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Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
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Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)

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  • 1. in Archaeologyin ArchaeologyEric C. KansaUC Berkeley / OpenContext.orgUnless otherwise indicated, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution3.0 License <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/>
  • 2. 2003 Berlin Open Access Declaration2003 Berlin Open Access Declaration
  • 3. Key Distinctions:●“Free as in Beer”(gratis, cost-free)●“Free as in Speech”(libre, freedom ofexpression)Key Distinctions:●“Free as in Beer”(gratis, cost-free)●“Free as in Speech”(libre, freedom ofexpression)Image credit: Joebeone via Flickr (CC-BY) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/joebeone/353021060 >Image credit: Joebeone via Flickr (CC-BY) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/joebeone/353021060 >
  • 4. New ModelNew Model
  • 5. Two important drivers:●Distributing & copying (digital)content is now almost free●Creating quality informationremains expensiveTwo important drivers:●Distributing & copying (digital)content is now almost free●Creating quality informationremains expensive
  • 6. …but no money for open access, noropen data (more problematic)…but no money for open access, noropen data (more problematic)
  • 7. IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”We need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”
  • 8. IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”We need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”
  • 9. “Gold Standard” ofprofessional contribution“Gold Standard” ofprofessional contribution
  • 10. Symbolic Capital●Attracts Nobel prize winningauthors●Harold Varmus (Nobel prizewinner, former NIH director)helped found●No analog in archaeologySymbolic Capital●Attracts Nobel prize winningauthors●Harold Varmus (Nobel prizewinner, former NIH director)helped found●No analog in archaeology
  • 11. Dysfunctional incentives (andpoorly constructed metrics),limit scope, diversity ofpublicationsDysfunctional incentives (andpoorly constructed metrics),limit scope, diversity ofpublications
  • 12. My Precious DataMy Precious DataImage Credit: “Lord of the Rings” (2003, NewLine), All Rights Reserved Copyright
  • 13. Data Sharing as Publication• Started in 2007• Open data (mainly CC-By)• Archiving by CaliforniaDigital Library• Part of a broader reformmovement in scholarlycommunicationsData Sharing as Publication• Started in 2007• Open data (mainly CC-By)• Archiving by CaliforniaDigital Library• Part of a broader reformmovement in scholarlycommunications
  • 14. EOL Computable DataChallenge●12 different sites●34 zooarchaeologists●Decoding, cleanup, metadatadocumentation●Linked Data annotation (EOL,UBERON, biometrics)●Collaborative analysis (as veryrigorous peer-review)EOL Computable DataChallenge●12 different sites●34 zooarchaeologists●Decoding, cleanup, metadatadocumentation●Linked Data annotation (EOL,UBERON, biometrics)●Collaborative analysis (as veryrigorous peer-review)
  • 15. Data Publishing
  • 16. ●Referenced by US NationalScience Foundation andNational Endowment for theHumanities for DataManagement●New White House “opendata” policies●Referenced by US NationalScience Foundation andNational Endowment for theHumanities for DataManagement●New White House “opendata” policies
  • 17. “The Shelby White and Leon LevyProgram (WLP) for ArchaeologicalPublications recognizes that publicationmay take many forms and followdifferent models. Digital data plays anincreasingly important role in scholarshipand the WLP encourages applicants toconsider innovative modes of digitaldissemination as a primary orsecondary outcome of publicationprojects.”“The Shelby White and Leon LevyProgram (WLP) for ArchaeologicalPublications recognizes that publicationmay take many forms and followdifferent models. Digital data plays anincreasingly important role in scholarshipand the WLP encourages applicants toconsider innovative modes of digitaldissemination as a primary orsecondary outcome of publicationprojects.”
  • 18. IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”We need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”
  • 19. Image credit: Pop-Tech via Flickr (CC-BY)<http://www.flickr.com/photos/poptech2006/2968666297>Image credit: Pop-Tech via Flickr (CC-BY)<http://www.flickr.com/photos/poptech2006/2968666297>Clay Shirky: “Its NotInformationOverload. Its FilterFailure.”Clay Shirky: “Its NotInformationOverload. Its FilterFailure.”
  • 20. Data source: Arif Jinha (2010). Article 50 million: an estimate of the number of scholarlyarticles in existence Learned Publishing, 23 (3), 258-263 DOI: 10.1087/20100308.Image Source: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~comar/open-science/Data source: Arif Jinha (2010). Article 50 million: an estimate of the number of scholarlyarticles in existence Learned Publishing, 23 (3), 258-263 DOI: 10.1087/20100308.Image Source: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~comar/open-science/
  • 21. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons (Public Domain)http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Archives_entreprises.jpg
  • 22. What’s relevant tomy needs, where Ican find it?What’s relevant tomy needs, where Ican find it?
