Borman • lborman@ala.org • x4213 Managing EditorR. Norman Rose is Program Officer for the ALA Office for Research and Statistics. He has Sanhita SinhaRoy • ssinharoy@ala.org • x4219been with the office since January 2008. Rose studied Public Administration at New York Senior EditorUniversity, and has previously worked in program management and program analysis for Beverly Goldberg • bgoldberg@ala.org • x4217nonprofits and the City of New York. Senior Editor, American Libraries Direct George M. Eberhart • geberhart@ala.org • x4212Caroline Jewell is Awards Coordinator for the Association for Library Service for Children, Associate Editor and previously worked in the ALA Office for Research and Statistics. Jewell received her Pamela A. Goodes • pgoodes@ala.org • x4218Master of Liberal Art in Arts Administration and Art History at Oklahoma City University. Advertising and Marketing Specialist Katie Bane • kbane@ala.org • x5105 INFORMATION POLICY & ACCESS CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND design and production Production Director Benjamin Segedin John Carlo Bertot, Ph.D., is Professor and Co-director of the Information Production Editors Jennifer Brinson Policy & Access Center (http://ipac.umd.edu) in the College of Information Carlos Orellana Studies at the University of Maryland. Bertot is the architect of the publishing department Associate Executive Director Donald Chatham PLFTAS survey, design, methodology, and analysis. He is President of Marketing Director Mary Mackay the Digital Government Society of North America and serves as chair of Rights, Permissions, Reprints Mary Jo Bolduc • x5416 the International Standards Organization’s Library Performance Indicator (ISO 11620) working group. His research focuses on the intersection of membership development information policy, technology, and access to information.  Over the years, Director Ron Jankowski • rjankowski@ala.orghis research has been supported by the National Science Foundation, the Bill & MelindaGates Foundation, the Government Accountability Office, the American Library Association, advisory committeeand the Institute of Museum and Library Services. More information on Bertot is available at Chair Paul Signorelli, Brian Coutts, Luren Dickinson,http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~jbertot. Brenda Pruitt-Annisette, Sarah Rosenblum, David Tyckoson, Susan M. Weaver;Ruth Lincoln is a master’s student and a Research Associate at the Information Policy & Interns Sian Brannon, Molly KrichtenAccess Center in the College of Information Studies at the University of Maryland. Editorial policy: ALA Policy Manual, section 10.2Abigail McDermott is a master’s student and a Research Associate at the Information Policy& Access Center in the College of Information Studies at the University of Maryland. advertising representative Doug Lewis dglewis@ala.org • 770-333-1281Kaitlin Peterson is a master’s student and a Research Associate at the Information Policy &Access Center in the College of Information Studies at the University of Maryland. Acceptance of advertising does not constitute endorse- ment. ALA reserves the right to refuse advertising.Brian Real is a doctoral student and a Research Associate at the Information Policy & AccessCenter in the College of Information Studies at the University of Maryland. indexed summer 2012 1996–2010 index at americanlibrariesmagazine.org.INFORMATION MANAGEMENT CONSULTANT SERVICES, LLC Available full text from ProQuest, EBSCO Publishing, H. W. Wilson, LexisNexis, and Information Access.Charles R. McClure, Ph.D., is President of Information Management Consultant Services,LLC, and also serves as the Director of the Information Institute at Florida State University. subscribeMcClure, who began these surveys in 1994, served as a consultant on this project. More Libraries and other institutions: $45/year, 6 issues,information on McClure is available at http://www.ii.fsu.edu/~cmcclure. U.S., Canada, and Mexico; foreign: $60. Subscription |  price for individuals included in ALA membership dues. 800-545-2433 x5108, email membership@ala.org, or visit digital supplement  www.ala.org. Claim missing issues: ALA Member and C ­ ustomer Service. Allow six weeks. Single issues $7.50, with 40% discount for five or more; contact Charisse P ­ erkins, 800-545-2433 x4286. published American Libraries (ISSN 0002-9769) is published 6 times yearly with occasional supplements by the American Library Association (ALA). Printed in U.S.A. Periodicals |  postage paid at Chicago, Illinois, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Personal members: Send address american libraries  changes to American Libraries, c/o Membership Records, ALA, 50 E. Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611. ©2012 Ameri- can Library Association. Materials in this journal may be reproduced for noncommercial educational purposes. 3
    • SPECIAL REPORT | A Message From COSLA Strength in Numbers Study findings provide foundation for advocacy D uring this slow and cies (COSLA) on state support for literacy initiatives of the Federal winding economic re- public libraries, and field interviews Communications Commission and covery, how do we ef- with library staff to help illuminate the National Telecommunications fectively advocate to the quantitative responses. As a re- and Information Administration. regain, sustain, and enhance library sult, the critical data was already I share some of the PLFTAS histo- funding? How do we make the case available when we needed it the most ry as this is the last year and final re- that libraries are an essential pub- – at the beginning of what has been port for the Public Library Funding lic service, along with the fire and termed the Great Recession. and Technology Access Study. Many police departments, and streets and Utilizing the available PLFTAS individuals and organizations have sanitation? The foundation for all data and supporting resources, state contributed to the success of this local, state, and national advocacy is and public libraries throughout the study. I would like to especially thank built with the same material: reli- U.S. have been able to conduct truly staff members at the state library able, thorough, and timely data. effective advo- agencies that co- The importance of statistics to cacy initiatives. The foundation ordinated par- library advocacy is certainly not new, The PLFTAS has ticipation by but many library leaders and advo- provided for all local, their public cates were not always sufficiently libraries with state, and libraries, and of aware of what was available and how much more national course, the thou- to effectively utilize data. But the than raw data. It sands of library advocacy summer 2012 market downturn, and subsequent has given staff members consecutive years of cuts to library libraries a is built with the same who contributed funding, have thrust advocacy educa- number of material: reliable, their time and tion and action for libraries of all siz- quality advocacy effort to this im- thorough, and timely data.|  es and types to the forefront. resources and portant research.digital supplement  Most fortunately, in 2006, the tools: state- A most sincere American Library Association (ALA) specific handouts that provide na- thank you is due to the ALA and the and the Bill & Melinda Gates Founda- tional comparisons, national maps Gates Foundation for the commit- tion joined forces to fund the Public that give visual impact to discus- ment of funding and leadership they Library Funding & Technology Access sions on broadband connectivity have provided in support of this Study (PLFTAS). This support al- and digital literacy, and press re- study, as well as for their many other|  lowed for the continuation and ex- lease and op-ed templates for dis- contributions that have advancedamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  pansion of groundbreaking research semination of our stories to local, public access technology in U.S. pub- on the availability of public access regional, and state media. lic libraries. technology in libraries that was initi- Libraries continue to be support- ­—Lamar Veatch ated in 1994. The expanded study ed by the use of PLFTAS data to in- President, Chief Officers of State added questions to provide more ex- form and influence national policy. Library Agencies (COSLA) tensive analysis of public library bud- It has been used in Congressional LAMAR VEATCH is the State Librarian of the gets and expenditures, a survey of the testimony. And it is currently help- Georgia Public Library Service. He has served Chief Officers of State Library Agen- ing direct the development of digital in this role since 2001.4
    • EXECUTIVESUMMARY PUBLIC LIBRARY FUNDING & TECHNOLOGY ACCESS STUDY 2011­ 2012 –
    • S trategic vision and careful management have helped U.S. public libraries weather the storm of the Great Recession, supporting their role as a lifeline to the technology resources and digital skills essential to full participation in civic life and in the nation’s economy. Libraries continue to transform lives by providing critical services and innovative solutions to technology access, in spite of years’ worth of consecutive and cumulative budget cuts. More Americans than ever are turn- After more than four years of con- creased open hours; however, this ing to their libraries for access to es- secutive budget cuts, it is unclear reflects an improvement when com- sential technology services not found whether libraries will be able to re- pared to last year’s 31.7 percent. elsewhere in the community, including cover the funding needed to return to Nationwide, over 62 percent of free computer and Internet access, pre-recession levels of staffing, open libraries report offering the only free technology training, and assistance hours, collections and technology Internet access in their community. with job-seeking and e-government services. While a segment of U.S. The impact of decreased open hours services. public libraries reported budget im- is substantial, since just 6 percent of The 2011-2012 Public Library Fund- provements, many libraries continue U.S. public libraries, primarily urban ing & Technology Access Study was to grapple with the negative, cumula- libraries, serve almost 60 percent of conducted by the American Library tive effect of ongoing budget woes: the population. Millions of people are Association (ALA) Office for Research n  Twenty-three states report denied essential library services – & Statistics and the Information Policy cuts in state funding for public from access to e-government social & Access Center at the University of libraries this year. For three years in services sites, to literacy resources, Maryland. Begun in 1994, this annual a row, more than 40 percent of to training to meet the demands of study is the largest existing study of states have reported decreased pub- today’s global marketplace. Internet connectivity in public libraries. lic library support. This impact is greater for those Its findings provide an annual “state of n  A majority of public libraries states recording a high percentage of the library” report on the technology (56.7 percent) report flat or de- reduced hours for two years in a row, resources brokered by public libraries creased budgets, a slight improve- including: Nevada (54 percent, and summer 2012 and the funding that enables no-fee ment from the 59.8 percent 27.7 percent last year); Georgia (30.3 public access to these resources. reported last year. percent, and 31.5 percent last year); Facing fiscal challenges on all sides n  Over 65 percent of libraries Florida (19.5 percent, and 21 percent – local, state, and federal – public report an insufficient number of last year); and California (18.7 per-|  libraries strive to meet the expanding public computers to meet demand cent, and 44.5 percent last year).digital supplement  technology needs of their communi- some or all of the time. ties: n  Overall, 41.4 percent of Increasing Demand n  Public computer and Wi-Fi use libraries report that their Internet for Digital Literacy increased last year at more than 60 connection speeds are insufficient Skill Training percent of libraries. some or all of the time. In an information and Internet- n  More than 90 percent of public driven age, where information, ser-|  libraries now offer formal or infor- Funding Cuts vices, and resources are increasinglyamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  mal technology training. Restrict Access only available online, people who lack n  Over three-quarters of The 2011-2012 study indicates im- digital knowledge and skills struggle. libraries (76.3 percent) offer access provement among libraries reporting In the 2011-2012 survey, over 36 to e-books, a significant increase reduced open hours (9.1 percent), percent of public libraries report (9.1 percent) from last year. Addi- compared to 15.9 percent last year. For increasing numbers of patrons enroll- tionally, e-book readers are avail- the fourth year in a row, urban ing in technology training classes. able for check-out at 39.1 percent of libraries report the highest numbers Interviewed library staff in Georgia libraries. of libraries (16.5 percent) that de- and Idaho also report that requests6
    • 76 percent of libraries reported that stafffor one-on-one assistance have in- Internet speeds cent) provide as-creased, with many requests from provide significant helped patrons complete sistance to patronsthose who lack basic computer skills: barriers to improv- online job applications applying for or ac-seniors who need to order medica- ing digital literacy in the past year. cessing e-govern-tions online; truck drivers required through technology ment services, anto renew their commercial driver’s training. increase of nearlylicense online, or displaced manufac- For the third consecutive year, 16 percent from last year.turing workers who need to apply for libraries report that services for job- n  Over 70 percent of librariesjobs online. seekers remain the top-rated Internet report that staff provide assistance Over 44 percent of U.S. public service. Public libraries are often the in completing government forms.libraries support digital literacy skill- only source for training and employ- n  Nearly 31 percent of librariesbuilding through a wide range of ment resources, especially after the partner with government agencies,formal technology training classes: drastic cuts to federal spending for non-profit organizations, and oth- n Libraries (87 percent) offer training over the last six years, includ- ers to provide e-government servic-training in general computer skills ing $1 billion cut since 20101. Library es.(e.g., how to use the mouse or key- services for job-seekers include: However, almost half of all librariesboard, printing). n  Access to job databases and report that they do not have enough n Libraries (73.3 percent) offer other online job resources (92.2 staff, as well as staff expertise, to helptraining in general software use percent). patrons effectively use employment(e.g., word processing, spread- n  Patron assistance to complete and e-government services.sheets). online job applications (76 percent, “Yes, you can access the Internet n Libraries (86.5 percent) offer an increase of nearly 10 percent elsewhere, but will the Starbucks’training in general Internet use from two years ago). barista or McDonald’s server help you(e.g., e-mail set up, Web browsing). n  Collaboration with outside set up your first e-mail account, sub- Many libraries combine formal and agencies or individuals to help pa- mit your first online job application,informal training to create opportuni- trons seek or attain employment or evaluate reliable sources of infor-ties for learners to practice their (34.3 percent). mation?” says Lee Moon, assistantnewly acquired skills. Additionally, Digital literacy skills are essential director, Three Rivers (GA) Regionalmany classes link these skill-building for accessing online government Library System.activities to specific outcomes, such services. Public libraries continue to National initiatives have beenas employment or financial literacy. expand e-government assistance, as launched to help communities face the However, for libraries with flat or well as partnerships with other agen- challenges to their efforts to providedecreasing budgets, a lack of staff, cies to support these services: digital opportunity for all of their resi- summer 2012equipment, space, and insufficient n  Almost all libraries (96.6 per- dents. In March 2012, the Institute of FIGURE A-1: THE U.S. PUBLIC LIBRARY CHALLENGE: USE VS. FUNDING, FY2011–2012 |  digital supplement  |  americanlibrariesmagazine.org  Technology Electronic FLAT OR DECREASED classes Resources Computers Wi-Fi FUNDING INCREASED % % % % % PUBLIC USE Percentage represents number of libraries reporting 7
    • FIGURE A-2: U.S. PUBLIC LIBRARIES: TRENDS IN E-BOOKS AND E-ACCESS E-BOOKS SOCIAL NETWORK MOBILE-ACCES S SMARTPHONE E-READERS SITES WEBSITES APPS % % % % % Percentage of libraries that offer services, FY2012 Museum and Library Services (IMLS) and the general public, and for mar- enced a notable uptick in smartphone released Building Digital Communities2 keting purposes. market penetration over the last year.3 designed to raise awareness about the n  Almost half of public libraries David Lee King, digital branch and access essential to digital communities (45.6 percent) report using commu- services manager, Topeka and Shaw- and identify goals and strategies for nication tools (e.g., Blogger, Word- nee County (KS) Public Library, re- focus in digital inclusion efforts (e.g., Press, Vox, Twitter) to reach the ported in his April 5, 2012 blog post economic and workforce development, public. that in March 2012, slightly more than education and civic engagement). Last n  Over a third (37.3 percent) re- 11 percent of their library website year, the Department of Commerce’s port using photography sites (e.g., visits were via a mobile device. Ref- National Telecommunications and In- Flickr, Zoomr). erencing the Pew smartphone survey, formation Administration (NTIA), in n  Nearly 28 percent report using King said: “If you haven’t yet started collaboration with other federal agen- video sharing tools (e.g., YouTube, building with mobile in mind, now is cies, launched DigitalLiteracy.gov Vimeo, and Openfilm). definitely the time to start – you are [http://www.digitalliteracy.gov], a The study also collected data this very close to alienating almost half central website for practitioners and the year on how libraries rely on mobile your customers. They are interacting general public to encourage the sharing technologies to reach their online with their favorite sites online using summer 2012 of content and best practices in teaching users and the community at large: their smartphone (think Facebook, digital literacy skills. n  Over 14 percent of libraries re- Amazon, YouTube, etc.).” port their websites are optimized Libraries Connect for mobile devices. Urban/Rural Digital Divide Through Mobile Apps|  n  Nearly 12 percent report they The current study depicts an emergingdigital supplement  and Social Networks use scanned codes (e.g., QR codes) digital divide: rural libraries (which More U.S. libraries of all types are for access to library services and account for nearly 50 percent of all selecting social media applications content. public library outlets in the U.S.), can and tools to increase community in- n  Over 7 percent report they neither provide adequate volume of teraction, enhance access to library have developed smartphone apps technology training to the public nor services and improve channels for for access to library services and keep pace with new technologies.|  information dissemination. content. These inadequacies continue toamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  This year, for the first time, the The results of a recent Pew Research negatively affect the progress of rural study asked libraries to report on their Center survey points to the impor- libraries to build digitally inclusive use of specific kinds of social media tance of expanding use of mobile communities. For example: tools: technologies. Nearly half of American n  Nearly 32 percent of rural n  A majority of public libraries adults (46 percent) own smartphones libraries, as compared to 63.2 per- (70.7 percent) report using social as of February 2012, an increase of 11 cent of urban libraries, provide for- networking tools (e.g., Facebook, percent from May 2011. Nearly every mal technology training classes. Hi5) to connect with library users major demographic group experi- n  Less than 10 percent of rural8
    • libraries, as compared to 36.1 percent “triple play” of resources: 1) facilitiesof urban libraries, have launched and physical access to technology FIGURE A-3:websites optimized for mobile infrastructure; 2) a wealth of elec- URBAN/RURALdevices. tronic content; and 3) information DIGITAL DIVIDE n  Only 3.7 percent of rural professionals trained to help people URBAN VS RURALlibraries, as compared to 27.8 per- find and use the information most LIBRARIES LIBRARIEScent of urban libraries, provide relevant to their needs. Unless librarysmartphone apps for access to operating budgets recover ground lost % %library services and content. during the past four fiscal years, there Broadband <10 Mbps While rural libraries have seen is no guaranteed continued access toimprovements in high-speed broad- these vital resources.band connectivity, only 17 percent of Data from the 2011-2012 study % %rural libraries report offering speeds portray a fragile environment for Mobile-access websitesgreater than 10 Mbps, as compared to libraries, with limited fiscal improve-57.4 percent of urban libraries. Due ment mainly overshadowed by theirto the broadband demands of stream- inability to meet increasing demands % %ing video (including online instruc- for services. Decreases in several es- E-bookstional courses) and the sharing of sential areas – staffing, open hours,increasingly graphic-heavy content, and the ability to upgrade equipment,many libraries experience network bandwidth speed and infrastructure % %saturation on a daily basis, which – present increasing challenges to the Technology Training Classesseriously affects the work of both quality and availability of librarylibrary staff and the public. services. The importance of the provision of “Our funding has been cut so low Percentage of libraries thatsufficient connectivity at libraries is that we’re really at the end of our fi- offer servicesamplified by data from a 2010 Pew nancial tether,” said Donna Howell,Research Center survey that reports director, Mountain Regional Library ENDNOTESthat only 50 percent of rural householdsSystem in Georgia. “But we’ve beenhad broadband at home, compared to able to keep our spirits up, because 1  National Skills Coalition. Fiscal Year 2012 Appropriations for Job despite the budget cuts Training and Education. http:www. of the past five years, nationalskillscoalition.org/federal-policies/“Our funding has been cut so low that the use of our libraries federal-funding/federal-funding-documents/ fy2012finalworkforceapprops_2011_12_20.pdfwe’re really at the end of our financial has grown in double (accessed April 23, 2011) summer 2012tether … but the fact that we’re still digits every year. Yes, 2  Institute of Museum and Library Services, we’re doing a lot more University of Washington Technology &relevant enough to our community with a lot less, but the Social Change Group, International City/ County Management Association. (2012).for them to keep coming back in such fact that we’re still Building Digital Communities. Washington, |  DC: Institute of Museum and Library Services.large numbers gives me hope for our relevant enough to our [http://www.imls.gov/about/building_digital_ digital supplement  community for them to communities.aspx]future.” keep coming back in 3  Smith, Aaron. 46% of American Adults are such large numbers, Smartphone Owners. Pew Internet & American Life Project, March 1, 2012, http://pewinternet.70 percent of urban households.4 A gives me hope for our future.” org/Reports/2012/Smartphone-Update-2012.2011 survey conducted by the National Libraries are part of the solution aspx (accessed April 23, 2012)Telecommunications and Information for those in search of the digital con- |  4  Smith, Aaron. Home Broadband 2010. PewAdministration (NTIA) reported that nection and literacy required by to- Internet & American Life Project, August 11, americanlibrariesmagazine.org  2010, http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/27 percent of dial-up users, primarily day’s competitive global marketplace. Home-Broadband-2010.aspx (accessed Aprilin rural areas, indicated that they did However, unless strategic invest- 23, 2012)not have access to broadband Internet ments in U.S. public libraries 5  Economics and Statistics Administrationservice in their area.5 are broadened and secured, libraries and National Telecommunications and Information Administration. Exploring the will not be able to continue to pro- Digital Nation: Computer and Internet Use atConclusion vide the innovative and critical ser- Home. November 2011, http://www.ntia.doc. gov/files/ntia/punlications/exploring_the_Increasingly, communities across the vices their communities need and digital_nation_computer_and_internet_use_at_U.S. depend on public libraries for a demand. home_11092011.pdf (accessed April 23, 2012) 9
    • PUBLIC LIBRARY FUNDING LANDSCAPEI t has been a long and winding road to economic recovery. As the nation sputters toward economic improvement, many state and local libraries have yet toexperience fiscal health. While some budgets haveimproved, others have been reduced further. Despitesome promise of budgetary relief, the extraordinarydemands for service continues to outpace availablefunding needed to respond to these demands. PUBLIC LIBRARY FUNDING & TECHNOLOGY ACCESS STUDY 2011­ 2012 –
