PARTICIPATORY GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT IN THE
ALLUVIAL FLOOD PLAINS OF NORTH BIHAR, INDIA
PERCEPTIONS, EXPERIENCES AND WAY F...
India‟s groundwater dependence:
springs and wells
Users, sources…
…& resources (aquifers)
India‟s oft-unfathomed groundwater
dependence
Use & users
30 million wells, at least every fourth
farmer has a well
Used f...
Location of Bihar State in the national groundwater typology
Deep alluvial aquifers
– quality issues + mix
of exploitation...
WSS: Demand, Supply & ???
Aquifers:
RESOURCE
• Type
• Combination
• Character
Source
Distribution
Availability
PGWM: Groundwater, management
and participation
Groundwater: only as “aquifers” to perceive and
believe in the concept of ...
Generalised geology…
Alluvial aquifers are found within
the Gangetic plains, Mehsana
and other basins in
Gujarat, along th...
Alluvial setting
Alluvial aquifers
Bihar and its scale...
• Name is derived from the ancient word Vihara (monastery)
• Total population of 103.8 million with...
Bihar: floods
 Floods affect about 73 per cent of Bihar‟s total area
with almost 7 million hectares (ha) each year
 Some...
Bihar's groundwater
 As per the National Rural Drinking
Water Program's (NRDWP) - 80 per
cent of the sources developed un...
Handpump Results….
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
DakshinTelhua
ShyampurKotraha
BandhChatar
UttarMarar
DahamaKhairiKhuta...
Handpump Results….
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
DakshinTelhua
ShyampurKotraha
BandhChatar
UttarMarar
DahamaKhairiKhuta...
Handpump Results….
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
DakshinTelhua
ShyampurKotraha
BandhChatar
UttarMarar
DahamaKhairiKhuta...
Dugwell Results….
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Dakshin
Telhua
Shyampur
Kotraha
Bandh
Chatar
Madarpur Sarsawa Baliya Luck...
Dug Well Results….
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
DakshinTelhua
ShyampurKotraha
BandhChatar
Madarpur
Sarsawa
Baliya
Luck...
Dug Well Results….
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
DakshinTelhua
ShyampurKotraha
BandhChatar
Madarpur
Sarsawa
Baliya
Luck...
Bihar's groundwater
• Groundwater is commonly the
largest source of perennial
domestic water and irrigation
• While consid...
PGWM as a water security process
in North Bihar
• Rainwater harvesting and storage – an alternative during the flood seaso...
GROUNDWATER
SANITATION
WATER SUPPLY
Groundwater: source & sink
KNOWLEDGE DRIVEN
floods
aquifers,
groundwater quality
JAL DOOTS
Ambassadors to deliver
appropriate messages
Connecting to ...
PGWM – Principles and processes in North
Bihar
Water as a “commons”
Respect the natural resource
regime of an area
Data av...
Meghpyneabhiyan.wordpress.com
meghpyneabhiyan@gmail.com
www.acwadam.org
acwadam@gmail.com
Participatory groundwater management  Eklavya Prasad & Himanshu Kulkarni - Waterwheel - March 20, 2014
Participatory groundwater management  Eklavya Prasad & Himanshu Kulkarni - Waterwheel - March 20, 2014
Participatory groundwater management  Eklavya Prasad & Himanshu Kulkarni - Waterwheel - March 20, 2014
Participatory groundwater management  Eklavya Prasad & Himanshu Kulkarni - Waterwheel - March 20, 2014
Participatory groundwater management  Eklavya Prasad & Himanshu Kulkarni - Waterwheel - March 20, 2014
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Participatory groundwater management Eklavya Prasad & Himanshu Kulkarni - Waterwheel - March 20, 2014

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Participatory groundwater management Eklavya Prasad & Himanshu Kulkarni - Waterwheel - March 20, 2014

  1. 1. PARTICIPATORY GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT IN THE ALLUVIAL FLOOD PLAINS OF NORTH BIHAR, INDIA PERCEPTIONS, EXPERIENCES AND WAY FORWARD Eklavya Prasad Megh Pyne Abhiyan & Himanshu Kulkarni Advanced Center for Water Resources Development and Management
  2. 2. India‟s groundwater dependence: springs and wells
  3. 3. Users, sources…
  4. 4. …& resources (aquifers)