  • 23. Text-mining increasinglyneeded●Metadata extraction (search,discovery, visualization)●Summarization (“compression”)●Analysis (“text as primary data”)Text-mining increasinglyneeded●Metadata extraction (search,discovery, visualization)●Summarization (“compression”)●Analysis (“text as primary data”)
  • 24. Turning Texts to DataTurning Texts to Data
  • 25. Turning Texts to DataTurning Texts to Data2010 (renewed 2012) Google Digital Humanities Awards: withElton Barker, Leif Isaksen, Kate Byrne, Nick Rabinowitz2010 (renewed 2012) Google Digital Humanities Awards: withElton Barker, Leif Isaksen, Kate Byrne, Nick RabinowitzText-mining literature to identifyreferences to ancient placesText-mining literature to identifyreferences to ancient places
  • 26. Project limited to public domain(pre-1920) resourcesProject limited to public domain(pre-1920) resources
  • 27. Copyright & “termsof service” imposedby publishers prohibitor complicatetext-miningCopyright & “termsof service” imposedby publishers prohibitor complicatetext-miningBlocking Text-MiningBlocking Text-Mining©
  • 28. IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”We need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”
  • 29. Who Owns the Past?Who Owns the Past?
  • 30. Image Credit: Copyright Carabinieri T.P.C. Italia
  • 31. Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)
  • 32. Expanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P SamuelsonExpanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P Samuelson ©
  • 33. Expanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P SamuelsonExpanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P Samuelson ©Number of Works underUS Copyright thatentered thePublic Domain in 2012:Zero
  • 34. Expanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P SamuelsonExpanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P Samuelson ©Potential personalcopyright liability for 1year of routineinstructional & researchactivities:$4.5 billionSource: Infringement Nation: Copyright Reform and theLaw/Norm Gapby John Tehranian.Utah Law Review, Volume 2007, Number 6 - 3 2007Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1029151
  • 35. Image Credits: WikiMedia Commons
  • 36. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons (CC-By-SA)http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Three_Surveillance_cameras.jpg
  • 37. WikipediaWikipedia
  • 38. Aaron Swartz at an Anti-SOPA rally(Wikimedia Commons)Aaron Swartz at an Anti-SOPA rally(Wikimedia Commons)
  • 39. Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)
  • 40. Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)
  • 41. Source: The Occasional Pamphlet - Harvard University(http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/why-open-access-is-better-for-scholarly-societies/)Source: The Occasional Pamphlet - Harvard University(http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/why-open-access-is-better-for-scholarly-societies/)
  • 42. Source: The Occasional Pamphlet - Harvard University(http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/why-open-access-is-better-for-scholarly-societies/)Source: The Occasional Pamphlet - Harvard University(http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/why-open-access-is-better-for-scholarly-societies/)
  • 43. What are the costs of perpetual,absolute, and commodified intellectualproperty?Is this too close to looting?What are the costs of perpetual,absolute, and commodified intellectualproperty?Is this too close to looting?
  • 44. What are the costs of perpetual,absolute, and commodified intellectualproperty?Is this too close to looting?What are the costs of perpetual,absolute, and commodified intellectualproperty?Is this too close to looting?
  • 45. IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”We need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”
  • 46. Heather Morrisonnotes enough moneyin academic librariesto sustain OpenAccess.Political question: howto redirect funding?Heather Morrisonnotes enough moneyin academic librariesto sustain OpenAccess.Political question: howto redirect funding?Economics of scholarly communication intransitionby Heather Morrison.First Monday, Volume 18, Number 6 - 3 June2013 doi:10.5210/fm.v18i6.1062
  • 47. Europeana raises hard sustainabilityquestions for Open Access.Europeana raises hard sustainabilityquestions for Open Access.
  • 48. Sustainability ConcernsSustainability Concerns
  • 49. Sustainability ConcernsSustainability ConcernsNegative Externalities:Legal risks, costs aresomeone else’sproblemNegative Externalities:Legal risks, costs aresomeone else’sproblem
  • 50. Sustainability at what cost?Sustainability at what cost?
  • 51. versus
  • 52. Pay-wallsperpetuate anideology ofcommodification?Pay-wallsperpetuate anideology ofcommodification?
