Basic Entomology- I. Orellena
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Basic Entomology- I. Orellena

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Basic Entomology- I. Orellena 3-19-14

Basic Entomology- I. Orellena 3-19-14

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Basic Entomology- I. Orellena Basic Entomology- I. Orellena Document Transcript

  • 3/17/2014 1 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now.Know how. Know now. Basic Entomology Ivy Orellana Extension Assistant Department of Entomology University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Insect Characteristics • Exoskeleton • Bilateral Symmetry • Jointed and Specialized Appendages • Three Pairs of Legs • One Pair of Antennae • May Have Wings (One or Two Pairs) • Three Body Regions (Head, Thorax, Abdomen)
  • 3/17/2014 2 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Body Parts University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Body Parts-Head Head Appendages: • Antennae o 11 Various Types (Page 6) • Eyes o Compound (ommatidia) o Ocellus • Mouthparts o 5 types 3 ocelli
  • 3/17/2014 3 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Body Parts-Head→ Antennae Green lacewing- Chewing University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Body Parts-Head→ Mouthparts Green lacewing- Chewing
  • 3/17/2014 4 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Body Parts-Thorax Thoracic Appendages: • Legs o 5 Types (Page 5) • Wings o 6 Types (Page 5) Thoracic Segments: • Legs: One pair for each segment • Wings: Located on Meso and Metathorax (if two pairs are present) University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Body Parts-Thorax→ Legs
  • 3/17/2014 5 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Body Parts- Abdomen Abdominal Appendages: • Cerci o Tail-like appendage (varies in appearance) • Ovipositor o Tube-like appendage present on females, deposits eggs University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. • Keys compare specific body parts o (the number and shape of segments that compose an antenna) • Useful to describe insects • Helps you associate detected signs and symptoms (no insect is present) • Changing body parts o (chewing mouthpart → siphoning mouthpart) Why is it important to know the insect body parts? Body Parts Cabbage looper-larval feeding damage
  • 3/17/2014 6 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. General Classification University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Insect Classification • Insect Orders Lepidoptera Coleoptera Odonata Hymenoptera
  • 3/17/2014 7 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Why is insect classification important? • General characteristics easily visible; aid in identification o (spider OR beetle?) • Enables pursuit of information about insect groups o (beetle (Coleoptera)→ leaf beetle vs. weevil) • Specific identifications lead to information about biology, life cycle, feeding habits, control methods, etc. Insect Classification ??? In sour cherry Prunus cerasus University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Insect Development • Complete Metamorphosis • Incomplete Metamorphosis • Gradual Metamorphosis • No Metamorphosis Metamorphosis Metamorphosis- Two Greek words meta- “change” morphe- ”form” An abrupt change in form or structure and refers to all stages of development.
  • 3/17/2014 8 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Insect Development Part of Gradual Metamorphosis (Hemiptera) University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Insect Development Complete Metamorphosis • Neuroptera • Coleoptera • Lepidoptera • Diptera • Siphonaptera • Mecoptera • Raphidioptera • Megaloptera • Trichoptera • Hymenoptera Coleoptera
  • 3/17/2014 9 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Insect Development Incomplete Metamorphosis • Ephemeroptera • Odonata • Thysanoptera (varied-gradual) • Embioptera (varied-gradual) • Plecoptera Odonata University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Insect Development Gradual Metamorphosis • Blattodea • Hemiptera • Dermaptera • Isoptera • Psocoptera • Zoraptera • Phthiraptera • Mantodea • Phasmida • Orthoptera Orthoptera
  • 3/17/2014 10 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Insect Development No Metamorphosis • Collembola • Diplura • Thysanura Collembola University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Why is it important to know the types of metamorphosis, and which metamorphosis each insect order undergoes? • To control/manage beneficial insects and/or pest insects • Know how to reduce a population-life stage (larval vs. pupal) • Insects undergo various visual, habitat, and habitual changes→ hard to identify • Some life stages disqualify certain orders (identification) Insect Development Larva→ Complete Metamorphosis→ The following orders: Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Siphonaptera, Mecoptera, Raphidioptera, Megaloptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera ?????? Observation: no legs