    • Responses to the 2011-2012 Public FIGURE B-1: PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEMS AVERAGE TOTALLibrary Funding & Technology survey OPERATING EXPENDITURES CHANGE FY2008 TO FY2013indicate that the funding volatility thatlibraries have faced over the past four FY2008- FY2009- FY2010- FY2011- FY2012-2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 (anticipated)fiscal years has created tremendouschallenges for service planning and Reported averagefunding allocations. total change, all 5.0% -41.8% -3.8% -2.4% -5.3% Key findings include: funding sources n  A majority of public libraries(56.7 percent) report flat or de-creased operating budgets inFY2012, a slight improvement from FIGURE B-2: PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEMS59.8 percent reported in FY2011. CUMULATIVE CHANGE IN FULL TIME n  Full-time equivalent (FTE) EQUIVALENT STAFF FY2010-FY2012, BYstaffing levels declined for all METROPOLITAN STATUSlibraries during the last three years Overall(-7.2 percent), with a decrease of 10.3percent in FTE at urban libraries. n  Twenty-three states reportcuts in state funding for public Rurallibraries between FY2011 andFY2012. For three years in a row, n  Remained unchanged n  Decreased Suburbanmore than 40 percent of states havereported decreased public library n  Increasedsupport. n  Unable to report n  After falling 41.8 percent in UrbanFY2009, decreases in operating ex-penditures slowed in FY2012 to -2.4percent, and a greater decrease 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70(-5.3 percent) is reported to be an-ticipated for FY2013. This is the sixth year in which the resulting largely from losses in salary n  Rural libraries continue tostudy has asked public libraries about expenditure (the largest budget cate- make double-digit reductions intheir operating budgets and financial gory). Urban libraries anticipate mod- collections (e.g., the highest cutssupport for public access computing est overall improvements (1.3 percent), reported are between -33.9 percent summer 2012services. Detailed responses are avail- and suburban libraries anticipate little and -45.4 percent), reallocatingable online. change (-0.5 percent) next fiscal year. funds to other expenditure catego- The five-year actual and anticipated ries.Reduced Expenditures operating budget figures (FY2008- n  Suburban libraries reduced | for Collections Not Offset 2009 to FY2012-13) by type of expen- other expenditures (e.g., facilities digital supplement by Salaries, Staffing Cuts diture highlight the areas where the maintenance, staff travel, program-Operating budget expenditures re- most severe reductions have occurred, ming, etc.) to protect salaries andported in 2012 show indications of illustrating the year-to-year volatility collections.modest improvement from 2011, with that libraries face in planning for ser- n  Urban libraries continue to re-overall decreases of about 2.4 percent, vices and allocating available resourc- port across-the-board reductions inas compared with 3.8 percent in 2011 es (Figures B3-B6). Notwithstanding FY2012, with only a small increase | (Figure B-1). Libraries anticipate the significant reductions reported in for collections. americanlibrariesmagazine.org reductions continuing into FY2013, FY2009-2010 due to the severity of the n  Operating budgets in FY2012-decreasing about 5.3 percent overall recession, it is clear libraries are still 2013 are anticipated to decrease forfrom FY2012 reported budget figures. struggling to recover from the dra- both rural (-6.6 percent) and subur- Anticipated operating expenditures matic reductions experienced during ban (-0.5 percent) libraries, while ur-for FY2012-2013 indicate continued that fiscal year. ban libraries anticipate modest (1.5losses in many expenditure categories, Libraries also face significant chal- percent) budget improvements.with rural libraries reporting the most lenges in maintaining and/or expand- Preliminary findings from the 2012significant reductions (-6.6 percent), ing collections and services. American Library Association-Allied 11
    • FIGURE B-3: AVERAGE PERCENTAGE CHANGE FY2008 TO 2012 PLFTAS study. (For more infor- FY2013 TOTAL OPERATING EXPENDITURES BY TYPE mation on the salary surveys, see Reported average total change, all funding sources http://ala-apa.org.) This year’s study asked a new ques- FY2008- FY2009- FY2010- FY2011- FY2012- tion about the cumulative changes in 2013 full-time equivalent (FTE) staffing 2009 2010 2011 2012 (anticipated) over the last three fiscal years (Figure Salaries (including benefits) 7.31% -43.25% -8.60% 7.57% -6.37% B-2). Overall, a majority of respond- Collections 3.01% -47.53% -6.71% -1.64% -4.61% ing libraries (55.2 percent) indicate that staffing levels have remained Other Expenditures 0.24% -34.30% 9.22% -23.01% -2.42% unchanged during the last three fiscal Overall 5.04% -41.79% -3.81% -2.40% -5.26% years; 23.2 percent indicate that staff- ing has decreased; 9.2 percent indicate that staffing has increased; and 12.3 FIGURE B-4: AVERAGE PERCENTAGE CHANGE FY2008 TO percent report that they are unable to FY2013 URBAN TOTAL OPERATING EXPENDITURES BY TYPE respond to this question. Reported average total change, all funding sources n  Urban libraries (60.7 percent) lead in decreases to staffing levels, FY2012- FY2008- FY2009- FY2010- FY2011- 2013 followed by suburban libraries (28.0 2009 2010 2011 2012 percent) and rural libraries (16.2 (anticipated) percent). 8.3% -30.7% -6.7% -3.3% 0.9% n  Suburban libraries (12.9 per- Salaries (including benefits) cent) lead in staffing increases, fol- Collections 9.6% -35.8% -16.3% 3.2% 1.6% lowed by urban libraries (10.7 percent) and rural libraries (6.9 4.5% -22.5% -4.5% -16.7% 2.4% percent). Other Expenditures n  Of those reporting unchanged 7.6% -29.4% -7.3% -6.2% 1.3% staffing levels, the majority are sub- Overall urban (46.5 percent) and rural (65.3 percent) libraries. Only 20.7 per- FIGURE B-5: AVERAGE PERCENTAGE CHANGE FY2008 cent of urban libraries report un- summer 2012 TO FY2013 SUBURBAN TOTAL OPERATING EXPENDITURES changed staffing. BY TYPE More than 70 percent of those re- porting increases or decreases in Reported average total change, all funding sources staffing levels indicate these are|  FY2012- permanent changes (details availabledigital supplement  FY2008- FY2009- FY2010- FY2011- 2013 on Study website, Figures 61 and 63.) 2009 2010 2011 2012 (anticipated) Reduced staffing levels resulted in reductions in public service hours. A 8.5% -45.0% 4.0% 16.4% -2.7% Salaries (including benefits) new question in the 2012 study asked about changes in open hours during 3.3% -49.3% -0.9% 12.6% 0.8% Collections the last three fiscal years (Details|  available on Study website, Figures 62americanlibrariesmagazine.org  -2.5% -33.9% 42.0% -20.9% 5.4% and 64). Overall, the mean (average) Other Expenditures hours declined slightly during the last Overall 5.5% -43.5% 11.9% 5.3% -0.5% three fiscal years (down 0.6 percent), with suburban libraries reporting the largest decrease in hours (down 2.8 Professional Association Librarian this salary study). These findings are percent), compared with urban Salary Survey indicate that salaries have aligned with the reductions in salary libraries (down 0.6 percent) and rural declined since 2010 (the last year of expenditures reported in the 2011- libraries (down 1.2 percent).12
    • n  Nearly 60 percent of libraries in 2011) and fewer libraries reporting ity with some libraries reporting report no change in hours, while 21.5 budget decreases greater than 6 per- three-year decreases above 15 per- percent indicate reductions and 15.9 cent (14.7 percent in 2012, compared cent. Urban libraries experienced the percent indicate increased hours. with 22.6 percent in 2011). greatest budget fluctuations and rural n  For libraries reporting in- libraries experienced the fewest. creased hours, reasons noted in- Three-Year Operating cluded new outlets opening (23.9 Budget Stability Varied Technology Expenditures percent overall, and 69.2 percent of By Metropolitan Status Volatile for Urban urban libraries). In the 2011-2012 survey, libraries and Rural Libraries n  For libraries reporting de- were asked to estimate the cumulative In FY2012, a majority of libraries (52.4 creased hours, the reasons noted in- effect over three-years of changes in percent) report technology budgets cluded responding to budget operating budgets (Figure B-8). The remained unchanged from the prior reductions (78.5 percent overall) and majority experienced increases of 4 fiscal year (Figure B-9). This is espe- reducing staff (42.7 percent overall). percent or less for the entire three- cially true for rural libraries (55.6 year period. Of those that reported percent), as compared with their sub- Budget Stability – A decreases, there was no clear major- urban (48 percent) and urban (43 Little Less is More From 2011 to 2012, about 3.2 percent more rural libraries reported operating FIGURE B-6 AVERAGE PERCENTAGE CHANGE FY2008 TO budget increases of up to 6 percent, the FY2013 RURAL TOTAL OPERATING EXPENDITURES BY TYPE largest proportion for any type of met- Reported average total change, all funding sources ropolitan area (Figure B-7). Operating FY2012- budgets for suburban libraries were FY2008- FY2009- FY2010- FY2011- 2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 largely unchanged from 2011, with (anticipated) fewer reporting increases or decreas- es in 2012 than in 2011, and the propor- Salaries (including -36.4% 3.1% -8.4% 3.2% -7.4% tion that reported level funding benefits) remained about the same in 2012 as in -15.0% -45.4% -33.9% -37.0% -4.9% 2011. There was positive news re- Collections ported by urban libraries: a slowing in operating budget reductions, with a 9.4 -7.8% -37.2% -16.1% 1.9% -5.6% Other Expenditures percent uptick among those reporting flat funding from 2011 (25.6 percent Overall -25.1% -19.5% -4.7% -4.4% -6.6% summer 2012 in 2012, compared with 16.2 percentFIGURE B-7: PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEMS OPERATING BUDGET CHANGE, FY2009 - FY2012, BYMETROPOLITAN STATUS |  digital supplement  Urban Suburban Rural All 2009 2010 2011 2012 2009 2010 2011 2012 2009 2010 2011 2012 2009 2010 2011 2012Increased upto 6% 47.3% 28.2% 25.2% 26.1% 51.1% 35.1% 35.3% 32.0% 50.6% 38.8% 35.8% 39.0% 50.5% 37.0% 35.0% 38.4%Increased 6% | or more 10.6% 5.2% 4.2% 1.9% 9.0% 5.2% 5.2% 4.9% 9.4% 7.2% 5.4% 4.8% 9.4% 6.7% 5.3% 4.8% americanlibrariesmagazine.org Decreasedless than 6% 14.7% 24.2% 31.9% 30.9% 13.0% 24.2% 22.0% 21.9% 8.9% 15.5% 17.3% 15.9% 10.6% 17.1% 19.7% 18.7%Decreasedmore than 6% 7.4% 30.4% 22.6% 14.7% 3.6% 17.4% 14.2% 10.2% 3.3% 11.0% 9.6% 6.7% 3.7% 14.3% 11.9% 8.3%Stayed same 19.9% 11.4% 16.2% 25.6% 23.3% 22.7% 23.2% 23.3% 27.8% 27.5% 32.0% 33.7% 25.9% 25.0% 28.2% 29.7% 13
    • FIGURE B-8: PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEMS CUMULATIVE BUDGET percent) counterparts. Slightly more CHANGE FY2010-FY2012, BY METROPOLITAN STATUS than a third of respondents (35.8 per- Metropolitan Status cent) report increased technology Operating Budget Urban Suburban Rural Overall operating budgets (all ranges). When considered by metropolitan categories, Increased more than 40% * 1.0% * * response totals were closely aligned. Increased 35.1-40% 1.4% * * * (details available on Study website, Increased 30.1-35% * * * * Figure 69). Nearly 12 percent of all respondents Increased 25.1-30% 1.0% * * * report decreases in their technology Increased 20.1-25% 1.0% * * * operating budgets. A greater propor- Increased 15.1-20% 3.4% 1.5% 1.6% 1.7% tion of urban libraries (23.7 percent) report decreases, which is nearly 10 Increased 10.1-15% 4.3% 3.4% 3.5% 3.5% percent more than suburban libraries Increased 6.1-10% 5.8% 5.4% 5.3% 5.3% (13.9 percent) and about 15 percent more than rural libraries (8.7 percent). Increased 4.1-6% 4.3% 7.7% 7.1% 7.1% Similar to operating expenditures Increased 2.1-4% 6.7% 15.2% 14.7% 14.4% overall, urban libraries were more Increased up to 2% 10.6% 17.9% 24.0% 21.2% likely to report smaller increases and larger decreases in their technology Stayed the same 7.2% 8.6% 15.2% 12.5% operating budgets than their suburban Decreased up to 2% 13.9% 8.4% 9.5% 9.4% and rural counterparts (Figure B-7). Decreased 2.1-4% 9.6% 7.3% 5.2% 6.2% The three-year budget (Figure B-10) comparison presents some Decreased 4.1-6% 6.7% 5.6% 2.8% 4.0% sobering results that demonstrate Decreased 6.1-10% 6.7% 5.1% 2.9% 3.8% the impact of cumulative budget Decreased 10.1-15% 5.3% 4.7% 2.4% 3.3% reductions on a critical subsection of expenditures for technology infra- Decreased 15.1-20% 3.4% 1.9% * 1.3% structure and public access comput- Decreased 20.1-25% 3.4% 1.8% * 1.3% ing. Decreased 25.1-30% 1.4% 1.3% * 1.0% Urban and rural libraries saw sig- summer 2012 nificantly more volatility in technol- Decreased 30.1-35% 1.0% * * * ogy operating expenditures, while Decreased 35.1-40% 1.0% * * * suburban libraries rebounded after Decreased more than 40% 1.0% * * * only one year of declines (FY2010 to|  FY2011). Specifically, Key: *: Insufficient data to reportdigital supplement  n  Urban libraries report de- creases in all technology expendi- FIGURE B-9: PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY tures since FY2010, with the most BUDGET CHANGE FY 2012, BY METROPOLITAN STATUS significant reductions in expendi- tures between FY2010 and FY2011 Metropolitan Status for telecommunications (-88 per-|  Operating Budget Urban Suburban Rural Overall cent), outside vendors (-73 per-americanlibrariesmagazine.org  Increased more than 6% 10.7% 9.7% 7.2% 8.2% cent), and computer hardware/ software (-63.3 percent). Increased up to 6% 22.6% 28.4% 27.6% 27.6% n  Suburban libraries report de- Stayed the same 43.0% 48.0% 55.6% 52.4% clines only between FY2010 and FY2011, and report strong recovery Decreased less than 6% 14.0% 8.8% 5.5% 7.1% in all technology-related operating Decreased more than 6% 9.7% 5.1% 3.2% 4.7% expenditure categories between14
    • FIGURE B-10: AVERAGE PERCENTAGE CHANGE, FY2010-FY2012 TOTAL TECHNOLOGY-RELATED OPERATING EXPENDITURES, BY TYPE AND METROPOLITAN STATUS Urban Suburban Rural Overall 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012Salaries (including 99.5% -42.0% -18.3% 48.2% -37.2% 32.1% 170.5% -69.0% -12.0% 101.9% -50.7% 15.1%benefits)Outside Vendors 255.7% -73.0% -21.1% 70.8% -65.3% 5.2% 175.5% -80.3% -13.9% 130.4% -74.3% -6.4%Computer Hardware/ 69.6% -63.3% -20.3% 18.4% -57.6% 41.8% 31.0% -74.2% -18.6% 49.0% -67.9% -7.4%SoftwareTelecommunications 269.1% -88.0% -8.2% 41.7% -50.4% 19.4% 120.9% -81.7% -35.1% 151.2% -81.3% -8.2%FY2011 and FY2012. Further, in FIGURE B-11: AVERAGE PERCENTAGE OF PUBLIC LIBRARYFY2012 suburban libraries have now SYSTEMS THAT APPLIED FOR AN E-RATE DISCOUNT,recovered nearly to FY 2010 levels in FY2012in two specific expenditure catego- Metropolitan Statusries: salaries and computer hard- Urban Suburban Rural Overallware/software. n  Rural libraries, like their ur- Yes, applied 58.9% 32.4 44.6% 41.3%ban counterparts, report reductions Yes, another organizationin technology-related operating ex- applied on the library’s 11.2% 22.8% 14.5% 17.1%penditures between FY2010 and behalfFY2011, and again between FY2011 No, did not apply 27.2% 40.6% 36.5% 37.4%and FY2012. Unsure 2.7% 4.2% 4.4% 4.2% As libraries seek to offer high-demand services that rely on a strongtechnology infrastructure–supportingjob seeking, homework resources, percent) libraries to report that they (85.7 percent) . This is consistent withtechnology training, and access to could not maintain workstation re- the 2010-2011 report findings. Dis-e-government services—their inabil- placement schedules. counts for Internet connectivity re-ity to secure stable funding for tech- flected the largest change for suburbannology negatively affects their ability E-Rate Applications libraries, increasing to 61.3 percent summer 2012to adhere to public access workstation Increase this year, from 57.3 percent last yearreplacement schedules (details avail- In FY2012, 58.4 percent of libraries and 49.8 the year before. (Detailsable on Study website, Figures 35-37). (Figure B-11) report applying for an available on Study website, Figures n  A majority of public libraries E-rate discount, whether directly 51-52). | (63.2 percent) report that they do (41.3 percent) or as part of another digital supplement not have replacement schedules and organization’s application (17.1 per- Federal Stimulus Grantsonly replace workstations as need- cent), an increase from the prior Fund Public Computered. fiscal year (54.4 percent). As with last Centers and Broadband n  For libraries with replacement year, the highest percentage of libra­ Connectivityschedules, it is unclear if they are ries applying for E-rate discounts are This year’s survey asked publicreplacing all workstations that in urban areas (70.1 percent), followed libraries about applications and re- | would normally be scheduled: 49.9 by rural (59.1 percent) and suburban ceipt of grant awards from the Na- americanlibrariesmagazine.org percent report that they did not (55.2 percent) libraries. tional Telecommunications andknow how many workstations/lap- The highest percentage of discounts Information Administration (NTIA)tops would be replaced at the outlet is applied to the telecommunications Broadband Technology Opportunity(branch) level. category, both overall (84.7 percent) Program (BTOP) and the Broadband n  Urban libraries (16.1 percent) and for all types of metropolitan sta- Initiatives Program (BIP). Both pro-are slightly more likely than subur- tus: urban (85.4 percent), suburban grams, which were announced in Julyban (11.4 percent) and rural (13.4 (82.2 percent), and rural libraries 2009, were funded through the 15
    • FIGURE B-12: REGIONAL CHANGES IN STATE FUNDING FOR PUBLIC LIBRARIES, FY2012   Decrease = 23     Increase = 2   Greater Greater Census Budget No Direct No By 1-2% 3-4% 5-10% than 1-2% 3-4% 5-10% than Region not Final Aid Change Region 10% 10% Midwest     5 1   2 3     1   12 Northeast 1   2     2 4         9 South 3 1 3 4 1   4         16 West   1 0 2   4 5       1 13 Total FY12 4 2 10 7 1 8 16     1 1 50 Total FY11 2 2 5 10 1 8 14 1 1 0 2 46 American Recovery and Reinvestment ficers in 49 of 50 states and the District cuts that began in FY2009. A number Act of 2009 (ARRA). of Columbia (98 percent) responded of states that may have fared better Nearly 39 percent of libraries report to the survey. Overall, funding for during the early years of the recession receiving a BTOP or BIP grant either public libraries continues to be re- now report double digit and, in one directly or indirectly, as part of an- duced: 46 percent reported decreased case, triple digit decreases. For the other entity’s application. Awards are state funding for public libraries in second year in a row, Iowa, Louisiana, highest in urban libraries (46.2 per- FY2012, compared to 41.5 percent in and Texas report decreases greater cent), followed by rural (40.5 percent) FY2011 (Figure B-12), a distressing than 10 percent of state funding to and suburban libraries (37.5 percent). reversal after the hoped-for recovery public libraries. The highest percentage of received projected by results reported in The news from California is espe- awards is for public computer centers FY2011. cially distressing. California’s 2011- (39.7 percent),followed by sustainable Of the 23 states reporting cuts in 2012 budget contained a 50 percent cut broadband (12.1 percent) and middle state funding for public libraries, over to the $30.4 million state-level sup- mile applications (10.1 percent). (For one-third indicate de- port, which provides more details, see the Study website, creases of 5 percent or For the second per-capita allocations, Figures 53-54.) higher, and 14 percent support for interli- year in a row, summer 2012 In the 2010 COSLA survey, 36 states report cuts greater brary loan, and literacy reported applying for BTOP or BIP than 10 percent. Iowa, Louisiana, instruction resources funding, either solely or in partner- From FY2011 to and Texas report for public libraries. ship with others. In the 2011 survey, FY2012, 16 states re- Due to insufficient decreases greater|  26 states report receiving BTOP or BIP port no change in growth in state reve- funding, and two states than 10 percent ofdigital supplement  funding, in a total of 33 awards, with nues, in December the vast majority for BTOP Public (North Dakota and state funding to 2011, Governor Brown Computer Center funding (21), fol- Oregon) report in- announced a mid-year public libraries. lowed by BIP/BTOP Infrastructure (6), creased funding. How- adjustment to elimi- BTOP Sustainable Broadband Adop- ever, Oregon reports nate all remaining tion (3), and State Broadband and Data the state experienced two funding cuts funding for public libraries. The Gov-|  Development (3). the previous year, followed by legisla- ernor’s first budget for 2012-2013americanlibrariesmagazine.org  tive action to reset its program to a continues to eliminate all funding for State Libraries Funding lower funding level. Seven states public libraries and makes a $1.1 mil- Declines Continue and the District of Columbia do not lion cut to the State Library Adminis- In a November 2011 survey, the Chief provide direct state aid to public tration budget. Officers of State Library Agencies libraries. Regionally, the southern states (COSLA) reported reduced funding For many states, the FY2012 cuts continue to be hit hardest, with 68 affecting public libraries. Chief Of- exacerbated the cumulative impact of percent reporting decreased funding16
    • from FY2011 to FY2012, as comparedto 54 percent the previous year. All of the news is not bleak: 21percent of states anticipate decreasedfunding for FY2013, compared to 37percent of states last year. The cumulative impact of cuts at thestate level is exacerbated by continuedcuts at the local level. For the secondyear in a row, 42 percent of statesreported that local funding for publiclibraries declined for a majority oflibraries in the state. This year’s COSLA survey askedabout the number of libraries that hadclosed as a result of funding cuts.Fewer states (12 compared to 17 lastyear) report being aware of publiclibrary closures in their states withinthe past 12 months. Most states reportthat fewer than five public libraryoutlets have closed, although NewJersey reports closures of between 10and 15 outlets, and Michigan reportsmore than 20 closed outlets. Themajority of states (82 percent) reportthat public library hours have beencut in the past 12 months due to fund-ing cuts, an increase of 4 percent fromthe previous year.ConclusionDue to the severity of the recession, summer 2012libraries are struggling to recoverfrom the impact of cumulative reduc-tions over time. During the past threeyears, full-time equivalent staffing | levels declined for all libraries by digital supplement more than 7 percent, and salaries alsodecreased. However, these cuts do notoffset the dramatic reductions inexpenditures for collections. Further,public library funding has been con-strained by continuing cuts to state | funding. For three years in a row, more americanlibrariesmagazine.org than 40 percent of states have re-ported decreases in state-fundedpublic library support. There is somehope, as overall public library budgetsexperience the less severe decreasesthat occurred in FY2009-2010, andreport more level funding. 17
    • PUBLIC LIBRARY TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE W ith their nearly ubiquitous presence, U.S. public libraries provide their communities with a wide array of essential public access technologies and Internet-enabled services. Through these services and technologies, public libraries help to build digitally inclusive communities by serving as gateways to diverse services including broadband and computer access, technology training, and e-government and employment services.PUBLIC LIBRARY FUNDING& TECHNOLOGY ACCESSSTUDY 2011­ 2012 –
    • The 2011-2012 study tracks thecontinuously expanding technology FIGURE C-1: U.S. PUBLIC LIBRARIES: SOLElandscape of U.S. public libraries, and COMMUNITY PROVIDER OF FREE ACCESShow they provide the digital skills TO COMPUTER S AND INTERNETessential to full participation in civiclife and the national economy in the URBAN %21st century. New data indicate that library tech-nology resources continue to be in SUBURBAN %great demand: n  Over 60 percent of librariesreport increased use of public ac- RURAL %cess workstations. n  Most libraries (74.1 percent)report increased use of Wi-Fi. Percentage of libraries reporting n  More than half of libraries(58.2 percent) report increased useof electronic resources. n  More than one-third of than 1.5 Mbps, up from 60.3 percent how to use mouse, keyboard, printing)libraries (36.3 percent) report in- last year. are the most common (87 percent).creased use of training services. n  Newly reported for the first Libraries report providing ser- The following section presents time this year, 39.1 percent of vices to job-seekers as the most vitalselected key findings from library libraries provide e-readers for public Internet service they offer, withoutlets (branches) and the implica- check-out. 92.2 percent of all libraries reportingtions of these findings. The complete they provide access to jobs databasesset of data tables, as well as previous Patron Technology and other job opportunity resources.findings, are available at http://pl Training and Providing access to online govern-internetsurvey.org. This year’s par- Internet Services ment information follows closely inticipation in the survey had an 83.5 Beyond Internet access, public importance. Almost all public librariespercent response rate and was com- libraries play an essential role in (96.6) report assisting patrons withpleted by respondents between Sep- boosting their patrons’ technology applying for and accessing e-govern-tember 7, 2011 and November 18, 2011. proficiency and digital literacy skills. ment services. Overall, 90.2 percent of public Libraries also broker and provide summer 2012Public Access libraries offer some type of formal or access to a wide range of InternetInfrastructure informal technology training: resources, including:Public libraries provide public work- n  Over 44 percent of libraries n  Licensed databasesstations and laptops, wireless (Wi-Fi) offer formal technology training n  Online homework assistance | and broadband connectivity as part of classes. This increases to 63.2 per- n  Digital/virtual reference digital supplement their public access infrastructure: cent for urban libraries. n  E-books and e-readers n  Over 62 percent of library out- n  Over one-third (34.8 percent) In the 2011-2012 study, 76.3 percentlets report they are the only provid- of libraries provide one-on-one of libraries reported offering e-books,er of free public computer and training by appointment. an increase of 9 percent from last year.Internet access in their communi- n  A large majority (82.7 percent) U.S. libraries are increasingly turn-ties. of libraries offer informal point-of- ing to social media and mobile applica- |  n  Overall, public library outlets use training assistance. tions to increase their community americanlibrariesmagazine.org report an average of 16.4 public ac- In all, over 36 percent of public interactions and the dissemination ofcess computers (desktop and laptop libraries report increased use of tech- information. For the first time, thisper outlet. nology training classes for patrons. year’s survey asked libraries to report n  Almost 89 percent of public Libraries staff report there is still a large on their use of specific social medialibrary outlets now offer wireless pool of people who are new to comput- tools. Nearly 71 percent of librariesInternet access. ers and need the most basic level of report using social networking tools n  Nearly 70 percent of libraries training. For libraries offering formal (e.g., Facebook), and 45.6 percent re-provide connections speeds greater training, general computer skills (e.g., port using communications tools (e.g., 19
