in Archaeologyin ArchaeologyEric C. KansaUC Berkeley / OpenContext.orgUnless otherwise indicated, this work is licensed un...
2003 Berlin Open Access Declaration2003 Berlin Open Access Declaration
Key Distinctions:●“Free as in Beer”(gratis, cost-free)●“Free as in Speech”(libre, freedom ofexpression)Key Distinctions:●“...
New ModelNew Model
Two important drivers:●Distributing & copying (digital)content is now almost free●Creating quality informationremains expe...
…but no money for open access, noropen data (more problematic)…but no money for open access, noropen data (more problematic)
IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New mo...
IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New mo...
“Gold Standard” ofprofessional contribution“Gold Standard” ofprofessional contribution
Symbolic Capital●Attracts Nobel prize winningauthors●Harold Varmus (Nobel prizewinner, former NIH director)helped found●No...
Dysfunctional incentives (andpoorly constructed metrics),limit scope, diversity ofpublicationsDysfunctional incentives (an...
My Precious DataMy Precious DataImage Credit: “Lord of the Rings” (2003, NewLine), All Rights Reserved Copyright
Data Sharing as Publication• Started in 2007• Open data (mainly CC-By)• Archiving by CaliforniaDigital Library• Part of a ...
EOL Computable DataChallenge●12 different sites●34 zooarchaeologists●Decoding, cleanup, metadatadocumentation●Linked Data ...
Data Publishing
●Referenced by US NationalScience Foundation andNational Endowment for theHumanities for DataManagement●New White House “o...
“The Shelby White and Leon LevyProgram (WLP) for ArchaeologicalPublications recognizes that publicationmay take many forms...
IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New mo...
Image credit: Pop-Tech via Flickr (CC-BY)<http://www.flickr.com/photos/poptech2006/2968666297>Image credit: Pop-Tech via F...
Data source: Arif Jinha (2010). Article 50 million: an estimate of the number of scholarlyarticles in existence Learned Pu...
Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons (Public Domain)http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Archives_entreprises.jpg
What’s relevant tomy needs, where Ican find it?What’s relevant tomy needs, where Ican find it?
Text-mining increasinglyneeded●Metadata extraction (search,discovery, visualization)●Summarization (“compression”)●Analysi...
Turning Texts to DataTurning Texts to Data
Turning Texts to DataTurning Texts to Data2010 (renewed 2012) Google Digital Humanities Awards: withElton Barker, Leif Isa...
Project limited to public domain(pre-1920) resourcesProject limited to public domain(pre-1920) resources
Copyright & “termsof service” imposedby publishers prohibitor complicatetext-miningCopyright & “termsof service” imposedby...
IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New mo...
Who Owns the Past?Who Owns the Past?
Image Credit: Copyright Carabinieri T.P.C. Italia
Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)
Expanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P SamuelsonExpanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can b...
Expanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P SamuelsonExpanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can b...
Expanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P SamuelsonExpanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can b...
Image Credits: WikiMedia Commons
Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons (CC-By-SA)http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Three_Surveillance_cameras.jpg
WikipediaWikipedia
Aaron Swartz at an Anti-SOPA rally(Wikimedia Commons)Aaron Swartz at an Anti-SOPA rally(Wikimedia Commons)
Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)
Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)
Source: The Occasional Pamphlet - Harvard University(http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/why-open-access-is-b...
Source: The Occasional Pamphlet - Harvard University(http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/why-open-access-is-b...
What are the costs of perpetual,absolute, and commodified intellectualproperty?Is this too close to looting?What are the c...
What are the costs of perpetual,absolute, and commodified intellectualproperty?Is this too close to looting?What are the c...
IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New mo...
Heather Morrisonnotes enough moneyin academic librariesto sustain OpenAccess.Political question: howto redirect funding?He...
Europeana raises hard sustainabilityquestions for Open Access.Europeana raises hard sustainabilityquestions for Open Access.
Sustainability ConcernsSustainability Concerns
Sustainability ConcernsSustainability ConcernsNegative Externalities:Legal risks, costs aresomeone else’sproblemNegative E...
Sustainability at what cost?Sustainability at what cost?
versus
Pay-wallsperpetuate anideology ofcommodification?Pay-wallsperpetuate anideology ofcommodification?
Sustainability at what cost?●Big problem for professionalsocieties!●Harsh legal risks of pay-walls +strong IP ($3 million ...