  5. 5. India‟s oft-unfathomed groundwater dependence Use & users 30 million wells, at least every fourth farmer has a well Used for drinking water, agriculture and industry Dependence Rural drinking water: almost entirely groundwater – 80 to 95% Agriculture: ???60-70%??? of total use Urban: 48% of total use Well (water hole) in Nagzira Tiger Reserve Agriculture Statistics, various years; DDWS (2009); CSE (2012)
  6. 6. Location of Bihar State in the national groundwater typology Deep alluvial aquifers – quality issues + mix of exploitation and non-access „Hard-rock‟ quifers – heterogeneous, overexpl oited; fluoride Mixed type – regions of intensive and extensive overexploitation, cont aminatyion Groundwater extraction relatively limited, forests, tribal hinterlands, poverty Groundwater – high dependence low visibility Mountain aquifers and springs, major impact of climate change Coastal areas – salinity ingress to aquifers, erosion of traditional drinking water sources Bihar
  7. 7. WSS: Demand, Supply & ??? Aquifers: RESOURCE • Type • Combination • Character Source Distribution Availability
  8. 8. PGWM: Groundwater, management and participation Groundwater: only as “aquifers” to perceive and believe in the concept of CPR Management: shift from „sources‟ to the „resource‟, i.e. aquifers and CPR management, with the primary purpose of ensuring drinking water security protocol Participation: community participates in developing understanding and generating knowledge and converting these into actions...
  9. 9. Generalised geology… Alluvial aquifers are found within the Gangetic plains, Mehsana and other basins in Gujarat, along the Brahmaputra basin in the NE and along the coastal parts of peninsular India
  10. 10. Alluvial setting
  11. 11. Alluvial aquifers
  12. 12. Bihar and its scale... • Name is derived from the ancient word Vihara (monastery) • Total population of 103.8 million with 1,102 persons per sq. km. • Total area is approximately 94.2 thousand sq km, split into two by the Ganges – • Northern region of 53.3 sq. km and • Southern region of 40.9 thousand sq km • Approximately 90 per cent of its population lives in rural areas
  13. 13. Bihar: floods  Floods affect about 73 per cent of Bihar‟s total area with almost 7 million hectares (ha) each year  Some 17% of the total flood affected area of India is located in Bihar  Over 22% of the flood affected population in India lives in the alluvial plains of Bihar  Almost 1 million hectares (ha) of land (roughly 15 per cent of the region) in north Bihar remains permanently waterlogged  Floods: a season of misery, destruction, and fatality accompanying it  In 2013 5.9 million people in 20 districts of Bihar were affected. As per Government figure the death toll was around 176  In 2008, a total of 3.3 million people were affected  In 2007 the figure was at 25 million.....
  14. 14. Bihar's groundwater  As per the National Rural Drinking Water Program's (NRDWP) - 80 per cent of the sources developed under the scheme are based on groundwater tapped by handpumps or bore wells  Out of a total of 107,642 habitations 34,909 habitations (32.4 per cent) get contaminated water  According to Bihar's minor irrigation census (2006-07) dugwell (56112); shallow tubewell (571871) and deep tube well (23259) based MI schemes together comprise 98.17 per cent of the entire MI schemes in Bihar
  15. 15. Handpump Results…. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 DakshinTelhua ShyampurKotraha BandhChatar UttarMarar DahamaKhairiKhuta Madarpur Sarsawa Baliya Luckhnour Gangapur Hardi Harna Pastwar MaheshiUttari Mahiserho Telhar MaheshiDakshini Balawa Baria Piprakhurd Ramdattpati Ghuran Paschim Champaran Khagaria Madhubani Saharsa Supaul Percentage of sampled Handpumps showing the presence of Iron beyond the desirable limits - 2010 (as per IS 10500; 2004) Total Samples - 489 73% of samples had Iron beyond desirable limits