    • FIGURE C-2:AVERAGE NUMBER OF PUBLIC ACCESS port increases in public access comput- INTERNET WORKSTATIONS, BY AGE AND METROPOLITAN ers and bandwidth, 41.7 percent of STATUS libraries report their connection speeds Metropolitan Status are insufficient, and 65.4 percent of libraries report they had fewer public Average Age Urban Suburban Rural Overall access computers to meet demand. Less than 1 year old 15.7 10.1 5.4 7.8 Limited Gains Ahead for 1 year old 12.5 9.2 4.3 6.7 Connectivity and Access While public libraries plan to add, 2 years old 15.9 8.3 4.7 7.4 replace, or upgrade workstations and make other enhancements to their 3 years old 14.9 8.2 4.5 7.2 public computers and Internet re- sources, many do not know if they will 4 years old 13.0 9.3 4.4 7.3 have the anticipated funding. While more than a third (35.5 percent) of 5 years old 14.8 8.8 4.9 7.1 libraries have a computer replacement schedule, 30.6 percent of libraries Overall 27.9 20.1 10.7 16.4 report that this replacement schedule is every five years. Despite the fact that 64.5 percent of FIGURE C-3: SUFFICIENCY OF PUBLIC ACCESS INTERNET libraries report having an insufficient WORKSTATIONS, BY METROPOLITAN STATUS number of public access computers, Metropolitan Status only 14.6 percent of libraries plan to Sufficiency of Public Access add more computers within the next Urban Suburban Rural Overall year. Almost 4 percent of libraries plan Workstations to add wireless access in the next year. There are consistently fewer public Internet workstations If they do, over 92 percent of libraries 27.1% 13.2% 8.7% 13.2% than patrons who wish to use will then offer Wi-Fi. Overall, 38.5 them throughout a typical day percent of libraries report Internet There are fewer public Internet connection speeds of 1.6 Mbps – 10 summer 2012 workstations than patrons who 59.8% 53.3% 49.0% 52.2% Mbps, up 5 percent from last year. Even wish to use them at different though libraries have enhanced their times throughout a typical day capacity by adding more public access There are sufficient public computers, increasing broadband, and|  Internet workstations available offering Wi-Fi, they report usage that 13.1% 33.5% 42.3% 34.6% for patrons who wish to usedigital supplement  them during a typical day suggests this additional library capac- ity has not resolved their community’s demands for access and connectivity. Twitter). New this year is the collection funding available to maintain and of data on how libraries are using mobile improve library operations, including HARDWARE and technologies. Over 14 percent of technology. The greatest challenges IT SUPPORT|  libraries have websites optimized for to continuing to provide free public Each year, the survey asks detailedamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  mobile devices, nearly 12 percent use access to computers and the Internet questions about outlet-level public scanned codes (e.g., QR codes), and over at public libraries include: access computing hardware. The re- 7 percent have smartphone apps. Costs: A majority of libraries (77.9 sponses indicate trends in information percent) report cost factors as one of technology infrastructure, and its Decreased Funding the major challenges in maintaining, impact on technology-related services. Increase Challenges sustaining, and enhancing their pub- This section describes the number and As the public library funding land- lic access technology infrastructure. age of workstations/laptops, hardware scape reflects, there is insufficient Sufficiency: Although libraries re- replacement and procurement sched-20
    • ules, and whether libraries are able to FIGURE C-4: PUBLIC ACCESS WORKSTATION REPLACEMENTadhere to their replacement schedules, PROCEDURE, BY METROPOLITAN STATUSkeep hardware in operation, and Metropolitan Statusother mitigating factors. Replacement Procedure Urban Suburban Rural Overall This year, public libraries report: Yes, library has a replacement n  Offering an average of 16.4 66.4% 41.9% 29.0% 35.5% schedulepublic access computers (desktopand laptop per outlet). No (As Needed) 31.4% 57.3% 69.5% 63.2% n  Experiencing increased de-pendency on non-IT specialists Dont Know 2.2% * 1.5% 1.3%(public service staff and library di-rectors) to provide the majority of Key: * : Insufficient data to reportIT support. n  Anticipating fewer new com- FIGURE C-5: PUBLIC ACCESS WORKSTATION REPLACEMENTputer purchases in the coming year. SCHEDULE, BY METROPOLITAN STATUS Metropolitan StatusDespite more Computers,Sufficiency Still Lags Schedule Urban Suburban Rural OverallBehind Demand Every year 1.4% 1.2% 4.1% 2.6%Overall, public library outlets reportan average of 16.4 public access com- Every 2 years 1.4% 3.2% 6.0% 4.4%puters (Figure C-2), up slightly from16.0 in 2010-2011 and 14.2 in 2009- Every 3 years 25.9% 22.8% 29.1% 26.2%2010. Rural libraries report an averageof 10.7 public access computers, up Every 4 years 34.7% 28.8% 21.7% 25.9%from 9.6 in 2010-2011 and 9.2 in 2009-2010. Suburban libraries report an Every 5 years 29.9% 34.0% 28.1%) 30.6%average of 20.1 public access comput-ers, up from 19.6 in 2010-2011 and 15.8 Other 6.8% 8.9% 11.0% 10.2%in 2009-2010. Urban libraries reportan average of 27.9 public access com-puters, essentially unchanged from FIGURE C-6: PUBLIC ACCESS WORKSTATIONS ADDITIONS,28.0 in 2010-2011 and up from 25.4 in BY METROPOLITAN STATUS summer 20122009-2010. Metropolitan Status It is encouraging that libraries Plans to add workstations Urban Suburban Rural Overallreport more new computers this year(7.8 workstations less than 1 year old) Yes 22.3% 13.4% 14.6% 14.6% | than in 2010-2011 (6.5 workstations digital supplement less than 1 year old). No 53.2% 58.2% 58.4% 58.1% Libraries continue to battle supply Unsure at this time if addingissues: 65.4 percent of libraries report workstations 22.7% 23.8% 21.5% 22.3%having insufficient public access Inter-net workstations to meet patrons’ needs Don’t Know - * 1.3% 1.0%at least some of the time during a typical |  Other 1.8% 4.0% 4.2% 4.0%day (Figure C-3). This is a decrease of americanlibrariesmagazine.org 10.8 percent from the 2010-2011 study. The average number of workstations Urban libraries continue to face the that the library plans to add within the 41. 8 7.3 5.1 9.0 next yeargreatest challenge in providing a suf-ficient number of public access work- Key: - : No data to report,*: Insufficient data to reportstations: 86.9 percent reportedinsufficient numbers, followed by a brighter note, 34.6 percent of cal day in the 2011-2012 study, an66.5 percent of suburban libraries, libraries reported having sufficient increase from the 23.8 percent re-and 57.7 percent of rural libraries. On workstations available during a typi- ported in the 2010-2011 study. 21
    • FIGURE C-7: AVERAGE PUBLIC ACCESS WORKSTATIONS reports having to maintain computers ADDITIONS DUE TO BTOP/BIP AWARDS, BY that are about seven years old and METROPOLITAN STATUS being able to replace computers only Metropolitan Status upon complete hardware failure. Another IT manager said, “If there is Schedule Urban Suburban Rural Overall money available at the end of the year, Workstations added/replaced LAST we replace what we can.” 84.3 13.8 7.1 13.1 year due to BTOP/BIP awards In all, only 31.2 percent of libraries Workstations added/replaced in report they are able to adhere to their the NEXT year due to BTOP/BIP 88.1 7.6 5.3 12.1 replacement schedules, while 49.9 awards percent indicate they are able to main- tain their schedule but do not know FIGURE C-8: SOURCES OF IT SUPPORT PROVIDED TO how many public access computers or PUBLIC LIBRARY OUTLETS, BY METROPOLITAN STATUS laptops they will replace (detail avail- Metropolitan Status able on Study website, Figure 37). An average of 19.5 public access worksta- Source of IT Support Urban Suburban Rural Overall tions per outlet are scheduled to be Public service staff 41.7% 45.5% 32.8% 37.6% replaced within the next year, which is a substantial increase over the average Library director 10.8% 40.8% 59.5% 50.4% number of scheduled replacements Building-based IT staff (IT 36.3% 25.1% 10.9% 17.2% (7.9 workstations) reported in the specialist) 2010-2011 study. System-level IT staff 58.3% 28.6% 18.2% 24.0% Library consortia or other library Few Plan to Add organization 13.0% 24.8% 17.3% 19.6% Computers The majority of public libraries (58.1 County/City IT staff 34.5% 19.5% 9.9% 14.5% percent) do not plan to add public State telecommunications 2.7% 2.7% 3.0% 2.9% access workstations in the next year network staff (Figure C-6). The percentage of State library IT staff 4.0% 6.9% 9.9% 8.6% libraries that do plan to add worksta- tions decreased to 14.6 percent this Outside vendor/contractor 19.3% 34.2% 42.8% 38.5% summer 2012 year from 22.7 percent in 2010-2011, Volunteer(s) 2.7% 7.0% 16.3% 12.4% an even more dramatic decrease from Other source 1.3% 6.0% 6.1% 5.8% the 28.7 percent reported in 2009- 2010. This year, 22.3 percent of urban|  libraries report plans to add worksta-digital supplement  Replacement Schedules decreased to 41.9 percent in 2011- tions, followed by 14.6 percent of Overall, a majority of public libraries 2012. rural libraries and 13.4 percent of (63.2 percent) do not have replace- A majority of public libraries (82.7) suburban libraries, unlike last year, ment schedules and replace their replace workstations every three to five when more rural libraries reported workstations only as needed (Figure years (Figure C-5), a slight decrease plans to add workstations (24.4 per- C-4). There is a stark difference be- from the 86.9 percent reported last cent) than urban (22.8 percent) and|  tween the replacement policy sched- year. The 30.6 percent of libraries that suburban libraries (20.3 percent).americanlibrariesmagazine.org  ules of urban and rural libraries. The report their replacement frequency at In responding to a new question in majority of urban libraries (57.3 per- every five years is of significance, an this year’s study (Figure C-7), 13.1 cent) have an established replacement increase of 3 percent from last year. percent of libraries report adding or policy, whereas the majority of rural Most of the public libraries inter- replacing computers last year with libraries (69.5 percent) do not. The viewed for the field study in Georgia funding provided by the Broadband majority of suburban libraries (53.4 report that they are unable to maintain Technologies Opportunities Program percent) had a replacement schedule the replacement schedules for their (BTOP) or the Broadband Initiative in 2010-2011, but this percentage public workstations. One IT manager Program (BIP), while 12.1 percent plan22
    • to add or replace systems with such This variation by metropolitan sta- an “out of service” public access com-funds next year. Despite the fact that a tus is related to overall staffing differ- puter, an improvement of 6.1 percenthigher percent of urban libraries par- ences in rural libraries, as compared from 2010-2011. Suburban librariesticipate in these programs, the major- to larger suburban and urban libraries. report a spike in response time, withity of computer replacements or There are large metropolitan discrep- 23.5 percent of machines being re-additions are reported by suburban or ancies for system-level IT staff as a paired in less than one day comparedrural libraries. source of IT support, as urban (58.3 to 16.7 percent last year. However, the percent) and suburban libraries (40.8 2011-2012 report still finds mostKeeping Computers percent) far outpace rural libraries libraries (47.8 percent) take two orin Service (18.2 percent). Outside vendors/con- more days to restore a public accessNon-IT specialists provide the major- tractors are another important source computer to working order. This year,ity of IT support services (88 percent) (38.5 percent overall), particularly for urban libraries are more likely tofor public libraries (Figure C-8), a rural libraries (42.8 percent). There require more than two days (28.3large increase from the 70.7 percent was an unexpected increase in the percent) to repair a machine than lastreported in the 2010-2011 study. In number of libraries that depend on year (18.1 percent). Rural librariesurban (41.7 percent) and suburban volunteers for IT support (12.4 per- and urban libraries are significantlylibraries (45.5 percent), public ser- cent), compared to 6.7 percent last year. more likely to require more than twovice staff provide most of this type of Rural libraries (16.3 percent) depend days to repair machines (28.3 and 28.3support, while rural libraries depend the most on volunteers. percent, respectively) than suburbanmore upon their library directors This year, 44.5 percent of libraries libraries (21.8 percent). (Details(59.5 percent) for IT support. report taking one day or less to restore available on Study website, Figure 5.) CONNECTIVITYPublic libraries are trying to keep pacewith patron demand for Internet ac- FIGURE C-9: BANDWIDTH SPEEDS AT PUBLICcess by making continuous improve- LIBRARIESments to bandwidth speeds and accessto wireless connections. In 2011-2012, public libraries report: 2012 n  Increasing access speeds ofgreater than 10 Mbps (31.2 percent,up from 24.9 percent last year). n  Less than 769K summer 2012 n  More library outlets offering 2008 n  769K­ 1.5K –wireless access (90.5 percent, up n  1.6–10Mfrom 85.7 last year). n  Greater than n  Despite gains in access speeds, 10Mbps | 41.4 percent of libraries report in- 2004 digital supplement sufficient speeds.Connection Speeds 0 20 40 60 80 100Continue to ImproveThe percentage of libraries offeringspeeds greater than 1.5 Mbps (T1) has up over last year’s 24.6 percent. 40 Mbps this year. However, the per- | increased to 69.7 percent in 2011-2012, The percentage of urban libraries centage of rural libraries reporting americanlibrariesmagazine.org up from 61.0 percent last year (Figure reporting connection speeds greater connection speeds greater than 1.5C-10). There is also a drop in the per- than 40 Mbps grew to 26.6 percent this Mbps has grown to 61 percent this year,centage of libraries with connection year, up from 20.7 percent in 2010- an increase from 49.4 percent last year.speeds of less than 1.5 Mbps (6.9 percent 2011. Suburban libraries reporting thein 2011-2012 versus 12.0 percent last same top connection speed grew to 14.7 Wireless Accessyear). In addition, the percentage of percent, up from 12.6 percent last year. Nears Ubiquitylibraries reporting connection speeds Only 6.9 percent of rural libraries re- Public libraries are increasing wire-greater than 10 Mbps is 31.2 percent, ported connection speeds greater than less availability, with 90.5 percent of 23
    • FIGURE C-10: PUBLIC LIBRARY OUTLETS MAXIMUM libraries offering Wi-Fi this year, up SPEED OF PUBLIC ACCESS INTERNET SERVICES, BY from 85.8 percent in 2010-2011 (Fig- METROPOLITAN STATUS ure C-11). Urban and suburban Metropolitan Status libraries provide wireless access at similar rates (96.7 percent and 93.8 Maximum Speed Urban Suburban Rural Overall percent, respectively). Wireless ac- 768 Kbps (kilobits/second) or cess in rural libraries has increased * 1.1% 4.8% 2.8% less to 86.3 percent, up 4.8 percent from 769 Kbps - 1.4 Mbps (megabits/ last year. The percentage of libraries 1.6% 3.6% 5.1% 4.1% second) or less that do not provide wireless access and have no plans to make it available 1.5 Mbps (T1) 8.1% 13.6% 21.2% 16.5% decreased to 5.6 percent this year, 1.6 Mbps - 3.0 Mbps 4.4% 11.1% 16.7% 12.9% down from 8.2 percent last year. More urban libraries report sharing 3.1 Mbps - 4.0 Mbps 7.0% 3.2% 6.9% 5.7% wireless and public access worksta- tion connections this year (41.6 4.1 Mbps – 6.0 Mbps 4.4% 6.7% 9.5% 7.7% percent, up from 35.8 percent), with a concomitant decrease in separate 6.1 Mbps - 10 Mbps 10.6% 15.0% 10.9% 12.2% connections (20.9 percent, down from 10.1 Mbps - 20.0 Mbps 17.3% 13.1% 7.0% 10.7% 27.3 percent). Urban libraries report a slight increase in shared connec- 20.1 Mbps - 30.0 Mbps 8.9% 6.5% 3.1% 5.1% tions with management techniques used to mitigate traffic congestion 30.1 Mbps - 40.0 Mbps 4.6% 2.4% * 1.9% (37.0 percent in 2011-2012, up from 36.2 percent in 2010-2011). Similar 40.1. Mbps – 99.9 Mbps 8.4% 3.6% 2.0% 4.4% to previous years, the percentage of 100 Mbps or greater 18.2% 11.1% 4.9% 9.1% rural libraries reporting shared wire- less and public access workstation Don’t Know 6.6% 6.6% 7.2% 6.9% connections without management techniques to alleviate traffic conges- Key: * : Insufficient data to report tion is the highest at 67.9 percent summer 2012 (details available on Study website, FIGURE C-11: PUBLIC ACCESS WIRELESS INTERNET Figure 14). CONNECTIVITY IN PUBLIC LIBRARY OUTLETS, BY Adequate connection speeds are METROPOLITAN STATUS reported by 58.3 percent of public|  Metropolitan Status libraries, with suburban libraries re-digital supplement  porting the greatest increases of nearly Availability of Public Access 6 percent (62.5 percent, up from 56.7 Urban Suburban Rural Overall Wireless Internet Services percent last year). Urban (55.8 percent) Currently available for public and rural libraries (56.3 percent) report use when the library is open 68.4% 67.8% 69.1% 68.5% slight increases in the adequacy of con- and closed nection speeds (up from 55.0 percent|  and 53.1 percent, respectively). Al-americanlibrariesmagazine.org  Currently available for public 28.3% 26.0% 17.2% 22.0% though libraries report increases in use only when library is open their connection speeds in 2011-2012 Not currently available, but (Figure 11), 41.4 percent of libraries there are plans to make it 1.7% 1.9% 6.0% 3.9% indicate these connection speeds are available within the next year insufficient to meet patron needs some Not currently available and or most of the time (Figure C-12), no plans to make it available 1.6% 4.3% 7.7% 5.6% within the next year which is consistent with the 2010-2011 report.24
    • INTERNET SERVICES AND TRAININGA wide range of Internet services and FIGURE C-12: ADEQUACY OF PUBLIC LIBRARYresources are provided to library pa- OUTLETS PUBLIC ACCESS INTERNET CONNECTION, BYtrons – inside the library and remotely METROPOLITAN STATUSthrough library websites. In addition to Metropolitan Statusproviding downloadable media, virtual Adequacy of Public Accessreference, homework resources and Urban Suburban Rural Overall Internet Connectionother specialized databases to support The connection speed iseducation and research, library staff insufficient to meet patron needs 10.1% 13.3% 13.6% 13.0%also help community members obtain most of the timethe digital literacy skills needed for The connection speed istoday’s increasingly digital world. sufficient to meet patron needs 33.8% 24.0% 29.5% 28.4% at some timesPatron Technology The connection speed is sufficientTraining to meet patron needs almost all 55.8% 62.5% 56.3% 58.3%As more and more essential services of the timeand resources increasingly move to Don’t know * * * *exclusive digital access, many citizensdepend on public libraries to providethe expertise and training needed to FIGURE C-13: PUBLIC LIBRARY OUTLETS OFFERINGgain digital skill fluency, often at the FORMAL OR INFORMAL TECHNOLOGY TRAINING,most basic level. AVAILABILITY BY METROPOLITAN STATUS Overall, 90.2 percent of public Metropolitan Statuslibraries offer some type of formal orinformal technology training (Figure Training Availability Urban Suburban Rural OverallC-13). A growing percentage of pub- Offers formal technologylic libraries offers formal technology 63.2% 54.5% 31.8% 44.3% training classestraining classes (44.3 percent, upfrom 38.0 percent in 2010-2011). Offers one-on-one technologyNearly two-thirds of urban libraries training sessions by 43.4% 37.9% 30.1% 34.8% appointment(63.2 percent) offer this type of train-ing, followed by 54.5 percent of sub- Offers informal point-of-use summer 2012 85.2% 85.9% 79.9% 82.7%urban libraries and 31.8 percent of assistancerural libraries. Additionally, 34.8 Offers online training material 36.3% 33.7% 21.9% 28.1%percent of public libraries report theyprovide one-on-one technology Does not offer any technology | training sessions by appointment (up 5.1% 8.0% 12.5% 9.8% training digital supplement from 28.1 percent in 2010-2011), and82.7 percent offer informal point-of- Will not total 100%, as categories are not mutually exclusiveuse training assistance (up from 78.8percent in 2010-2011). (86.5 percent). About three-quarters mation grew the most dramatically Overall, 36.3 percent of public of libraries (75.6 percent) report (46.3 percent, up from 40.8 percentlibraries report increasing enroll- training patrons on general online/ in 2010-2011). Relatively few outlets | ments in patron technology training Web searching and general software (17.1 percent) provide training on americanlibrariesmagazine.org classes since last year (details avail- use classes (73.3 percent). The per- accessing online investment informa-able on Study website, Figure 9.) centage of libraries offering classes tion, although this is up slightly from Figure C-14 depicts the types of on accessing online job-seeking and 14.5 percent in 2010-2011. Trainingformal technology classes offered. For career-related information grew in the use of social networking con-libraries offering formal training, slightly this year (49.2 percent, up tinues to grow for the second year ingeneral computer skills classes are from 48.1 percent in 2010-2011). a row, with 39.2 percent of librariesthe most common (87 percent), fol- The percentage of libraries offering now offering this training, up fromlowed by general Internet use classes classes on accessing genealogy infor- 35.3 percent in 2010-11. In urban 25
    • FIGURE C-14: FORMAL TECHNOLOGY TRAINING CLASSES libraries, trainings about safe online OFFERED BY PUBLIC LIBRARY OUTLETS, BY METROPOLITAN practices (36.7 percent) and accessing STATUS online investment information (21.4 Metropolitan Status percent) grew from 29.2 percent and 16.4 percent, respectively. Technology Training Classes Urban Suburban Rural Overall Libraries Expand General computer skills (e.g., how to 85.5% 87.0% 88.0% 87.0% Offerings of Online use mouse, keyboard, printing) Resources and E-books General software use (e.g., Figure C-15 illustrates the range of word processing, spreadsheets, 74.0% 73.7% 72.3% 73.3% Internet-based resources and ser- presentation) vices public libraries provide to their General Internet use (e.g., set up patrons. Licensed databases continued 83.0% 87.9% 87.2% 86.5% e-mail, Web browsing) to be the most commonly provided service. Libraries also offer substantial General online/Web searching (e.g., 75.4% 76.2% 75.0% 75.6% homework assistance, with 81.8 per- using Google, Yahoo, others) cent offering such services inside the Using library’s Online Public Access library and 62.7 percent supporting 45.2% 51.2% 42.3% 46.6% Catalog (OPAC) external access. A majority of libraries Using online databases (e.g., also provide downloads of audio con- commercial databases to search and 51.4% 58.0% 49.1% 53.2% tent, with 82.9 percent offering these find content) services within the library and 61.9 Safe online practices (e.g., not percent supporting external access. 36.7% 38.4% 35.7% 37.0% This past year, the online resources divulging personal information) with the highest public profile are Accessing online government e-books and e-readers. As demand for information (e.g., Medicare, taxes, how 30.2% 29.4% 29.8% 29.7% to complete forms) e-books soars, libraries of all sizes have added e-books to their collections. In Accessing online job-seeking and the 2011-2012 study, 76.3 percent of 50.5% 54.6% 42.4% 49.2% career-related information libraries report offering access to Accessing online health and wellness e-books, up from 67.2 percent in 2010- summer 2012 26.5% 24.0% 22.2% 23.9% information (e.g., consumer health) 2011 and 38.3 percent in 2007 (the first year this question appeared in the Accessing online investment information 21.4% 19.7% 11.5% 17.1% study). Additionally, e-readers have increasingly become a fixture in pub-|  Accessing genealogy information 39.0% 48.0% 40.6% 46.3% lic libraries, with 39.1 percent of outletsdigital supplement  providing access to such devices. Accessing consumer information Increasing e-book circulation sta- (e.g., product value, safety, reliability, 17.3% 24.1% 18.0% 20.3% tistics is likely attributed to a growing warranty information) awareness of the availability of Digital photography, software and e-books at public libraries and Kin- online applications (e.g., Photoshop, 21.9% 34.2% 27.6% 29.0% dle’s compatibility with OverDrive,|  Flickr) the subscription service that the ma-americanlibrariesmagazine.org  Social media (e.g., blogging, Twitter, jority of libraries with e-book collec- 28.2% 42.8% 42.6% 39.4% Facebook, YouTube) tions use. According to a recent Pew Research Center study, there are four Other technology-based training classes 6.6% 7.7% 5.5% 6.7% times more people reading e-books on a typical day now than there were Will not total 100%, as categories are not mutually exclusive less than two years ago.1 One-fifth of American adults (21 percent) re- *Data in this figure is from the subset of libraries that report they offer formal ported that they have read an e-book technology training (Figure C-13)26