Contingent EmploymentContingent EmploymentSource: Washington Monthly (http://ecleader.org/2012/02/21/nation-wide-trend-tow...
Contingent EmploymentContingent EmploymentLack of consistent (legal) access:(1)Loss of expertise in discipline (brain-drai...
Sustainability ConcernsSustainability Concerns“Clear Cutting”: NoSustainability“Clear Cutting”: NoSustainability
Image Credit: “Crustmania” via Flickr (CC-By)http://www.flickr.com/photos/crustmania/233523196/
Thankfully, universities pass thosesalary savings on to students.Right?Thankfully, universities pass thosesalary savings o...
Wrong.Wrong.
Image Credit: “Brainchildvn” via Flickr (CC-By)http://www.flickr.com/photos/brainchildvn/3957949195
Source: Washington Monthly<http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/college_guide/blog/college_pricing_one_big_red_li.php>Source: ...
“Sustainability” strategiesthat fail to addressunderlying problems worklike this:“Sustainability” strategiesthat fail to a...
Sustainability ConcernsSustainability ConcernsMonoculture: Short-term cost-effective, butnot resilientMonoculture: Short-t...
Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?
Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?
Who Will Own the Past:Who Will Own the Past:
Who Will Own the Past’s Metrics:Who Will Own the Past’s Metrics:
Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?Monoculture of over-centralization●While cost-free (“freeas in beer”), not lib...
Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?Governance questions with moreopen repositories?Governance questions with more...
Sustainability ConcernsSustainability ConcernsDiverse Ecosystem:Expensive but moreresilientDiverse Ecosystem:Expensive but...
Thousand FlowersThousand FlowersSustainability of particular interests shouldnot be an end to itself.Sustainability of par...
Thousand FlowersThousand FlowersShould we emphasize “sustainability” (for a few)or “resilience” (for a community)?Should w...
Thousand FlowersThousand FlowersCan Libre (“free as in speech”) promoteresilient knowledge stewardship withoutlock-in to p...
Final ThoughtsFinal ThoughtsOpen Access (and opendata) are key challengesfor 21st centuryarchaeology●Legal and institution...
Thank you!Thank you!Special Thanks!Mappa Project, University of Pisa, andthe conference sponsors
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
Open Access in Archaeology. Opening the Past, 2013, Pisa (PDF)
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  1. 1. in Archaeologyin ArchaeologyEric C. KansaUC Berkeley / OpenContext.orgUnless otherwise indicated, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution3.0 License <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/>
  2. 2. 2003 Berlin Open Access Declaration2003 Berlin Open Access Declaration
  3. 3. Key Distinctions:●“Free as in Beer”(gratis, cost-free)●“Free as in Speech”(libre, freedom ofexpression)Key Distinctions:●“Free as in Beer”(gratis, cost-free)●“Free as in Speech”(libre, freedom ofexpression)Image credit: Joebeone via Flickr (CC-BY) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/joebeone/353021060 >Image credit: Joebeone via Flickr (CC-BY) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/joebeone/353021060 >
  4. 4. New ModelNew Model
  5. 5. Two important drivers:●Distributing & copying (digital)content is now almost free●Creating quality informationremains expensiveTwo important drivers:●Distributing & copying (digital)content is now almost free●Creating quality informationremains expensive
  6. 6. …but no money for open access, noropen data (more problematic)…but no money for open access, noropen data (more problematic)
  7. 7. IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”We need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”
  8. 8. IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”We need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”
  9. 9. “Gold Standard” ofprofessional contribution“Gold Standard” ofprofessional contribution
  10. 10. Symbolic Capital●Attracts Nobel prize winningauthors●Harold Varmus (Nobel prizewinner, former NIH director)helped found●No analog in archaeologySymbolic Capital●Attracts Nobel prize winningauthors●Harold Varmus (Nobel prizewinner, former NIH director)helped found●No analog in archaeology
  11. 11. Dysfunctional incentives (andpoorly constructed metrics),limit scope, diversity ofpublicationsDysfunctional incentives (andpoorly constructed metrics),limit scope, diversity ofpublications