  • 3/17/2014 11 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Blattodea- Cockroaches Characteristics: • Filiform antennae (long and slender) • Chewing mouthparts (omnivorous) • Cursorial legs • Highly veined tegmina (forewings), membranous (hindwings) • Short cerci • Spear-like ovipositor • Oval/Shield-like pronotum covering head and thorax • Flat body • Gradual Metamorphosis American cockroach German cockroach University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Coleoptera- Beetles, Weevils Characteristics: • Many antennal forms- ex. Lamellate • Chewing mouthparts (weevils-mandibles at tip of snout) • Many leg forms- ex. Natatorial • Elytra (forewings), membranous (hindwings) • Larvae have 3 legs, weevil larva lack legs • Complete Metamorphosis Rose curculio Asparagus beetle larva Carrot weevil larva Milkweed leaf beetle Click beetle
  • 3/17/2014 12 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Characteristics: • Filiform antennae • Chewing mouthparts • Cursorial legs • Short tegmina (forewings), membranous, folded (hindwings) • Forcep-like cerci • Female: straight cerci with inward tip Male: curved cerci • Flat, elongated body • Gradual Metamorphosis Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Dermaptera-Earwigs European earwigs- female (top), male (bottom) University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Diptera-Flies, Mosquitoes, Gnats, Midges Corn blotch leafminer Columbine leafminer Bee fly Flesh fly larvae ID: posterior spiracles Crane fly Culex mosquito Blue bottle fly Characteristics: • Filiform, Aristate, Plumose, Setaceous antennae • Piercing-sucking, stabbing, sponging mouthparts • Ambulatory legs (walking) • One pair membranous wings, one pair of halteres • Complete Metamorphosis
  • 3/17/2014 13 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Hemiptera-Stink, Plant, Boxelder bugs, Scales, Mealybugs, Whiteflies, Aphids, Cicadas Wheel bug Western leaffooted pine seed bug Tarnished plant bug Root aphid European elm scale nymph Common Characteristic: • Piercing-sucking mouthparts o Stylet University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Hemiptera-Stink, Plant, Boxelder bugs, Scales, Mealybugs, Whiteflies, Aphids, Cicadas 3 Suborders: • Auchenorrhyncha o Leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, cicadas, spittlebugs • Heteroptera o True bugs-stink bugs, leaf-footed bugs, boxelder bugs, lacebugs • Sternorrhyncha o Aphids, whiteflies, scale insects, mealybugs
  • 3/17/2014 14 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Hemiptera ◊Auchenorrhyncha Dog day cicada Potato leafhopper Citrus flatid planthopper Alder spittlebug Twomarked treehopper Characteristics: • Aristate antennae • Piercing-sucking mouthparts • Fossorial and saltatorial legs • Tegmina or membranous (forewings), membranous (hindwings) • Gradual Metamorphosis University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Hemiptera ◊Heteroptera Characteristics: • Filiform antennae • Piercing-sucking mouthparts • Ambulatory legs • Hemelytra (forewings), membranous (hindwings) • Stink bugs: scutellum is large and triangular • Gradual Metamorphosis Brown marmorated stink bug Oak lacebug Stilt bug Small milkweed bug Green stink bug Harlequin bug
  • 3/17/2014 15 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Characteristics: • Piercing-sucking mouthparts • Gradual Metamorphosis • Aphids: o Short-segmented or bristle-like antennae o Ambulatory legs o Aphids may/may not have wings- membranous forewings and hindwings o Aphids have cornicles at end of abdomen • Scales: lack legs, antennae, and eyes Hemiptera ◊Sternorrhyncha Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Potato aphid Brown soft scale San Jose Scale European Elm Scale Greenhouse whitefly Miscanthus mealybug Sumac aphid University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Characteristics: • Geniculate, Filiform antennae • Chewing and chewing-lapping mouthparts • Ambulatory legs, pollen baskets • Two pair of membranous wings (if present) • Complete Metamorphosis Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Hymenoptera-Bees, Ants, Wasps, Sawflies, Horntails Braconid wasp European pine sawfly Honey bee Imported Red Fire Ant Halictid bee Velvet ant mutualism: honeybee. Photograph. Britannica Online for Kids. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-162948>.