    • FIGURE C-15: ONLINE RESOURCES AND SERVICES THAT THE LIBRARY MAKES AVAILABLE TO PATRONS Overall Offers Service Remotely Does Not Offer Service Offers Service in Library (e.g., via the Web) Resources Digital Reference/Virtual Reference 30.4% 69.7% 69.8% Licensed databases 1.2% 98.7% 98.7% E-books 23.7% 76.3% 76.1% Web/business conferencing (e.g., Skype, 73.6% 26.5% 2.2% WebEx) Online instructional courses/tutorials 45.6% 54.2% 40.0% Homework resources (e.g., tutor.com, 17.7% 81.8% 62.7% databases) Audio content (e.g., music, audiobooks, 16.8% 82.9% 61.9% other) Video content (e.g., streaming video, video 40.0% 60.0% 38.5% clips, other) Digitized special collections (e.g., letters, 46.6% 53.3% 40.6% postcards, documents, other) Library social networking (e.g., blogs, 37.7% 61.8% 46.7% Flixster, Goodreads) Online book clubs 61.8% 30.8% 30.7% Services Allow patrons to access and store content on USB or other portable devices/drives 6.8% 93.2% --- (e.g., iPods, MP3 players, flash drives, other) summer 2012 Allow patrons to connect digital cameras 35.6% 64.4% --- and manipulate content Allow patrons to burn compact discs/DVDs 43.8% 56.2% --- |  digital supplement  Provide access to recreational gaming 31.0% 69.2% --- consoles, software or websites Provide access to mobile devices (e.g., 52.2% 49.0% --- e-readers, netbooks) Provide access to e-readers for accessing 60.9% 39.1% --- e-books (e.g., Kindle, Nook) |  americanlibrariesmagazine.org  Will not total 100%, as categories are not mutually exclusivein the past year. The Pew study also In field interviews conducted for Moving into Socialreported that the majority of people this report, as well as in other anec- Media Technologieswho read e-books prefer to purchase dotal reports, libraries without Overall, 61.8 percent of libraries re-their own copies of the books; only e-book collections report that the cost port they provide access to a range of14% reported borrowing their most is prohibitive, particularly in light of Internet-based and social media typesrecent e-book from a library. cuts made to their collections budget. of services and resources (Figure 27
    • FIGURE C-16: PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEMS USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES Overall Public Libraries Internal Library Use (e.g., External Library Use (e.g., staff training, development, communicating with library communication) users, general public, marketing) Social Media Technologies Communication (e.g., Blogger, WordPress, Vox, Twitter) 21.6% 45.6% Social networking (e.g., Facebook, Hi5) 25.4% 70.7% Collaboration (e.g., PBWorks, Wetpaint) 12.3% 8.2% Bookmarking (e.g., CiteULike, Delicious, 14.9% 8.1% GoogleReader) News (e.g., Digg, Mixx, Newsvine) 6.4% 6.0% Video Sharing (e.g., YouTube, Vimeo, Openfilm) 16.1% 27.5% Photography (e.g., Flickr, Zoomr) 20.6% 37.3% Location (e.g., Foursquare, Facebook places) 10.6% 19.0% Events (e.g., Meetup.com, Eventful) 13.0% 14.9% Will not total 100%, as categories are not mutually exclusive to connect with library users and the FIGURE C-17: PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEMS USE OF MOBILE general public, and for marketing TECHNOLOGY purposes. Metropolitan Status n  Nearly 46 percent of public Mobile Technologies Urban Suburban Rural Overall libraries report using communica- tion tools (e.g., Blogger, Word- The library’s website is optimized for mobile device 36.1% 19.3% 9.3% 14.2% Press, Vox, Twitter) to reach the summer 2012 access public. n  More than 37 percent report The library has developed smartphone apps for access using photography sites (e.g., 27.8% 9.7% 3.7% 7.2% to library services and Flickr, Zoomr).|  content n  About 28 percent use videodigital supplement  The library uses scanned sharing tools (e.g., YouTube, Vimeo, codes for access to library 31.9% 17.8% 6.5% 11.8% and Openfilm). services and content In addition, newly collected survey Library does not make use data illustrate how libraries are starting 35.2% 61.9% 82.3% 72.7% of mobile technologies to make use of mobile technologies: 14.2 percent of libraries report their websites|  Other 8.3% 6.7% 2.8% 4.4% are optimized for mobile devices, 11.8americanlibrariesmagazine.org  percent report they use scanned codes Will not total 100%, as respondents could select more than one option (e.g., QR codes) for access to library services and content, and 7.2 percent report they have developed smartphone C-15). For the first time, this year’s communication (Figure C-16): apps for access to library services and survey asked libraries to report on n  Over 70 percent of public content (Figure C-17). Not surpris- their use of specific areas of social libraries report using social net- ingly, early adoption of these new media tools for internal and external working tools (e.g., Facebook, Hi5) technologies and resource/service28
    • FIGURE C-18: JOB-SEEKING SERVICES PROVIDED BY PUBLIC LIBRARY OUTLETS, BY METROPOLITAN STATUS Metropolitan Status Job-seeking roles and services Urban Suburban Rural Overall The library provides access to jobs databases and other job 97.5% 94.5% 88.9% 92.2% opportunity resources The library provides access to civil service exam materials 85.9% 83.5% 70.0% 77.1% The library helps patrons complete online job applications 78.2% 74.0% 76.6% 76.0% The library collaborates with outside agencies or individuals 47.3% 34.6% 29.8% 34.3% to help patrons seek or attain employment The library helps patrons develop business plans and other 35.1% 18.7% 12.1% 18.1% materials to start businesses The library collaborates with outside agencies or individuals to help patrons develop business plans and other materials 33.0% 20.5% 14.4% 19.5% to start businesses The library offers classes (either by librarians or others working 48.2% 39.4% 20.3% 31.3% with the library) on job-seeking strategies, interview tips, etc. The library offers software and other resources to help 83.7% 80.7% 73.2% 77.5% patrons create resumes and other employment materials Other 6.3% 3.3% 3.6% 4.0% Will not total 100%, as categories are not mutually exclusivedevelopment approaches is consider- ing, and hands-on assistance, making ing online job applications, up fromably higher among urban public the public library even more essential 72 percent in 2010-2011 and 67 per-libraries than by suburban and rural as the community’s only free provider cent in 2009-2010.libraries. of public access technologies, training, In providing these job-seeking and professional assistance. Public services, nearly half of libraries (49.8 summer 2012Jobs and E-government libraries support job-seekers in nu- percent) report the library does notServices Still in merous ways (Figure C-18): have enough staff to help patrons ef-High Demand n  Libraries (92.2 percent) pro- fectively with their job-seeking needs.Public libraries are critical providers vide access to jobs databases and Further, 41.3 percent report library | of employment and e-government other job opportunity resources, up staff does not have the necessary ex- digital supplement services, resources, and support. from 90.9 percent in 2010-2011 and pertise to meet patron job-seekingLibraries report they provide a number 88.2 percent in 2009-2010. needs.of resources and services to assist in- n  Libraries (77.1 percent) pro- Figure C-19 illustrates e-govern-dividuals seeking employment, apply- vide access to civil service examina- ment services public library outletsing for jobs, and interacting with tion materials, unchanged from 77.0 provide to patrons. Almost all publicgovernment agencies. These service percent in 2010-2011 and up from libraries (96.6 percent) report assist- | roles are in high demand as govern- 74.9 percent in 2009-2010. ing patrons with applying for and americanlibrariesmagazine.org ment agencies and employers increas- n  Libraries (77.5 percent) pro- accessing e-government services, aningly require online interactions. vide software and other resources to increase of almost 16 percent over theThese services are related to the need help patrons create resumes and past year. Urban libraries report theto build patrons’ digital literacy skill employment materials, up from 74.5 greatest increases: 97.3 percent reportlevels. For example, an individual ap- percent in 2010-2011 and 68.9 per- they provide assistance in applyingplying for e-government social ser- cent in 2009-2010. for and accessing e-government ser-vices requires a continuum of services n  Libraries (76 percent) provide vices, up significantly from 77.7 per-related to computer and Internet train- patrons with assistance in complet- cent last year. The percentage of 29
    • FIGURE C-19: E-GOVERNMENT ROLES AND SERVICES OF PUBLIC LIBRARY OUTLETS, BY METROPOLITAN STATUS Metropolitan Status E-Government roles and services Urban Suburban Rural Overall Staff provide assistance to patrons applying for or 97.3% 96.6% 96.4% 96.6% accessing e-government services Staff provide as needed assistance to patrons for 93.6% 91.9% 91.1% 91.8% understanding how to access and use e-government websites Staff provide assistance to patrons for understanding 57.8% 52.9% 45.6% 50.0% government programs and services Staff provide assistance to patrons for completing 71.0% 70.6% 70.7% 70.7% government forms The library developed guides, tip sheets, or other tools to 33.6% 22.2% 15.3% 20.6% help patrons use e-government websites and services The library offers training classes regarding the use of government websites, understanding government 24.5% 11.9% 6.2% 11.2% programs, and completing electronic forms The library offered translation services for forms and 10.9% 11.5% 4.4% 7.8% services in other languages The library partnered with government agencies, non-profit 43.1% 32.6% 25.7% 30.9% organizations, and others to provide e-government services The library worked with government agencies (local, state, or federal) to help agencies improve their websites and/or 12.3% 13.1% 9.3% 11.0% e-government services The library has at least one staff member with significant 31.4% 25.0% 20.0% 23.6% knowledge and skills in provision of e- government services summer 2012 Other 2.9% 2.8% 3.2% 3.0% Will not total 100%, as categories are not mutually exclusive| digital supplement  libraries that partner with govern- CONCLUSION serve as essential community access ment agencies and others to provide Although libraries continue to enhance points that build digitally inclusive e-government services also continues their public access services wherever communities, in spite of their inabil- to increase (30.9 percent, up from 25.1 possible, ongoing reductions in bud- ity to meet high public demand for|  percent last year). gets, staffing levels, and open hours public access technology, training andamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  Over 70 percent of libraries report inhibit any planned upgrades to broad- Internet-based resources. assisting patrons with completing band connectivity and public access government forms. Anecdotal reports technology, thus creating continuing from libraries indicate this percent- barriers to access. This difficult envi- ENDNOTES age would be significantly higher were ronment has not prevented public 1  Rainie, Lee, et. al. The Rise of E-reading. it not for privacy and liability issues libraries from offering innovative Pew Internet & American Life Project, April 5, 2012, http://libraries.pewinternet. that restrict the level of e-government public access services and resources. org/2012/04/04/the-rise-of-e-reading assistance that can be provided. Indeed, public libraries continue to (accessed April 23, 2012)30
    • ALA TechSourceSubscribe to ALA SubScribeTechSource now, get nOw!access to our electronicarchive and save BIG!• Access a growing archive of Library Technology Reports and Smart Libraries Newsletter• Read full issues online or as downloadable PDFs• Learn from industry- leading practitioners• Share unlimited simultaneous access across your institution summer 2012• Personalize with RSS alerts, saved items, and emailed favorites |  digital supplement  |  LibrAry TechnOLOgy americanlibrariesmagazine.org  Uncovered, explored, online Take Advantage of this Special Offer Today! alatechsource.org/subscribe Your support helps fund advocacy, awareness, and accreditation programs for library professionals worldwide. 31
    • L ibraries were selected from a pool of those responding to the Public Library Funding &Technology Access Studysurvey, with an emphasison selecting two statesfrom diverse regionsand one BTOPrecipient andnon-recipient forcomparisonpurposes. REPORTS FROM THE FIELD: GEORGIA AND IDAHOPUBLIC LIBRARY FUNDING& TECHNOLOGY ACCESSSTUDY 2011­ 2012 –
    • Following recommendations of In Idaho, the issue is the lack of avail- experience recovery, and reducedstaff at their respective state libraries, ability of any broadband in some rural open hours, furlough days, languish-selected interviewees were represen- communities. Idaho has had the great- ing collections, and dependency ontative of rural, suburban, and urban est gains in this arena, thanks to the soft money are taking a toll on thelibraries, as well as geographical di- award of a Broadband Technology Op- quality of and access to services.versity within each state. State library portunity Program (BTOP) grant, The two states offer different storiesstaff were also interviewed to provide which provided increased bandwidth of technology support. Georgia’s struc-a statewide context for these field and other resources for 40 percent of ture of regional library systems pro-interviews. The interviews are not Idaho’s public libraries. Although vides for one or more IT staff tomeant to provide a comprehensive Georgia’s public libraries are supplied coordinate technology support andview of public library technology in with broadband connectivity from the maintenance for all system locations.each state, but rather to offer descrip- state, all of those interviewed reported Conversely, a large majority of Idahotive, qualitative data that deepens the this connectivity is far below the libraries depend on non-IT specialistsunderstanding of issues related to amount needed to provide reliable and on staff, often the library director orlibrary funding and sustainability. consistent service. volunteers, to provide technology sup- While libraries in both Georgia and port and maintenance.Key Findings Idaho have struggled with funding Nearly all libraries in both statesThe greatest common challenge of the challenges since the very early days of report an increase in demand forlibraries in Georgia and Idaho is equip- the current recession, Idaho’s libraries technology training and assistance,ping libraries with sufficient broad- and communities have generally sta- yet are limited in their response byband speeds to meet public demand. bilized. Georgia’s libraries have yet to funding and staffing shortages. GEORGIA FIELD REPORTExecutive Summary many libraries report having trouble solutions are not cost-free, althoughSince the start of the current eco- meeting the demand due to staff short- they have provided measurable sav-nomic recession, Georgia’s public ages and a lack of dedicated computers ings. Library staff believe that, in manylibraries have been subject to a vicious for training. A lack of staffing also affects cases, the free or low-cost options arecycle of limited supply and high de- how libraries provide assistance for equal to or superior to the quality ofmand for all library services. Despite e-government and job search services. equivalent commercial products.budget cuts that have reduced hours Despite information system up- Expect more innovation from summer 2012and limited days of service, both on- grades in 2011, increasing broadband Georgia’s libraries. With the supportsite and remote use of library ser- demands by online video and social of a 2011 Institute of Museum andvices continues to increase. media mean that 70 percent of Geor- Library Services National Leadership Georgia’s unemployment rate, which gia’s libraries experience network Grant, the GPLS will lead a national | decreased to 9 percent in March 2012 saturation on a daily basis. 2 The planning effort for the development digital supplement from its peak of 10.5 percent in January Georgia Public Library Service of an open source software system for2010, continues to be above the na- (GPLS), which provides this broad- libraries that provide services fromtional rate.1 As more people struggle to band connectivity to all of the state’s the National Library Service for themake ends meet and find jobs, the de- public libraries, is researching af- Blind and Physically Handicapped.mand for free computer and Internet fordable, alternate models to supportaccess, technology training, and job a more extensive capacity upgrade. Background | search resources and assistance has IT staff are adopting more cost-ef- Georgia has 61 public library systems, americanlibrariesmagazine.org placed a tremendous burden on the fective open source software and free consisting of 33 regional library sys-library’s ability to respond. software for a wide variety of library tems and 28 single- county systems, For this reason, public access tech- functions. They are also successfully with 389 physical locations and 17nology remain a budget priority by those taking a “do-it-yourself” approach to mobile libraries. As the ninth mostinterviewed, despite substantial cuts to save money on technology projects, populous state, Georgia libraries servecollections, open hours and staffing (e.g., firewalls, digital lobby displays, a population of 9.68 million.3 Thelevels. The need for basic level com- and online transaction systems). How- state provides support for administra-puter training is still very high, and ever, open source and do-it-yourself tion of the public libraries through 33
    • viewed between December 2011 and January 2012. These staff from par- ticipating libraries work at six re- gional library systems and two single-county library systems, repre- sent libraries serving populations ranging from 42,000 to 700,000 people, and provide service from library systems ranging from four to 23 outlets. Research staff also interviewed GPLS staff. Although the interviews are not meant to provide a compre- hensive view of public library technol- ogy in the state, interviewees’ comments help illuminate the trends, challenges and successes when serv- ing the public in Georgia libraries. Athens-Clarke County Library – Athens Regional Library System Funding Landscape Georgia’s economic struggles followed the same trajectory as the rest of the GPLS. The Board of Regents of the In FY2009 (the most recent year for nation, with a state budget shortfall University System of Georgia oversees which national statistics are avail- that experienced a peak of 28.8 per- the GPLS, as well as the state’s 35 col- able), Georgia’s public libraries re- cent in FY2010, and then eased to a leges and universities. ported hosting 40.9 million visits, 7.6% shortfall for FY2012. As in the State funding for each library sys- answering 8.7 million reference ques- majority of states, funding for Georgia tem is comprised of three line items: tions, and circulating more than 47.8 public libraries was negatively af- professional salaries, materials, and million items. Georgia residents are fected at both the state and local levels. maintenance/operations. The state served by 3,104 library employees, of During the past four years, Geor- also provides broadband connectiv- whom 691 hold a Master’s degree in gia’s state funding for public library summer 2012 ity for each system, funded with a mix Library and Information Science.4 services has decreased 25 percent. of 25 percent state funding and 75 The state ranks 47th in the nation This includes funding for state percent E-rate. (including the District of Columbia) agency operations and state grants to In 2006, the Georgia Public Library for full-time equivalent (FTE) staff the public library systems. Each|  Service initiated the Evergreen Proj- per 25,000 residents, with 8.22 FTE library system has been able to deter-digital supplement  ect to develop an open source inte- compared to the national average of mine how to allocate its budget reduc- grated library system (ILS). The 12.14 FTE. The state also ranks 46th tion for the year from among three majority of the libraries (80 percent) in total operating revenue per capita, budget categories professional sala- utilize Evergreen/PINES (Public In- with $22.60 compared to the na- ries, materials, or maintenance/op- formation Network for Electronic tional average of $39.02 per capita.5 erations. The varied fiscal situation Services), the state’s ILS. Libraries Georgia averages 16.6 public access in each of the 61 library systems is due|  use the software to provide their pub- computers per library outlet, which to the individual mix of city, county,americanlibrariesmagazine.org  lic catalog interface, as well as to is above the national average of 13.9, and state funding. However, when manage circulation, acquisition of and the state ranks eighth in public specifically asked about cumulative materials, and resource sharing access computers per 5,000 resi- effect on overall budgets for the past among all member libraries. After dents.6 two years, all eight systems inter- Evergreen was released, more than Eight library directors and 13 ad- viewed reported decreased funding. 1,000 consortia and individual ditional staff members from adminis- To meet increased community libraries in the U.S., Canada, and tration, IT, training and community demand, budgets for public access worldwide, adopted this ILS. relations at eight libraries were inter- technology remains a high priority34
    • among those interviewed. Collec-tions, open hours and staffing levelshave suffered the most from thesebudget cuts. For a few libraries, collectionsexpenditures are now gutted. Since2008, the collections budget of theDeKalb County Public Library hasbeen reduced by 96 percent (from$2,200,000 to $100,000). In FY2011,the Three Rivers Regional LibrarySystem took its full state cut to collec-tions. In that year, for librarieswithin the system that did not receiveadditional local funding, only do- Decatur Library – DeKalb County Public Librarynated materials were added to thecollection. staffing levels, mainly by implement- director of the West Georgia Re- Overall, 30 percent of Georgia’s ing hiring freezes. Layoffs have oc- gional Library reports that matchingpublic libraries report reductions in curred in a few libraries, including funds programs, initiated by two ofopen hours since the last fiscal year, the Three Rivers Regional Library the Friends groups within the system,a percentage well over the national System, a system that serves an area have brought in extra donations.average of 9 percent. Most of those larger than the combined states ofinterviewed tried to cut hours versus Delaware and Rhode Island. Nor- Technology Resourceswhole days, but that tactic is not always mally allocated 10 librarians from Most of those interviewed reportsufficient. In January 2012, the largest state funding, now only four librarians the same trend as 66% of Georgialibrary and headquarters of the Sara are available to serve the entire region. public libraries —increased use ofHightower Regional Library System To deal with staffing shortages, many public access computers over the pastimplemented closures on both Fridays staff are sharing duties in other depart- year.and Sundays, due to the library’s in- ments. The webmaster/technology “The only reason we didn’t reportability to afford the utility costs for trainer for the Sara Hightower Re- an increase this year,” said one librarythe 75,000 sq. ft. building. Two of Hall gional Library System is now also director, “is because we have beenCounty Library System’s six outlets working at the circulation desk, result- maxed out on available public work-have been closed, and the remaining ing in significant delays to work on the stations. Not enough money and not summer 2012four have all experienced cuts to days library’s website and the number of enough space.”and/or open hours. public technology training classes that Many report surging public demand In Georgia, 58 percent of public can be offered. Managers at a number for technology training and are busylibraries report being the only free of libraries are doubling and tripling searching for solutions to help meet | access venue to computers and Inter- up on the departments they oversee. those needs. digital supplement net in their communities. Staff at a For two among those interviewed, the With a high percentage of retireesfew of the libraries note that, in ad- IT managers are also responsible for in its service area, the Mountain Re-dition to the community at large, this the cataloging departments. gional Library System has experi-access is critical for the college stu- Many of the libraries depend on enced an influx of patrons who lackdents in their service area. For ex- foundations, endowments, and technology experience, but are eagerample, the library at a community Friends groups to fill in the growing to learn. Library staff has developed | college in the Southwest Georgia gaps in services and resources. The a five-part basics series, that upon americanlibrariesmagazine.org Regional Library service area closes director of the Southwest Georgia completion, leads to more advancedat noon on Friday and is only open on Regional Library commends the “pro- classes, such as how to use word pro-Saturdays for four hours. The com- gressive board chair that led the cessing software and how to bookmunity college’s students depend on creation of the library foundation in travel online.the public library for computers, 1990.” This past year, their foundation “What has been so amazing is weInternet access, research resources funded the e-book collection, and started out with two classes, and rightand assistance. named endowments provided over away every class we added was double- Those interviewed have all reduced $30,000 for books and materials. The booked. We are doing multiples of 35