  12. 12. My Precious DataMy Precious DataImage Credit: “Lord of the Rings” (2003, NewLine), All Rights Reserved Copyright
  13. 13. Data Sharing as Publication• Started in 2007• Open data (mainly CC-By)• Archiving by CaliforniaDigital Library• Part of a broader reformmovement in scholarlycommunicationsData Sharing as Publication• Started in 2007• Open data (mainly CC-By)• Archiving by CaliforniaDigital Library• Part of a broader reformmovement in scholarlycommunications
  14. 14. EOL Computable DataChallenge●12 different sites●34 zooarchaeologists●Decoding, cleanup, metadatadocumentation●Linked Data annotation (EOL,UBERON, biometrics)●Collaborative analysis (as veryrigorous peer-review)EOL Computable DataChallenge●12 different sites●34 zooarchaeologists●Decoding, cleanup, metadatadocumentation●Linked Data annotation (EOL,UBERON, biometrics)●Collaborative analysis (as veryrigorous peer-review)
  15. 15. Data Publishing
  16. 16. ●Referenced by US NationalScience Foundation andNational Endowment for theHumanities for DataManagement●New White House “opendata” policies●Referenced by US NationalScience Foundation andNational Endowment for theHumanities for DataManagement●New White House “opendata” policies
  17. 17. “The Shelby White and Leon LevyProgram (WLP) for ArchaeologicalPublications recognizes that publicationmay take many forms and followdifferent models. Digital data plays anincreasingly important role in scholarshipand the WLP encourages applicants toconsider innovative modes of digitaldissemination as a primary orsecondary outcome of publicationprojects.”“The Shelby White and Leon LevyProgram (WLP) for ArchaeologicalPublications recognizes that publicationmay take many forms and followdifferent models. Digital data plays anincreasingly important role in scholarshipand the WLP encourages applicants toconsider innovative modes of digitaldissemination as a primary orsecondary outcome of publicationprojects.”
  18. 18. IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”We need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”
  19. 19. Image credit: Pop-Tech via Flickr (CC-BY)<http://www.flickr.com/photos/poptech2006/2968666297>Image credit: Pop-Tech via Flickr (CC-BY)<http://www.flickr.com/photos/poptech2006/2968666297>Clay Shirky: “Its NotInformationOverload. Its FilterFailure.”Clay Shirky: “Its NotInformationOverload. Its FilterFailure.”
  20. 20. Data source: Arif Jinha (2010). Article 50 million: an estimate of the number of scholarlyarticles in existence Learned Publishing, 23 (3), 258-263 DOI: 10.1087/20100308.Image Source: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~comar/open-science/Data source: Arif Jinha (2010). Article 50 million: an estimate of the number of scholarlyarticles in existence Learned Publishing, 23 (3), 258-263 DOI: 10.1087/20100308.Image Source: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~comar/open-science/
  21. 21. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons (Public Domain)http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Archives_entreprises.jpg
  22. 22. What’s relevant tomy needs, where Ican find it?What’s relevant tomy needs, where Ican find it?
  23. 23. Text-mining increasinglyneeded●Metadata extraction (search,discovery, visualization)●Summarization (“compression”)●Analysis (“text as primary data”)Text-mining increasinglyneeded●Metadata extraction (search,discovery, visualization)●Summarization (“compression”)●Analysis (“text as primary data”)
  24. 24. Turning Texts to DataTurning Texts to Data
  25. 25. Turning Texts to DataTurning Texts to Data2010 (renewed 2012) Google Digital Humanities Awards: withElton Barker, Leif Isaksen, Kate Byrne, Nick Rabinowitz2010 (renewed 2012) Google Digital Humanities Awards: withElton Barker, Leif Isaksen, Kate Byrne, Nick RabinowitzText-mining literature to identifyreferences to ancient placesText-mining literature to identifyreferences to ancient places
  26. 26. Project limited to public domain(pre-1920) resourcesProject limited to public domain(pre-1920) resources
  27. 27. Copyright & “termsof service” imposedby publishers prohibitor complicatetext-miningCopyright & “termsof service” imposedby publishers prohibitor complicatetext-miningBlocking Text-MiningBlocking Text-Mining©
  28. 28. IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”We need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”
  29. 29. Who Owns the Past?Who Owns the Past?