  • 3/17/2014 16 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Lepidoptera-Butterflies, Moths, Skippers Characteristics: • Filiform, Capitate, Plumose antennae • Siphoning (adult), chewing (larva), vestigial mouthparts • Ambulatory legs • Generally scaly (forewings & hindwings), sometimes membranous hindwings (clearwings) • Complete Metamorphosis Monarch butterfly Grape plume moth Luna moth Corn earworm Orange sulfur Corn earworm Prolegs University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Mantodea- Mantids Characteristics: • Filiform antennae • Chewing mouthparts • Ambulatory and raptorial legs • Tegmina (forewings), membranous (hindwings) • Triangular head • Gradual Metamorphosis Carolina mantid Chinese mantid Egg sac Chinese mantid
  • 3/17/2014 17 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Megaloptera- Dobsonflies, Fishflies, Alderflies Characteristics: • Filiform and Plumose antennae • Chewing mouthparts, some males have large mandibles • Ambulatory legs • Forewings and hindwings are membranous • Adults are active at night and have large, floppy wings • Predaceous, aquatic larvae • Complete Metamorphosis Fishfly Dobsonfly-male Dobsonfly egg masses ©John Boellstorff, Aug. 2012 Alderfly ©Jeremy Early Dobsonfly larva ©Joel Sartore, National Geographic Creative University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Neuroptera-Lacewings, Antlions, Mantispids, Dustywings, Owlflies, Snakeflies Characteristics: • Filiform, Capitate antennae • Chewing mouthparts • Ambulatory legs • Forewings and hindwings are membranous • Most larvae predaceous, terrestrial or aquatic • Complete Metamorphosis Antlion larva (ventral) Brown lacewing Mantidfly Jon Yuschock, http://www.insectimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5438946 Antlion adult Snakefly http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snakefly.jpg Snakefly larva Bruce Williams, Oct. 14, 2011 http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk/pictures/showphoto.php/photo/104990 Owlfly
  • 3/17/2014 18 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Characteristics: • Short or long Filiform antennae • Chewing mouthparts • Ambulatory, saltatorial, fossorial legs • Tegmina (forewings), membranous (hindwings) • Sword, spear or sickle-like ovipositor • Short or long cerci • Katydids AKA longhorned grasshoppers • Stridulation sound-wings or legs- file & scraper • Gradual Metamorphosis Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Orthoptera-Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids Katydid eggs Teeth of file & scraper http://what-when- how.com/insects/crickets-insects/ Greenhouse stone cricket Northern mole cricket Handsome grasshopper Swordbearing katydid Restless bush cricket University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Phasmida/Phasmatodea- Walkingsticks Characteristics: • Short or long Filiform antennae • Chewing mouthparts • Ambulatory legs • Wings generally absent • Known for long, cylindrical body, thin legs, ability to camouflage themselves • Gradual Metamorphosis © Easton D. Rankine Trychopeplus laciniatus © Whitney Cranshaw Prairie walkingstick © David Cappaert
  • 3/17/2014 19 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Important Insect Orders For The Gardener Thysanoptera- Thrips Characteristics: • Short Filiform antennae • Rasping-sucking mouthparts (scrape and suck) • Ambulatory legs • If wings are present: slender membranous wings with fringe • Often feed on the newest, most-tender growth • Small! 0.5 to 14 mm • Varied Metamorphosis (complete & gradual) Thrips in bird of paradise flower (size) Sixspotted thrips Western flower thrips Gladiolus thrips Bean thrips University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Knowing the various important insect orders and the characteristics associated with each one is important because: • Put all the pieces together for order and/or family identification o Use a key to identify specimen down to genus and/or species • Management plan No legs→ Coleoptera, Diptera, or Hymenoptera→ Do a quick search: larva no legs in sour cherry = Black cherry fruit fly (Diptera) or use a key Cherry curculio (Coleoptera) ©Whitney Cranshaw Important Insect Orders For The Gardener