    • those classes to meet demand. It has no computers are provided at the li- underappreciated service because, so mushroomed beyond anything I could cense bureau for drivers to complete often, they don’t realize the number have imagined,” said the library direc- this online renewal. “The bureau staff of people who come here to use com- tor. As the library does not have a directed people to the public library, puters.” The staff documents success computer lab, many of the classes are but never communicated this change stories to share along with statistics: held after hours. Students are bring- to the libraries.” The libraries saw a how the owners of a new bakery and a ing in their own laptops to overcome large influx of people who had never new restaurant both acquired their the lack of available training worksta- before used a computer, needed an computer skills and small business tions. e-mail address, and then had to de- training by attending Spanish-lan- The Athens Regional Library System velop enough computer proficiency to guage programs held at the library. has enhanced its public training with take the online test to get their re- The Athens Regional Library Sys- the creation of a robust remote interac- newal. “This was a tem director won- tive training program using the WebEx challenge for the “The Digital Divide used to dered aloud, “If platform. This popular initiative, libraries because someone wants to funded by a grant from the Institute for staffing was start- be the computer-haves and apply for a job at a Museum and Library Services, pro- ing to decrease,” have-nots…now it is about national retail vided added benefit after the closing said the IT librar- the broadband-haves and chain in our area, of the computer lab in Athens for a ian. “And the peo- they are directed year-long expansion project. The ple who came in have-nots.” to our library to do library system also uses the online were already frus- it electronically. platform for staff training. The GPLS trated because they’d been turned Many employees at another national now provides a WebEx account to all away from the license bureau, and retailer must come to our library to library systems, used both for statewide based on what they were told at the print out their W2s. If we weren’t here, staff professional development and to bureau, came in expecting a level of what would these corporations do?” support expected growth in the demand assistance that was not immediately Five of the eight interviewed re- for online training for the public. available to them. It was hard on all of cently launched downloadable e-book Demand continues to be high for us.” collections, with four doing so as part open lab time for self-directed in- All interviewed report demand for of a statewide consortium. One library struction and one-on-one tutoring. job-seeking assistance continues to had downloadable audiobooks only. However, many libraries report having be high, but also shared some success The three libraries without e-book insufficient staff to provide this level stories. collections report the cost is too pro- summer 2012 of assistance and are constantly One library director recounted the hibitive, particularly in light of the searching for qualified volunteers to story of a woman with limited com- cuts made to their collections budgets. provide support. puter skills who came to use the library “There is just too much upheaval in Public libraries are overwhelmed computers to train for licensing that industry to make that kind of financial|  by the demand to provide for public would improve her professional op- commitment,” said the director of thedigital supplement  e-government needs as government tions. “A number of months after she West Georgia Regional Library. agencies increasingly offer exclu- completed her online work, she re- “Sometimes there are advantages to sively online access to information turned to let us know that, due to her not being at the forefront, and pull and services. Over 95 percent of Geor- work at the library, she had doubled back for a bit. Remember VHS versus gia libraries report providing assis- her income. She was as grateful as Beta, and video disks?” tance for what many describe as an could be, because our staff did much While most libraries maintain some|  “unfunded mandate.” more than just turn on the computer level of social media presence, pri-americanlibrariesmagazine.org  Those interviewed describe the and point at a website – we encouraged marily on Facebook, activity is gener- needs of one distinct group: profes- her every step of the way.” ally moderate. Staffing shortages sional truck drivers. A few years ago, The director of the Athens Re- limit the volume and variety of post- the State of Georgia required that all gional Library System continues to ings. Still, libraries recognize the Commercial Driver License (CDL) communicate the role the library plays importance of utilizing this free plat- renewals occur online. in economic development, especially form and hope to be able to increase The IT librarian of the Three Rivers to groups like the county commission their social media activity. Regional Library System reports that and chamber of commerce. “It’s an Two interviewees host a mobile36
    • optimized website with interactive having to come in long before the tors bandwidth usage and willapplications. Three others host mo- library opens to conduct work that temporarily allow patrons to accessbile websites without interactivity, involves online transactions. anything that the filtering softwareand the remaining three others do not The GPLS is working to find a solu- allows. “Video access is not a guaran-have a mobile optimized website. The tion to these capacity issues, and in- teed service,” said the library networkIT manager at the Hall County Library dividual library systems are lobbying administrator.“When patrons areSystem has created the mobile app for to obtain additional connectivity from given the opportunity to access videosthe library’s website, which includes local entities. For a number of the and other bandwidth-intensive web-the functionality for texting a librar- multi-county systems, local support sites, the usage (saturation rate)ian. It is designed so the librarian has been elusive, due to what has been quickly rises to 100 percent.”receives the query and answers described as a “lack of ownership” Three of the eight interviewed havethrough e-mail, although the re- from their diverse city and county been able to obtain fiber connectiv-sponse is received by the sender as a funding units. ity, bringing much-needed relief totext message. A number of libraries have deter- library staff. The Athens Regional One library staff member notes that mined that, to stay functional, they Library System has been able to ex-not every library has the in-house staff must limit access to videos, including pand to 20 Mbps at one of its 11 loca-expertise to develop a mobile applica- distance learning videos. The South- tions. The DeKalb County Publiction on their own. On his wish list is west Georgia Regional Library moni- Library’s bond program provided thethe donation by a developer from amajor computer company to create asingle app that allows a user to selecttheir library, and includes a templateto customize the look and the choiceof available features.ConnectivitySince 1998, the GPLS has provided thestate’s public library systems withbroadband connectivity, in variousquantities of T1 (1.5 Mbps) units, asdetermined by the number of comput-ers at each location. The range of T1units per location for those inter- summer 2012viewed ranged from one to six (9Mbps) for a library with 100 publicaccess computers. Those interviewed note that no one | ever imagined the amount of broad- digital supplement band capacity that would be neededin this age of online video and socialmedia; this high demand incapacitatesmost of those interviewed on a dailybasis. The high level of public use,exacerbated by shared staff and pub- | lic broadband connections, results in americanlibrariesmagazine.org virtual daily shutdowns of Internetservice for both library staff and thepublic. Library Internet activity grindsto a halt every weekday around 3 p.m.after school lets out. Interviewees alsoexperience a similar freeze-up rightafter the library opens. Administra-tive and technical services staff report Rome-Floyd County Library – Sara Hightower Regional Library 37
    • failure, then we replace.” A number of interviewees ex- pressed frustration with the inability to perform hardware and software upgrades on all their public access computers at the same time. Having different computers on different systems results in inefficient main- tenance activities and extra expendi- tures of time and money. In response, some libraries have chosen to retain older programs for their computers until they can afford to upgrade all equipment at once. To combat funding decreases, a number interviewees are actively Carrollton Library – West Georgia Regional Library researching and adopting open source software and free software for a wide range of service platforms. funding to connect to the county’s I- Regional Library’s 17 locations are still “Because of the struggle with fund- net fiber ring. The library’s connectiv- without it. The DeKalb County Public ing, I try to do everything that I can ity is now 100 Mbps, and library staff Library reports waiting for the fiber with open source software and get report that they are already at 70-80% broadband upgrade before adding everything free that I can get my hands capacity. Wi-Fi two years ago. on,” said the IT manager of the Hall The Mountain Regional Library County Library System. “Open source System was party to a federal stimulus Technology Support is getting much better. When new grant to create a network to bring fiber and Maintenance programs are launched, they tend to to the area. The library was able to add Each regional library system in Geor- be rather rudimentary, but give it a 10 Mbps for $250 per month, prior to gia has one or more IT staff member year or two. The open source content calculating the additional 80% E-rate to coordinate technology support and management system we use was discount. The library was able to maintenance for all system locations. very raw at first, but now it’s better summer 2012 implement a solution that other Technology support includes setting than any paid equivalent system I’ve libraries interviewed are seeking: a up a network of technology liaisons at seen.” complete separation of staff and pub- each location, remote monitoring The Athens Regional Library Sys- lic broadband networks. Many technology, and, in the case of a tem has used open source ghosting|  libraries share the networks, sepa- couple of the larger libraries, field technology for image replication. Thedigital supplement  rated only by firewalls. The Mountain deployment of IT staff to outlets on a library is also transitioning its website Regional Library System has kept the rotating schedule. to an open source content manage- state’s T1s for the PINES/staff net- With ongoing reduced funding ment system that the IT manager work, and the additional 10 Mbps is levels, most of those interviewed are believes will provide a more interac- solely for public Internet access. “We unable to maintain replacement tive management system than their took money out of every place we could schedules for their public worksta- current system.|  to pay for the fiber. We just couldn’t tions. “We cannot afford to purchase allamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  function without it,” said the library “You can have a technology plan the software that patrons are using director. down on paper and talk about a re- outside and want to continue to work Wireless connectivity in Georgia placement schedule, but you buy when on in the library,” said the IT librarian libraries is close to full coverage, with there is money. Now it’s ‘pie in the of the Three Rivers Regional Library 97.9% of public libraries reporting sky’,” said the director of the West System. “So now we are utilizing Open that they provide access. All of those Georgia Regional Library. Office, which will convert just about interviewed have Wi-Fi, although ap- One library IT manager com- everything for us.” The library system proximately 25% of the West Georgia mented, “When we have catastrophic has also adopted an open source fire-38
    • wall solution. Small modifications are resources, collection development as quickly as we would like. We maymade to old computers, and the and programming. be closing the gap on exposure to“brain” of the firewall is loaded on a The director of the Hall County technology, but there is still a large$10 flash drive. The total cost per Library System is unsure what will be gap in knowledge on how to do thefirewall is about $100, versus a typical offered at their new technology library, things they need to do online.”commercial product cost of $1,000. scheduled to open in July 2012, because Envisioning a more robust solution The DeKalb County Public Library the County is not sure how much for library connectivity issues, thetook the “do-it-yourself” route to set money will be available to equip the director of the Hall County Library outlet. “We write System said, “I look forward to the“Things don’t look as bad to the patrons technology grants day when most library traffic moves when we can, but airtime, via satellite, and fiber iswho walk into a new building and see computers have only for the most secure transmis-48 brand-spanking-new computers, but moved beyond be- sions.”walk into one of our old facilities and it’s ing cutting edge, so grants are hard- Successesduct tape.” er to make attrac- Interviewees report successes and tive. When accomplishments in the past year thatup systems for online payments and working with lean staffing, it becomes have made a difference in their com-for digital (virtual) lobby displays. The disheartening to go after money when munities. Each library director ac-library’s automation services coordi- it is mostly speculative.” knowledged important staffnator estimates that two weeks of work For libraries that had passed bonds contributions to their library’s growthby their creative e-branch manager for new construction prior to the 2008 and innovation. “We just have theon an alternative lobby display saved economic drop, staff noted major most wonderful, creative staff. Theythe library close to $60,000. public perception issues regarding see the needs in our community and The trade-off in using open source their funding situation. In 2005, the just go the extra mile to make life bet-development and do-it-yourself solu- DeKalb County Public Library passed ter for people. They absolutely are ourtions in place of purchasing software a $54.5 million bond for 12 building most valuable resource,” said theand hardware is staff time, and that projects, which increased the system director of the Mountain Regionalstaff must possess advanced program- size by almost a third. In 2011, the Library System.ming expertise. Still, libraries note system had to open three new loca- There is great enthusiasm and pridethat these alternative efforts have tions with no new staff. To manage expressed on the part of IT staff forprovided measurable cost savings. this shortfall, they moved staff around their innovative solutions to maintain and cut hours at all locations. Regard- public access technology. This in- summer 2012Challenges ing the challenges with maintaining cludes in-house design of interactiveThe slow economic recovery and un- technology, the library director com- mobile apps, do-it-yourself firewalls,certain future levels of local and state mented that, “Things don’t look as and adoption of open source and freesupport suppresses new initiatives bad to the patrons who walk into a new software for a number of platforms, | and overall services for many. building and see 48 brand-spanking- including content management sys- digital supplement  “It’s too hard to continue paying for new computers, but you walk into one tems, ghosting technology, and e-hard costs with soft money,” said the of our old facilities and it’s duct tape.” mail.director of the Mountain Regional With more than half of Georgia’s Many of the library directors stressLibrary System. “Our Friends group public libraries reporting inadequate that community partnerships arehas been paying to keep the library Internet connection speeds, a number critical to the current and ongoingopen one day, but they are nearly of staff at rural libraries felt that this viability of libraries, particularly in | broke, so that will probably end.” A limited their digital literacy efforts. the light of decreased funding. The americanlibrariesmagazine.org number of libraries named other soft “The Digital Divide used to be the Goodwill Industries provides assis-money purchases, such as e-book computer-haves and have-nots, but tance to job-seekers at the DeKalbcollections and Wi-Fi. more so now it is about the broad- County Public Library. The assistant More than one library director band-haves and have-nots,” said the director of the Southwest Georgiashared the observation that “budget assistant director of the Three Rivers Regional Library, who serves on thecuts have removed our ability to plan.” Regional Library System. The library’s Department of Labor Employer’sThis applied to all areas of library IT librarian noted that the “gap is Committee, commented that “we bothoperations, including technology closing in rural communities, but not rely on this partnership.” 39
    • Serving a region with the highest nicating the issues they are facing to limited supply and high demand for number of veterans per capita in the the public. “One of our greatest ac- library services. Increased library use state, the Mountain Regional Library complishments has been keeping is being driven by needs from all System’s partnership with the Depart- public computers and services avail- demographics: basic level computer ment of Veterans’ Affairs provides able in the face of all the cuts,” said training for displaced workers and classes for veterans, spouses and the assistant director of the Hall retirees, e-book enthusiasts, families caregivers on how to use the depart- County Library System. “Our patrons taking advantage of free DVDs and ment’s website for a variety of health recognize that a public library does CDs, and Internet connectivity for the and medical needs. A technical school not have to offer Excel training, but thousands of Georgia residents with- provides instructors for computer and we’re still offering classes, albeit less out high-speed broadband at home. English as a Second Language classes often. But what has also helped us Library staff interviewed voiced their for a specialized outlet of the Athens during these harsh times is that we commitment to removing barriers to Regional Library System. The outlet have done a good job publicizing the service through sufficient levels of serves as a resource and information challenges of our funding cuts and broadband capacity, access to cutting- center for the nearly 18,000 Hispanic explaining what has been behind some edge technology, expanded e-book immigrants who live in the county; it tough choices.” collections, and, most importantly, is often the first stop for many new funding to sustain the open hours and immigrants so they can learn English Conclusion staffing needed to provide the critical and computer skills. Georgia libraries are energetically digital literacy skills necessary to suc- A number of libraries note the pursuing innovative solutions to bal- ceed in today’s global, technology- importance of successfully commu- ance the continuing challenges of driven marketplace. IDAHO FIELD REPORT Executive Summary band Technology Opportunity Pro- year for which national statistics are The Great Recession has affected gram (BTOP) grant awarded to Idaho available), Idaho libraries reported Idaho more than almost any other (and matching funds from the Bill & hosting more than 9.2 million library state. Since 2008, the unemployment Melinda Gates Foundation and Idaho visits, answering 1.2 million reference rate increased over 150 percent. In Public Television), 40 percent of the questions, and circulating more than response to job losses in manufactur- state’s library buildings will increase 13.9 million items. summer 2012 ing, logging, mining, and construc- bandwidth and the number of public Idaho residents are served by 724 tion, the unemployed are seeking access computers. Upon completion employees, of whom 78 hold a Master’s GEDs, computer skills, and new train- of the BTOP grant-funded installa- degree in Library and Information ing to reenter the workforce, and many tions, bandwidth, computers and Science. The state ranks 46th in the|  are looking to their public libraries Internet users are expected to increase nation (including the District of Colum-digital supplement  for computer access and training. by a factor of ten.8 bia) for full-time equivalent (FTE) staff Seventy percent of public libraries in per 25,000 residents, with 1.44 FTE per Idaho reported that they are the only Background capita compared to the national average free public Internet access point in Idaho has 104 public library jurisdic- of 2.77 FTE. The state also ranks 31st in their communities. However, many tions, with 141 physical locations and the country in operating revenue per are poorly equipped with low band- 10 mobile libraries (bookmobiles) to capita - $33.38, compared with a na-|  width and too few computers. Idaho serve a population of 1.4 million resi- tional average of $36.84.10americanlibrariesmagazine.org  ranks 41st in the country for providing dents, of whom 34 percent reside in Seven library directors and one public access computers per outlet – rural areas .9 The majority of libraries branch manager were interviewed be- 8.5 per capita, compared to the na- are organized either as municipal tween November 2011 and January 2012 tional average of 13.9.7 libraries (48.1 percent) or district as part of the Public Library Funding However, there is also good news libraries (51.9 percent), including a and Technology Access Study. They to report. Thanks to a $1.9 million few school/community libraries and serve communities ranging from National Telecommunications and multi-jurisdictional (city/district) 6,000 to 100,000 residents. Five of Information Administration Broad- libraries. In FY2009 (the most recent those interviewed provide service from40
    • one single outlet, while the other twomanage four to eight outlets. The in-terviews are not meant to provide acomprehensive view of public libraryfunding and technology in the state,but their comments help illuminatetrends, challenges and successes inserving the public in Idaho libraries.Funding LandscapePrimary funding for Idaho’s librariescomes from local sources (95.3 per-cent), and the largest percentage ofoperating expenditures goes for staff(66.1 percent). A few library directorsreport concerns about dwindlingbudgets and are expecting a slow re- Burley Public Librarycovery that corresponds with thenational and state economic lag. The city employees and added new staff to Commission for Libraries. The StateAda Community Library experienced provide two full-time positions at the agency’s LiLI (Libraries Linkinga 33 percent budget decrease over the circulation desk. Idaho) database portal acquired newpast three years, forcing the library to While most libraries report their online resources that include Scout,reduce its databases and public pro- budgets remained stable in FY2011- an online video encyclopedia, andgrams. American Falls District Library 2012, prospects for the coming year are LearningExpress, which providesexperienced an operating budget unclear. The consolidation with the tools for test preparation and skill-decrease of 2 percent, and cut its Post Falls Library resulted in a 46 per- building. The complete LiLI portal ismaterials and technology expendi- cent budget increase for the Commu- available to all Idaho libraries andtures. For 30 percent of Idaho’s nity Library Network, which now residents.libraries, total operating expenditures includes eight service outlets, the larg- The BTOP grant supports a partner-range from $10,000 - $49,000 (IMLS est consolidation in the history of ship with the Department of Labor toFY2009). The Lizard Butte Public Idaho public libraries. However, the provide workshops for library staffLibrary, operating on a $56,000 an- director is moving forward cautiously and community members concernednual budget, has frozen staff salaries. due to the state’s economic climate, with economic development and serv- summer 2012“We had been able to increase the “We will start to rebound in late 2012, ing the jobless and underemployed.budget 3 percent each year but have 2013, so we’re looking at a long, long Mountain Home Public Library retainsput that on hold due to the town’s slow haul. We didn’t boom quite the student coaches to provide technol-economic climate, and staff has not way the rest of the country did.” ogy support to library patrons, while | had salary increases since 2007,” said Ada Community Library and the Com- digital supplement the library director. Technology Resources munity Library Network set up Mountain Home Public Library Among those interviewed, the number courses for e-basics training andexperienced only a slight decrease of public access computers ranged employment skills. “Job search isover the past two years and thanks the from 11 in a small rural library to 83 changing so much that it’s nice to havecity for that, “Based on the economy, in a large suburban library system. All a resource that patrons can use to getand particularly Mountain Home’s of the libraries interviewed provide the help they need,” said one suburban | economy, the city has been proactive wireless Internet access to patrons. library director. americanlibrariesmagazine.org for the last two years getting prepared The 2011-2012 study indicates that The BTOP grant also includes up-for the worst-case scenario.”  Others 92.4 percent of Idaho libraries provide dates of equipment and services, newnoted increases in funding over the Wi-Fi, compared to 75.9 percent a year computers and laptops, firewall/past two years. Nampa Public Library earlier. server and filtering services for CIPAwas able to reopen the library on Six of the libraries interviewed were compliance, and faster Internet con-Tuesdays and add more staff to a new direct recipients of technology and nections. Nampa Public Library isservice desk. Burley Public Library online resources provided through planning to use the 12 laptops theyincreased staff salaries to match all the BTOP grant awarded to the Idaho received to develop a technology train- 41
    • Idaho libraries overall reported pro- viding e-books, an increase of 28 percent from last year. Connectivity A critical component of Idaho’s BTOP project is bringing faster broadband speeds to some of Idaho’s most under- served communities. Six of the libraries interviewed have upgraded their broad- band speeds, ranging from a minimum of 1.5 Mbps to 50 Mbps. Mountain Home Public Library and a rural outlet of the Ada Community Library both increased their broadband speeds from 1.5 Mbps to 20 Mbps with the help of BTOP and an E-rate discount. Additionally, both BTOP and an 80 percent E-rate discount helped Nampa Public Library increase their broadband speed to 30 Mbps. Statewide, there has been a significant increase in the number of libraries reporting connection speeds greater than 10 Mbps: 26.8 percent this year, compared to 7 percent last year. At the same time, Idaho libraries with speeds less than 1.5 Mbps dropped almost 20 percent from the year before. A few library directors raised con- cerns about getting any or enough broadband out to rural areas. The di- summer 2012 rector of the Community Library Network in northern Idaho has large sections of the library system where virtually no residents have access to|  high-speed bandwidth “unless theydigital supplement  are wealthy enough to buy a very elaborate satellite connection. So re- ally, the fact that the library’s providing Top: Mountain Home Public Library Bottom: Nampa Public Library high-speed access and good computers is a technological benefit that affects ing center for patrons. Right now, the available for patrons. One rural library everyone.” Prior to the BTOP project,|  library is limited to three public access director is delaying e-books in the the most rural Community Libraryamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  computers for training. Burley Public library, due to high start-up costs and Network service outlet had only a frac- Library allows patrons to borrow the ongoing issues with the various sup- tional T1 line that was supposed to 10 laptops that they received from the porting technical platforms. Of the guarantee 128 kpbs, but only ran at 12 grant for use in the library. seven libraries interviewed for this kbps. Through BTOP, they now have a Two of those interviewed – Ada report, the Community Library Net- dedicated T1 line and are working on Community and Nampa – have joined work was the only library currently a wireless solution that will bring them an Idaho consortium and will soon have offering e-books, which were added in up to 5 Mbps when completed. downloadable e-books and audiobooks October 2011. Over 66 percent of The Burley Public Library director42