  16. 16. Handpump Results…. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 DakshinTelhua ShyampurKotraha BandhChatar UttarMarar DahamaKhairiKhuta Madarpur Sarsawa Baliya Luckhnour Gangapur Hardi Harna Pastwar MaheshiUttari Mahiserho MaheshiDakshini Balawa Baria Piprakhurd Ramdattpati Ghuran Paschim Champaran Khagaria Madhubani Saharsa Supaul Percentage of sampled Handpumps showing the presence of Arsenic beyond the desirable limits - 2010 (as per IS 10500; 2004) Total Samples - 453 24% of samples had Arsenic beyond desirable limits
  17. 17. Handpump Results…. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 DakshinTelhua ShyampurKotraha BandhChatar UttarMarar DahamaKhairiKhuta Madarpur Sarsawa Baliya Luckhnour Gangapur Hardi Harna Pastwar MaheshiUttari Mahiserho Telhar MaheshiDakshini Balawa Baria Piprakhurd Ramdattpati Ghuran Paschim Champaran Khagaria Madhubani Saharsa Supaul Percentage of sampled Handpumps showing the presence of Colliforms beyond the desirable limits - 2010 (as per IS 10500; 2004) Total Samples - 489 28% of samples had Coliforms beyond desirable limits
  18. 18. Dugwell Results…. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Dakshin Telhua Shyampur Kotraha Bandh Chatar Madarpur Sarsawa Baliya Luckhnour Gangapur Hardi Harna Paschim Champaran Khagaria Madhubani Percentage of sampled Dugwells showing the presence of Iron beyond the desirable limits - 2010 (as per IS 10500; 2004) Total Samples - 39 20% of samples had Iron beyond desirable limits
  19. 19. Dug Well Results…. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 DakshinTelhua ShyampurKotraha BandhChatar Madarpur Sarsawa Baliya Luckhnour Gangapur Hardi Harna Pastwar MaheshiUttari Mahiserho Baria Piprakhurd Ramdattpati Ghuran Paschim Champaran Khagaria Madhubani Saharsa Supaul Percentage of sampled Dugwells showing the presence of Arsenic beyond the desirable limits - 2010 (as per IS 10500; 2004) Total Samples - 39 15% of samples had Arsenic beyond desirable limits
  20. 20. Dug Well Results…. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 DakshinTelhua ShyampurKotraha BandhChatar Madarpur Sarsawa Baliya Luckhnour Gangapur Hardi Harna Pastwar MaheshiUttari Mahiserho Baria Piprakhurd Ramdattpati Ghuran Paschim Champaran Khagaria Madhubani Saharsa Supaul Percentage of sampled Dugwells showing the presence of Colliforms beyond the desirable limits - 2010 (as per IS 10500; 2004) Total Samples - 39 80% of samples had Coliforms beyond desirable limits
  21. 21. Bihar's groundwater • Groundwater is commonly the largest source of perennial domestic water and irrigation • While considering the region as water abundant, groundwater quality remains a serious issue to be addressed. • Clearly, in such areas, the quantity of groundwater is of secondary importance as compared to accessing good quality water • Participatory groundwater management must be embedded in this background…
  22. 22. PGWM as a water security process in North Bihar • Rainwater harvesting and storage – an alternative during the flood season • Dug wells as arsenic-iron-bacteria free „community‟ sources in vulnerable areas • Household filters for iron, arsenic and bacteria filtration • Phaydemand Shauchalay – Beneficial toilets – for household-level sanitation • Jal doots - water ambassadors – to promote concept and facilitate processes – fulcrum for PGWM in Bihar
  23. 23. GROUNDWATER SANITATION WATER SUPPLY Groundwater: source & sink
  24. 24. KNOWLEDGE DRIVEN floods aquifers, groundwater quality JAL DOOTS Ambassadors to deliver appropriate messages Connecting to rural HHs APPROPRIATENESS Alternatives Application of science Practices PGWM PROCESS Demystification of science Behavioral change COLLABORATION & PARTNERSHIP Institutions Disciplines People
  25. 25. PGWM – Principles and processes in North Bihar Water as a “commons” Respect the natural resource regime of an area Data availability and accessibility are crucial for water security plans – at all scales Include involvement of all stakeholders
  26. 26. Meghpyneabhiyan.wordpress.com meghpyneabhiyan@gmail.com www.acwadam.org acwadam@gmail.com

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