  • 53. Sustainability at what cost?●Big problem for professionalsocieties!●Harsh legal risks of pay-walls +strong IP ($3 million GeorgiaState case, Swartz affair)●Sustainability strategies harmstakeholders (professionalsoutside universities, libraries,funders)Sustainability at what cost?●Big problem for professionalsocieties!●Harsh legal risks of pay-walls +strong IP ($3 million GeorgiaState case, Swartz affair)●Sustainability strategies harmstakeholders (professionalsoutside universities, libraries,funders)
  • 54. Contingent EmploymentContingent EmploymentSource: Washington Monthly (http://ecleader.org/2012/02/21/nation-wide-trend-towards-adjuncts-threatens-higher-ed/)Source: Washington Monthly (http://ecleader.org/2012/02/21/nation-wide-trend-towards-adjuncts-threatens-higher-ed/)
  • 55. Contingent EmploymentContingent EmploymentLack of consistent (legal) access:(1)Loss of expertise in discipline (brain-drain)(2)Harms teachingLack of consistent (legal) access:(1)Loss of expertise in discipline (brain-drain)(2)Harms teachingSource: Washington Monthlyhttp://ecleader.org/2012/02/21/nation-wide-trend-towards-adjuncts-threatens-higher-ed/Source: Washington Monthlyhttp://ecleader.org/2012/02/21/nation-wide-trend-towards-adjuncts-threatens-higher-ed/
  • 56. Sustainability ConcernsSustainability Concerns“Clear Cutting”: NoSustainability“Clear Cutting”: NoSustainability
  • 57. Image Credit: “Crustmania” via Flickr (CC-By)http://www.flickr.com/photos/crustmania/233523196/
  • 58. Thankfully, universities pass thosesalary savings on to students.Right?Thankfully, universities pass thosesalary savings on to students.Right?
  • 59. Wrong.Wrong.
  • 60. Image Credit: “Brainchildvn” via Flickr (CC-By)http://www.flickr.com/photos/brainchildvn/3957949195
  • 61. Source: Washington Monthly<http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/college_guide/blog/college_pricing_one_big_red_li.php>Source: Washington Monthly<http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/college_guide/blog/college_pricing_one_big_red_li.php>
  • 62. “Sustainability” strategiesthat fail to addressunderlying problems worklike this:“Sustainability” strategiesthat fail to addressunderlying problems worklike this:
  • 63. Sustainability ConcernsSustainability ConcernsMonoculture: Short-term cost-effective, butnot resilientMonoculture: Short-term cost-effective, butnot resilient
  • 64. Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?
  • 65. Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?
  • 66. Who Will Own the Past:Who Will Own the Past:
  • 67. Who Will Own the Past’s Metrics:Who Will Own the Past’s Metrics:
  • 68. Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?Monoculture of over-centralization●While cost-free (“freeas in beer”), not libre(“free as in speech”).Not legal to copy intoother repositories●Lock-in and risks offavoritismMonoculture of over-centralization●While cost-free (“freeas in beer”), not libre(“free as in speech”).Not legal to copy intoother repositories●Lock-in and risks offavoritism
  • 69. Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?Governance questions with moreopen repositories?Governance questions with moreopen repositories?
  • 70. Sustainability ConcernsSustainability ConcernsDiverse Ecosystem:Expensive but moreresilientDiverse Ecosystem:Expensive but moreresilient
  • 71. Thousand FlowersThousand FlowersSustainability of particular interests shouldnot be an end to itself.Sustainability of particular interests shouldnot be an end to itself.
  • 72. Thousand FlowersThousand FlowersShould we emphasize “sustainability” (for a few)or “resilience” (for a community)?Should we emphasize “sustainability” (for a few)or “resilience” (for a community)?
  • 73. Thousand FlowersThousand FlowersCan Libre (“free as in speech”) promoteresilient knowledge stewardship withoutlock-in to particular set of institutions orpractices?…we need to think of sustainability inlarger terms (not just a matter of cleverbusiness models!)Can Libre (“free as in speech”) promoteresilient knowledge stewardship withoutlock-in to particular set of institutions orpractices?…we need to think of sustainability inlarger terms (not just a matter of cleverbusiness models!)
  • 74. Final ThoughtsFinal ThoughtsOpen Access (and opendata) are key challengesfor 21st centuryarchaeology●Legal and institutionalchanges need to be faced●Sustainability as muchpolitical and ideological as afinancial issueOpen Access (and opendata) are key challengesfor 21st centuryarchaeology●Legal and institutionalchanges need to be faced●Sustainability as muchpolitical and ideological as afinancial issue
  • 75. Thank you!Thank you!Special Thanks!Mappa Project, University of Pisa, andthe conference sponsors