    • notes that rural communities’ lack ofbroadband access is a huge issue, andit is vital that libraries provide accessto those underserved patrons. Na-tional survey findings echoed the needfor more broadband in rural com-munities, with almost 75 percent ofrural libraries offering speeds below10 Mbps. The Director of the American FallsDistrict Library reports being mod-erately satisfied with the library’sbroadband speed of 6-10 Mbps. “Inrural Idaho, we have the best that’soffered in our area right now, but that Lizard Butte Public Libraryis one place that we really would spendmoney to improve.” have had an increase in circulation, Ada Community libraries both agreeTechnology Support due to reopening the library on Tues- that, with technology changes moving& Maintenance days and restoring hours that had been at lightning speed, an added burden Fifty percent of Idaho’s public decreased over the previous two years. has been placed on their staff andlibraries report that their IT support One rural interview reports patron limited IT support. “You learn how tocomes from the library director and use of computers has decreased by 22 do it one way and then it changes three37.6 percent comes from public ser- percent over the past year. This sig- months later,” said the Burley libraryvice staff. One director of a small nificant change occurred due to the director. “You can be an expert today,library describes her IT support as lack of adequate Internet connectiv- and then tomorrow you’re back at“whomever I can find to do it.” ity, but once that was alleviated square one.” Many of those inter- Many of the library directors inter- through the BTOP grant, computer viewed noted that it is a struggle forviewed express uncertainty about how usage soared. “It’s a happy story in library staff to keep up with the wideto balance IT maintenance with a vari- terms of waiting for something to variety of technology applications,ety of other technology-related needs. come along that would change some demanding more time away from“It’d be really wonderful if we had a of the woes that we were having,” said other essential library duties.full-time staff member the library director. For other library directors, increas-dedicated to IT support,” One small summer 2012 Ada Community ing challenges continue, along with thesaid the Mountain Home library director Library has experi- uncertainty of future funding for main-library director. “For now, describes her enced huge increases in taining reliable equipment and tech-we stomp out the fires on an their Wi-Fi usage over nology services. Many are doing what IT support as | as-needed basis.” the past year, following they can to keep the technology con- digital supplement  Ada Community Library “whomever I can a national trend of 74.1 sistent from year to year. “If the re-has a four- to five-year find to do it.” p e r c e n t of p u b l i c placement program isn’t working andtechnology replacement libraries that reported the funding isn’t there, then you do theplan and, with the added resources from that Wi-Fi usage has increased since next best thing and begin to acquirethe BTOP grant, has been able to adhere FY2011. The library has also started what anyone wants to drop off, basedto that plan. They also have one full-time offering laptop checkouts at two of its on the fact that at some point, it’s going | IT staff member, and each outlet has an outlets. to be usable,” said the Mountain Home americanlibrariesmagazine.org IT lead to be the go-to person. “Every- library director. The Ada Communityone needs to be tech savvy, even on the Challenges Library reports funding has been afront line,” said the library director. For the Idaho interviewees, the pre- substantial challenge, delaying key dominant issues are providing ade- projects such as updating a 10-year-oldChanges Over quate tech support for the rapidly laptop lab.the Past Year changing technical devices available The directors of Lizard Butte andNampa Public Library’s computer to patrons and funding stability for Nampa public libraries both voicedsessions are up 12 percent; they also the future. Directors at the Burley and concern regarding the funding avail- 43
    • able to obtain and “If you have one Community Library and public access computers neces- sustain the level of IT person that gets what also received two sary to keep up with rapidly chang- support necessary for other hugely success- ing technologies and community their library’s public they need—whether ful grants over the demand. There has been an almost 20 access technology. it’s a job, medical past year: an LSTA percent increase in the number of The Nampa Public information, or grant for a computer libraries reporting connection speeds Library director re- center that estab- greater than 10 Mbps, and 92.4 per- ports they have im- connecting with the lished web confer- cent of Idaho libraries now provide proved the library’s boyfriend away at encing, and a grant wireless Internet access. All of the technical support by college—you are a from Wal-Mart Foun- library directors interviewed will no longer handling it dation to purchase a be moving forward cautiously due independently, but success because they white board and on- to the state’s economic climate, con- instead relying on are successful.” line homework help tinuing to find ways to meet library increased city sup- software. The Nampa patrons’ technical demands, while port. “But my challenge is that they Public Library director plans on using trying to keep their software and are under the same situation I am; they the laptops acquired through the BTOP equipment maintained and up-to- haven’t had pay increases in a number grant to offer new training classes on date, in spite of a lack of reliable IT of years, and that impacts the quality résumé preparation and the online support. and availability of staff.” application process. The director of the Lizard Butte Several library directors mentioned ENDNOTES Public Library depends on volunteers meeting community demand and 1  Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Department for IT support. With only four part- public access needs as among the past of Labor. Economy at a Glance. http://www.bls. time staff members, including the year’s noteworthy successes. gov/eag/eag.us.htm (accessed April 23. 2012). director, there is no money in the “I think that we’re providing a broad 2  Georgia Public Library Service (2012, budget for IT support. “My knowledge range of benefits through our technol- February). “Statistics Show Libraries Becoming Round-the-clock Service Providers.” News, vol. of the technology is very limited, and ogy with a heightened sense in the 9, no. 4. Page 2. I do the best I can on my own as long rural areas that we are probably the 3  United States Census Bureau. U.S. as I can,” said the Lizard Butte Public best broadband in town,” said the Department of Commerce. http://www.census. Library director. Community Library Network director. gov/ (accessed April 23, 2012). Directors of the American Falls 4  Institute of Museum and Library Services. summer 2012 Successes District Library and Burley Public Public Library Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, D.C.: IMLS, 2011. http://harvester. For the six libraries that received Library both note that keeping patrons census.gov/imls/pubs/pls/ondex.asp BTOP-funded increased broadband connected to technology to that which 5  Ibid and new technology resources, direc- they otherwise would not have access|  tors agree this is the biggest success of to is a fundamental role for libraries. 6  Ibiddigital supplement  the past year. Being able to provide a “If you have one person that gets what 7  Institute of Museum and Library Services. reliable and consistent foundation for they need — whether it’s a job, medical Public Library Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, D.C.: IMLS, 2011. http://harvester. library patrons is imperative for many information, or connecting with the census.gov/imls/pubs/pls/index.asp of the library directors interviewed boyfriend away at college — you are a 8  Idaho Commission for Libraries. (2011). because it keeps people coming back. success because they are successful,” BTOP public computer center project at Idaho “Libraries can be wonderful social said the Burley Public Library director. public libraries. Retrieved from http://libraries.|  idaho.gov/files/BTOPOverviewSummer2011. gathering sites; customers can one-stopamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  pdf shop,” said the Mountain Home library Conclusion 9  Economic Research Service. United States director. “They get books for their With the receipt of the $1.9 million Department of Agriculture. State Facts: Idaho, children, they access the Internet, they BTOP grant (and matching funds from January 17, 2012. Retrieved from http://www. ers.usda.gov/statefacts/ID.HTM may discover some new digital resource, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation they may find a program they’re inter- and Idaho Public Television), many 10  Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Library Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. ested in, and this is just the beginning.” more Idaho libraries are able to Washington, D.C.: IMLS, 2011. http://harvester. Along with the BTOP grant, Ada provide the faster connection speeds census.gov/imls/pubs/pls/index.asp44
    • STATE SUMMARY DATA T he 2011–2012 Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study national survey sampled and received responses from all states and the District of Columbia. The survey did not, summer 2012 however, receive enough responses from all states for analysis purposes. The following state tables provide selected summary survey data for the states for which there were adequate and representative responses (48 in all, plus the District of Columbia). |  digital supplement  States for which data could not be fully analyzed are Connecticut and Oregon. The survey data were weighted to enable state projec- 2.  Total number of libraries in the state (the |  tions. The weighting used was based on two variables: data presented in the tables are statewide esti- americanlibrariesmagazine.org  1.­  Metropolitan status of libraries in the state mates). (urban, suburban and rural). Additional state data is available online. PUBLIC LIBRARY FUNDING & TECHNOLOGY ACCESS*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington,STUDY 2011­ 2012 DC: IMLS, 2011. – 45
    • ALABAMA AL US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $20.35 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 2.7% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 59.9% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 17.3 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 38.3% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 71.0% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 6.7% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 43.0% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 29.4% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 3.4% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 10.9% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 67.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 84.4% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 100.0% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 76.7% 69.7% e-books 46.1% 76.3%|  Audio content 75.8% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 60.4% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 88.7% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 98.0% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 100.0% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 81.6% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 46
    • ALASKA AK US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $47.50 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 0.0% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 61.3% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 7.7 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 44.0% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 46.3% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 28.5% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 26.9% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 30.3% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 1.6% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 4.8% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 38.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 84.2% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 90.5% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 50.7% 69.7% e-books 41.1% 76.3% |  Audio content 79.2% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 57.6% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 80.1% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 80.8% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 89.7% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 55.0% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 47
    • ARIZONA AZ US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $26.73 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 10.7% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 64.0% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 25.4 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 30.6% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 80.0% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 5.6% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 16.8% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 30.4% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 35.9% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 11.2% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 49.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 97.3% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 78.5% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 44.1% 69.7% e-books 55.9% 76.3%|  Audio content 92.0% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 53.4% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 87.2% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 94.1% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 93.0% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 68.4% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 48
    • ARKANSAS AR USEXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA)Total operating expenditures per capita* $22.66 $36.84ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA)Hours decreased since last fiscal year 1.0% 9.1%CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA)Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 57.9% 62.1%communitiesAverage number of computers 13.9 16.4Always sufficient computers available 7.0% 34.6%Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 72.7% 60.2%Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 4.4% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 27.6% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 58.4% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 1.2% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 1.2% 22.3%Always adequate connection speed 27.3% 58.3%Wireless availability 59.9% 90.5%INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 91.1% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 48.6% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 36.6% 69.7% e-books 40.5% 76.3% |  Audio content 97.0% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 60.5% 61.8% networkingLibrary offers IT training to patrons 61.4% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 88.4% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobsJobs services: Library databases and other job 95.9% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 87.6% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 49
    • CALIFORNIA CA US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $34.69 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 18.7% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 55.7% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 20.8 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 12.8% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 43.0% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 17.0% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 21.3% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 18.6% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 25.5% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 16.8% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 40.2% 58.3% Wireless availability 78.0% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 92.9% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 57.1% 69.7% e-books 85.7% 76.3%|  Audio content 89.7% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 68.1% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 85.8% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 81.7% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 96.2% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 45.4% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 50
    • COLORADO CO US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $48.73 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 12.2% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 56.1% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 18.7 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 50.8% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 59.9% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 7.4% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 6.5% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 31.2% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 19.2% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 17.9% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 52.7% 58.3% Wireless availability 94.1% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 83.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 86.2% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 71.7% 69.7% e-books 84.9% 76.3% |  Audio content 97.3% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 60.4% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 94.0% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 95.9% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 91.5% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 83.7% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 51
    • DELAWARE DE US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $34.98 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 4.4% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 71.6% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 19.2 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 33.8% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 72.4% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 0.0% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 4.4% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 21.9% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 36.7% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 27.6% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 95.6% 58.3% Wireless availability 100.0% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 94.4% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 84.8% 69.7% e-books 95.4% 76.3%|  Audio content 95.4% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 52.5% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 100.0% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 100.0% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 100.0% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 78.1% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 52
    • DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DC US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $77.52 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 0.0% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 88.2% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 25.7 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 0.0% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 100.0% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 0.0% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 0.0% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 0.0% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 0.0% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 100.0% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 100.0% 58.3% Wireless availability 100.0% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 100.0% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 0.0% 69.7% e-books 100.0% 76.3% |  Audio content 100.0% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 100.0% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 95.8% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 95.5% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 100.0% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 95.7% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 53
    • FLORIDA FL US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $31.16 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 19.5% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 41.9% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 28.1 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 20.8% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 78.8% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 2.0% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 9.0% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 40.4% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 17.2% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 25.5% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 68.0% 58.3% Wireless availability 97.7% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 99.6% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 91.0% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 95.5% 69.7% e-books 87.4% 76.3%|  Audio content 87.9% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 74.8% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 83.4% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 95.8% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 97.1% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 69.1% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 54
    • GEORGIA GA US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $21.33 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 30.3% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 57.8% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 21.7 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 30.6% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 66.2% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 5.7% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 15.7% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 35.1% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 0.0% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 22.0% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 51.6% 58.3% Wireless availability 97.9% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 73.4% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 59.1% 69.7% e-books 72.3% 76.3% |  Audio content 69.6% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 64.1% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 89.3% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 88.2% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 91.7% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 77.5% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 55
    • HAWAII HI US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $25.85 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 0.0% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 56.4% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 6.7 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 20.5% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 2.5% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 0.0% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 2.0% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 32.0% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 60.0% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 0.0% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 35.6% 58.3% Wireless availability 4.0% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 30.0% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 76.0% 69.7% e-books 100.0% 76.3%|  Audio content 36.7% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 28.6% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 82.0% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 95.9% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 83.7% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 59.2% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 56
    • IDAHO ID USEXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA)Total operating expenditures per capita* $30.51 $36.84ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA)Hours decreased since last fiscal year 3.3% 9.1%CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA)Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 70.4% 62.1%communitiesAverage number of computers 11.6 16.4Always sufficient computers available 43.0% 34.6%Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 64.4% 60.2%Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 8.0% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 4.0% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 59.1% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 19.5% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 7.3% 22.3%Always adequate connection speed 57.7% 58.3%Wireless availability 92.4% 90.5%INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 97.9% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 96.3% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 29.3% 69.7% e-books 66.2% 76.3% |  Audio content 89.1% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 79.2% 61.8% networkingLibrary offers IT training to patrons 93.0% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 92.4% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobsJobs services: Library databases and other job 96.5% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 78.6% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 57
    • ILLINOIS IL US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $57.03 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 3.2% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 59.6% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 18.4 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 41.8% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 66.9% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 4.6% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 16.5% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 39.1% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 21.5% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 14.1% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 57.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 91.3% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 49.5% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 72.0% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 70.7% 69.7% e-books 64.0% 76.3%|  Audio content 66.3% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 54.6% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 87.6% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 92.9% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 83.3% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 79.4% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 58
    • INDIANA IN US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $50.03 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 5.7% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 58.1% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 18.3 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 47.5% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 54.5% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 2.2% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 16.0% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 45.9% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 19.6% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 13.6% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 62.9% 58.3% Wireless availability 94.7% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 84.6% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 71.7% 69.7% e-books 59.9% 76.3% |  Audio content 72.9% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 66.4% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 91.4% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 95.1% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 90.3% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 62.7% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 59
    • IOWA IA US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $34.18 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 5.5% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 79.0% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 8.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 51.8% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 43.5% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 16.1% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 12.9% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 30.6% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 7.1% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 18.9% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 60.9% 58.3% Wireless availability 89.9% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 85.2% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 75.3% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 47.2% 69.7% e-books 54.6% 76.3%|  Audio content 79.2% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 52.1% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 79.1% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 92.2% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 82.7% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 72.2% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 60
    • KANSAS KS US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $45.43 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 0.0% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 84.0% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 7.7 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 52.4% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 58.0% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 21.1% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 30.9% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 29.6% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 4.6% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 6.0% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 59.4% 58.3% Wireless availability 92.2% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 78.8% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 71.0% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 45.9% 69.7% e-books 68.8% 76.3% |  Audio content 85.1% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 53.3% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 80.9% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 84.8% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 84.7% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 72.5% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 61
    • KENTUCKY KY US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $28.17 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 0.0% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 74.4% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 23.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 42.4% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 73.4% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 2.2% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 6.6% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 58.7% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 15.6% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 16.8% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 70.7% 58.3% Wireless availability 96.7% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 84.6% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 79.0% 69.7% e-books 88.1% 76.3%|  Audio content 91.0% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 58.9% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 97.8% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 89.8% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 91.7% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 80.2% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 62
    • LOUISIANA LA US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $33.71 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 0.7% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 60.5% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 14.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 33.9% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 82.2% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 0.0% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 5.8% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 41.8% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 31.7% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 15.6% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 81.4% 58.3% Wireless availability 96.5% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 99.3% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 67.1% 69.7% e-books 85.6% 76.3% |  Audio content 85.6% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 58.2% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 97.4% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 91.3% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 98.3% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 68.2% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 63
    • MAINE ME US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $32.57 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 4.4% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 76.6% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 8.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 38.1% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 48.2% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 2.4% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 29.7% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 28.5% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 16.2% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 13.9% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 78.2% 58.3% Wireless availability 93.1% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 88.6% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 52.7% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 57.5% 69.7% e-books 45.7% 76.3%|  Audio content 77.3% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 44.6% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 82.2% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 93.0% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 85.3% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 77.2% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 64
    • MARYLAND MD US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $47.92 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 2.5% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 71.7% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 21.4 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 20.3% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 41.8% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 0.8% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 6.0% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 34.3% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 20.0% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 39.0% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 80.0% 58.3% Wireless availability 98.6% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 100.0% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 100.0% 69.7% e-books 100.0% 76.3% |  Audio content 100.0% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 96.4% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 99.1% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 95.7% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 100.0% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 87.8% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 65
    • MASSACHUSETTS MA US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $42.59 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 7.7% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 58.0% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 12.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 48.0% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 48.9% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 5.3% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 5.4% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 25.8% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 30.9% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 16.3% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 68.7% 58.3% Wireless availability 96.9% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 96.6% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 78.9% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 55.9% 69.7% e-books 88.1% 76.3%|  Audio content 89.6% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 57.5% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 87.7% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 92.5% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 83.5% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 68.5% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 66
    • MICHIGAN MI US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $40.41 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 25.8% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 66.3% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 18.6 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 31.3% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 71.8% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 3.7% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 14.4% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 36.4% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 30.9% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 10.9% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 56.1% 58.3% Wireless availability 94.8% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 99.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 91.5% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 64.0% 69.7% e-books 88.9% 76.3% |  Audio content 90.3% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 76.7% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 99.0% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 92.9% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 99.1% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 80.1% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 67
    • MINNESOTA MN US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $36.45 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 5.3% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 59.8% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 13.7 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 36.3% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 52.8% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 1.5% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 10.3% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 59.5% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 21.5% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 2.0% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 61.2% 58.3% Wireless availability 92.8% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 53.3% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 53.9% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 83.1% 69.7% e-books 87.9% 76.3%|  Audio content 60.8% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 55.9% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 89.0% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 81.9% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 91.6% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 76.1% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 68
    • MISSISSIPPI MS US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $15.41 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 5.9% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 81.7% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 11.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 14.9% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 72.5% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 14.3% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 60.5% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 17.4% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 4.1% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 1.7% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 33.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 72.0% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 99.4% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 90.4% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 62.8% 69.7% e-books 28.4% 76.3% |  Audio content 63.9% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 60.6% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 86.5% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 90.6% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 95.9% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 78.7% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 69
    • MISSOURI MO US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $39.01 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 0.8% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 56.6% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 24.4 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 43.2% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 61.0% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 2.6% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 11.7% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 66.3% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 3.2% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 12.2% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 67.6% 58.3% Wireless availability 77.9% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 39.1% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 56.5% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 70.7% 69.7% e-books 51.8% 76.3%|  Audio content 73.0% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 45.4% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 91.5% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 93.2% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 96.8% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 82.8% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 70
    • MONTANA MT USEXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA)Total operating expenditures per capita* $24.17 $36.84ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA)Hours decreased since last fiscal year 4.9% 9.1%CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA)Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 66.0% 62.1%communitiesAverage number of computers 11.0 16.4Always sufficient computers available 54.8% 34.6%Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 57.1% 60.2%Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 9.3% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 9.1% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 55.7% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 7.5% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 11.2% 22.3%Always adequate connection speed 62.9% 58.3%Wireless availability 100.0% 90.5%INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 94.1% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 96.1% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 65.3% 69.7% e-books 74.4% 76.3% |  Audio content 88.2% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 62.7% 61.8% networkingLibrary offers IT training to patrons 96.1% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 93.6% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobsJobs services: Library databases and other job 96.0% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 84.0% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 71
    • NEBRASKA NE US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $33.06 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 2.5% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 82.2% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 8.7 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 62.2% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 67.2% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 7.4% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 3.7% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 66.1% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 12.4% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 5.7% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 83.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 98.5% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 68.2% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 58.7% 69.7% e-books 49.3% 76.3%|  Audio content 65.3% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 52.5% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 86.4% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 87.9% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 76.9% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 76.9% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 72
    • NEVADA NV US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $32.56 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 54.0% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 35.1% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 18.6 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 27.7% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 28.5% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 4.9% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 11.7% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 26.5% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 9.7% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 47.3% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 50.4% 58.3% Wireless availability 82.0% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 91.6% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 98.5% 69.7% e-books 69.9% 76.3% |  Audio content 81.9% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 87.5% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 86.7% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 100.0% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 97.0% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 86.5% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 73
    • NEW HAMPSHIRE NH US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $39.74 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 3.4% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 73.8% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 7.2 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 58.8% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 47.1% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 14.2% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 3.7% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 50.6% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 10.4% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 9.3% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 60.2% 58.3% Wireless availability 95.0% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 94.7% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 53.3% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 53.9% 69.7% e-books 89.8% 76.3%|  Audio content 86.4% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 58.9% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 89.6% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 83.9% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 82.3% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 76.1% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 74
    • NEW JERSEY NJ US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $56.45 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 15.4% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 56.4% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 17.1 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 30.5% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 58.5% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 5.3% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 9.9% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 30.2% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 10.7% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 35.3% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 66.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 100.0% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 79.5% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 79.9% 69.7% e-books 95.1% 76.3% |  Audio content 95.1% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 49.2% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 95.3% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 98.9% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 97.1% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 73.6% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 75
    • NEW MEXICO NM US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $28.55 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 8.7% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 48.8% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 12.2 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 42.5% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 58.0% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 14.5% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 9.1% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 62.9% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 2.3% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 6.8% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 45.7% 58.3% Wireless availability 88.4% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 91.3% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 86.9% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 38.9% 69.7% e-books 35.2% 76.3%|  Audio content 80.7% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 49.3% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 97.0% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 96.7% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 82.3% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 83.8% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 76
    • NEW YORK NY US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $58.64 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 12.8% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 63.6% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 15.8 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 36.6% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 61.4% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 5.8% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 2.1% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 59.4% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 5.0% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 22.6% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 48.6% 58.3% Wireless availability 98.4% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 97.4% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 81.2% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 85.4% 69.7% e-books 96.8% 76.3% |  Audio content 95.1% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 78.7% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 98.4% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 90.7% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 96.2% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 81.8% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 77
    • NORTH CAROLINA NC US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $21.83 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 9.6% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 69.9% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 17.3 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 28.6% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 65.0% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 5.6% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 2.3% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 63.4% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 23.0% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 5.2% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 76.0% 58.3% Wireless availability 82.2% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 94.0% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 77.5% 69.7% e-books 88.7% 76.3%|  Audio content 95.1% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 66.0% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 93.8% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 97.3% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 97.1% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 77.2% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 78
    • NORTH DAKOTA ND US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $23.27 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 0.0% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 49.4% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 9.4 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 67.1% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 64.3% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 6.8% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 2.4% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 35.6% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 14.9% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 21.2% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 90.6% 58.3% Wireless availability 74.1% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 32.5% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 60.0% 69.7% e-books 60.0% 76.3% |  Audio content 71.6% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 46.8% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 84.6% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 83.9% 91.8% e-government websites provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 89.2% 92.2% opportunity resources helps patrons complete 78.4% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 79
    • OHIO OH US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $57.24 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 8.4% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 61.1% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 16.0 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 24.8% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 69.7% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 3.5% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 8.4% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 35.4% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 30.1% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 10.7% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 62.0% 58.3% Wireless availability 94.1% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 84.8% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 88.0% 69.7% e-books 96.6% 76.3%|  Audio content 90.5% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 74.5% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 96.7% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 93.8% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 97.3% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 79.1% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 80
    • OKLAHOMA OK US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $32.08 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 2.9% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 56.5% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 17.3 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 20.4% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 58.9% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 9.2% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 21.4% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 29.0% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 12.9% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 27.5% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 40.6% 58.3% Wireless availability 97.0% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 96.8% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 82.1% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 63.3% 69.7% e-books 59.2% 76.3% |  Audio content 73.1% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 59.4% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 86.7% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 96.8% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 85.4% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 83.3% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 81
    • PENNSYLVANIA PA US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $27.98 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 19.3% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 68.2% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 15.2 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 51.2% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 59.0% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 6.3% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 13.3% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 37.6% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 10.5% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 22.8% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 60.9% 58.3% Wireless availability 98.2% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 98.1% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 62.5% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 75.8% 69.7% e-books 74.9% 76.3%|  Audio content 78.3% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 56.7% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 82.3% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 86.2% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 80.5% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 67.0% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 82
    • RHODE ISLAND RI US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $44.24 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 8.1% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 54.5% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 18.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 44.8% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 68.3% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 6.4% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 7.9% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 48.2% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 19.2% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 15.2% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 73.2% 58.3% Wireless availability 95.3% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 100.0% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 56.0% 69.7% e-books 100.0% 76.3% |  Audio content 100.0% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 79.4% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 95.0% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 86.3% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 90.7% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 74.8% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 83
    • SOUTH CAROLINA SC US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $25.96 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 3.9% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 64.9% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 15.8 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 12.4% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 73.7% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 8.6% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 11.2% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 26.9% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 25.6% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 37.7% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 72.6% 58.3% Wireless availability 89.3% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 97.6% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 51.3% 69.7% e-books 70.2% 76.3%|  Audio content 75.1% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 46.8% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 98.1% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 93.1% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 100.0% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 78.5% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 84
    • SOUTH DAKOTA SD US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $30.04 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 4.1% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 65.5% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 7.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 62.9% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 44.0% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 15.0% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 11.4% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 28.9% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 14.1% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 9.1% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 70.2% 58.3% Wireless availability 59.1% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 98.9% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 73.4% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 55.8% 69.7% e-books 57.9% 76.3% |  Audio content 78.9% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 40.1% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 76.7% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 87.7% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 84.9% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 77.9% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 85
    • TENNESSEE TN US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $16.97 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 10.9% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 68.9% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 17.6 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 32.8% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 48.8% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 15.6% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 6.7% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 39.3% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 7.8% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 23.3% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 65.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 93.4% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 88.7% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 74.9% 69.7% e-books 90.8% 76.3%|  Audio content 77.6% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 66.0% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 92.8% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 90.3% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 90.1% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 87.8% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 86
    • TEXAS TX USEXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA)Total operating expenditures per capita* $19.54 $36.84ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA)Hours decreased since last fiscal year 6.8% 9.1%CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA)Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 63.9% 62.1%communitiesAverage number of computers 24.6 16.4Always sufficient computers available 35.2% 34.6%Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 64.4% 60.2%Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 5.4% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 20.1% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 44.4% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 7.7% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 16.7% 22.3%Always adequate connection speed 56.4% 58.3%Wireless availability 90.9% 90.5%INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 86.9% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 53.2% 69.7% e-books 60.2% 76.3% |  Audio content 80.2% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 56.6% 61.8% networkingLibrary offers IT training to patrons 92.5% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 90.6% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobsJobs services: Library databases and other job 92.4% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 84.3% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 87
    • UTAH UT US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $31.08 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 1.7% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 56.0% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 22.7 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 28.6% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 64.2% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 5.6% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 9.0% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 26.1% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 14.6% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 39.4% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 52.1% 58.3% Wireless availability 95.9% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 93.7% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 60.3% 69.7% e-books 95.4% 76.3%|  Audio content 95.2% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 53.4% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 88.2% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 98.2% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 92.4% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 73.0% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 88
    • VERMONT VT US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $33.36 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 3.4% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 74.7% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 6.8 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 51.0% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 56.8% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 12.5% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 3.7% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 44.5% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 10.0% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 17.4% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 63.9% 58.3% Wireless availability 98.3% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 73.3% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 70.8% 69.7% e-books 73.3% 76.3% |  Audio content 88.0% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 41.0% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 90.4% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 86.2% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 80.9% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 73.2% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 89
    • VIRGINIA VA US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $36.06 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 16.1% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 54.5% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 15.6 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 29.9% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 44.6% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 12.6% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 12.5% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 24.3% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 15.4% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 20.0% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 57.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 83.5% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 91.9% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 75.1% 69.7% e-books 91.1% 76.3%|  Audio content 91.1% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 68.6% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 96.5% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 94.4% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 88.8% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 91.3% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 90
    • WASHINGTON WA US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $51.48 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 3.0% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 48.9% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 11.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 16.1% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 44.1% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 4.5% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 24.4% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 15.1% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 29.1% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 22.6% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 46.5% 58.3% Wireless availability 96.6% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 91.7% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 79.9% 69.7% e-books 80.2% 76.3% |  Audio content 85.8% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 83.1% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 95.2% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 98.5% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 97.3% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 86.7% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 91
    • WEST VIRGINIA WV US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $17.50 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 8.2% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 60.8% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 7.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 33.3% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 64.9% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 0.0% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 90.6% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 0.0% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 0.8% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 8.5% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 48.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 100.0% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 88.8% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 52.0% 69.7% e-books 68.1% 76.3% Audio content 89.8% 82.9%| digital supplement  Library social 53.3% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 85.9% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 99.0% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 90.4% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 85.7% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 92
    • WISCONSIN WI USEXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA)Total operating expenditures per capita* $37.94 $36.84ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA)Hours decreased since last fiscal year 1.1% 9.1%CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA)Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 65.7% 62.1%communitiesAverage number of computers 11.5 16.4Always sufficient computers available 40.8% 34.6%Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 76.5% 60.2%Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 0.4% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 32.3% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 53.6% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 7.3% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 1.2% 22.3%Always adequate connection speed 39.2% 58.3%Wireless availability 99.0% 90.5%INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 74.7% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 80.9% 69.7% e-books 94.4% 76.3% |  Audio content 74.8% 82.9% digital supplement  Library social 58.3% 61.8% networkingLibrary offers IT training to patrons 94.0% 82.7% |  to understand how americanlibrariesmagazine.org E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 84.7% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobsJobs services: Library databases and other job 97.4% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 83.0% 76.0% online job applications*Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 93
    • WYOMING WY US EXPENDITURES (SYSTEM DATA) Total operating expenditures per capita* $56.55 $36.84 ACCESS (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Hours decreased since last fiscal year 0.0% 9.1% CONNECTIVITY (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Library offer only free access to computers/Internet in their 62.3% 62.1% communities Average number of computers 10.9 16.4 Always sufficient computers available 37.4% 34.6% Use of public Internet workstations increased since last year 48.5% 60.2% Maximum Internet connection speed Less than 1.5Mbps 18.9% 6.9% 1.5Mbps 29.8% 16.5% 1.6-10Mbps 31.2% 38.5% 10.1-30Mbps 12.5% 15.8% Greater than 30Mbps 7.7% 22.3% Always adequate connection speed 48.3% 58.3% Wireless availability 88.5% 90.5% INTERNET SERVICES (LIBRARY OUTLET/BRANCH DATA) Licensed databases 100.0% 98.7% summer 2012 Homework resources 88.0% 81.8% Digital/virtual reference 72.4% 69.7% e-books 67.6% 76.3%|  Audio content 93.9% 82.9%digital supplement  Library social 47.6% 61.8% networking Library offers IT training to patrons 76.8% 82.7%|  to understand howamericanlibrariesmagazine.org  E-government: Staff provide assistance to patrons to access and use 95.3% 91.8% e-government websites Provides access to jobs Jobs services: Library databases and other job 84.6% 92.2% opportunity resources Helps patrons complete 66.9% 76.0% online job applications Institute of Museum and Library Services. Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: IMLS, 2011. 94
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTSL arge-scale national studies such as this involve We also are in debt to the study’s Advisory Committee. substantial effort and support from many indi- These individuals assisted us in a number of key areas, viduals and groups. While we cannot easily mention including issue identification, question development,each individual contribution, we would like to highlight survey pre-testing, survey website development, andthe efforts of those who provided substantial assistance. providing perspectives on study findings. Our thanks to The study team wishes to express its gratitude to the Stacey Aldrich (California State Library), Nancy AshmoreBill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the American Library (Prairie du Chien Memorial Library), Robert BocherAssociation (ALA), whose support and participation have (Department of Public Instruction, Wisconsin Statemade this study and the five previous annual studies Library), Linda Crowe (Peninsula Library System),possible. With the release of this final report, the Public Christopher Jowaisas (Texas Library Association), SarahLibrary Funding & Technology Access Study grant project Ann Long (Dominican University), Charlie Parkercomes to a close. We greatly appreciate the vision and (Tampa Bay Library Consortium), Rivkah K. Sass (Sac-commitment of the Gates Foundation to advance public ramento Public Library), Mary Ann Stiefvater (Divisionaccess technology in U.S. public libraries. of Library Development, New York State Library), and The study team would like to recognize the significant Sandra M. Hughes-Hassell (CORS representative).efforts of the state librarians, the state data coordinators, The study team thanks Norman Rose and Carolineand other state library staff members. The amount of Jewell for the work on behalf of this study; Sara Behrmantime, energy, and support the state library community for her skillful and comprehensive edits; Kirstin Krutschinvested in this study contributed directly to the survey’s for her creative infographics; Ben Segedin and Tai La-response rate—we cannot thank them enough for all of godzinski for their skillful design and efficient productiontheir efforts. of this report. We extend a debt of gratitude to all the public librarians We would also like to thank Dr. Charles R. McClure,who completed the survey and participated in the site who served as a consultant on this project. Dr. McClurevisits and phone interviews. Without your interest and began these surveys in 1994, and he and John Carlo Ber-participation, we simply would not have any data. The time tot have worked on the surveys together since that time.you take to provide the data in this report offers valuable Dr. McClure’s expertise and continued contributions haveinformation for national, state, and local policymakers; served the survey well and are much appreciated. summer 2012library advocates; researchers; practitioners; government We thank all members of the Information Policy &and private funding organizations; and others to under- Access Center at the University of Maryland and theirstand the impact, issues, and needs of libraries providing staff for their help and dedication throughout this entirepublic access computing. The data also provide public process. Finally, Paragon New Media also deserves men- | librarians with the opportunity to advocate the importance tion for their efforts in developing and maintaining the digital supplement of their library for the communities that they serve. survey website. |  americanlibrariesmagazine.org  PUBLIC LIBRARY FUNDING & TECHNOLOGY ACCESS STUDY 2011­ 2012 – 95
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