  30. 30. Image Credit: Copyright Carabinieri T.P.C. Italia
  31. 31. Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)
  32. 32. Expanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P SamuelsonExpanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P Samuelson ©
  33. 33. Expanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P SamuelsonExpanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P Samuelson ©Number of Works underUS Copyright thatentered thePublic Domain in 2012:Zero
  34. 34. Expanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P SamuelsonExpanding scopeof copyright:“The best lawsmoney can buy”– P Samuelson ©Potential personalcopyright liability for 1year of routineinstructional & researchactivities:$4.5 billionSource: Infringement Nation: Copyright Reform and theLaw/Norm Gapby John Tehranian.Utah Law Review, Volume 2007, Number 6 - 3 2007Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1029151
  35. 35. Image Credits: WikiMedia Commons
  36. 36. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons (CC-By-SA)http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Three_Surveillance_cameras.jpg
  37. 37. WikipediaWikipedia
  38. 38. Aaron Swartz at an Anti-SOPA rally(Wikimedia Commons)Aaron Swartz at an Anti-SOPA rally(Wikimedia Commons)
  39. 39. Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)
  40. 40. Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)Who Owns the Past?(Published archaeological record)
  41. 41. Source: The Occasional Pamphlet - Harvard University(http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/why-open-access-is-better-for-scholarly-societies/)Source: The Occasional Pamphlet - Harvard University(http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/why-open-access-is-better-for-scholarly-societies/)
  42. 42. Source: The Occasional Pamphlet - Harvard University(http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/why-open-access-is-better-for-scholarly-societies/)Source: The Occasional Pamphlet - Harvard University(http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/why-open-access-is-better-for-scholarly-societies/)
  43. 43. What are the costs of perpetual,absolute, and commodified intellectualproperty?Is this too close to looting?What are the costs of perpetual,absolute, and commodified intellectualproperty?Is this too close to looting?
  44. 44. What are the costs of perpetual,absolute, and commodified intellectualproperty?Is this too close to looting?What are the costs of perpetual,absolute, and commodified intellectualproperty?Is this too close to looting?
  45. 45. IntroductionIntroductionWe need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”We need to reformarchaeological publication●Need new forms of publication(more information)●New models needed to overcome“information overload”●Ethics and commodification●Politics of “sustainability”
  46. 46. Heather Morrisonnotes enough moneyin academic librariesto sustain OpenAccess.Political question: howto redirect funding?Heather Morrisonnotes enough moneyin academic librariesto sustain OpenAccess.Political question: howto redirect funding?Economics of scholarly communication intransitionby Heather Morrison.First Monday, Volume 18, Number 6 - 3 June2013 doi:10.5210/fm.v18i6.1062
  47. 47. Europeana raises hard sustainabilityquestions for Open Access.Europeana raises hard sustainabilityquestions for Open Access.
  48. 48. Sustainability ConcernsSustainability Concerns
  49. 49. Sustainability ConcernsSustainability ConcernsNegative Externalities:Legal risks, costs aresomeone else’sproblemNegative Externalities:Legal risks, costs aresomeone else’sproblem
  50. 50. Sustainability at what cost?Sustainability at what cost?
  51. 51. versus
  52. 52. Pay-wallsperpetuate anideology ofcommodification?Pay-wallsperpetuate anideology ofcommodification?
  53. 53. Sustainability at what cost?●Big problem for professionalsocieties!●Harsh legal risks of pay-walls +strong IP ($3 million GeorgiaState case, Swartz affair)●Sustainability strategies harmstakeholders (professionalsoutside universities, libraries,funders)Sustainability at what cost?●Big problem for professionalsocieties!●Harsh legal risks of pay-walls +strong IP ($3 million GeorgiaState case, Swartz affair)●Sustainability strategies harmstakeholders (professionalsoutside universities, libraries,funders)
  54. 54. Contingent EmploymentContingent EmploymentSource: Washington Monthly (http://ecleader.org/2012/02/21/nation-wide-trend-towards-adjuncts-threatens-higher-ed/)Source: Washington Monthly (http://ecleader.org/2012/02/21/nation-wide-trend-towards-adjuncts-threatens-higher-ed/)
  55. 55. Contingent EmploymentContingent EmploymentLack of consistent (legal) access:(1)Loss of expertise in discipline (brain-drain)(2)Harms teachingLack of consistent (legal) access:(1)Loss of expertise in discipline (brain-drain)(2)Harms teachingSource: Washington Monthlyhttp://ecleader.org/2012/02/21/nation-wide-trend-towards-adjuncts-threatens-higher-ed/Source: Washington Monthlyhttp://ecleader.org/2012/02/21/nation-wide-trend-towards-adjuncts-threatens-higher-ed/
  56. 56. Sustainability ConcernsSustainability Concerns“Clear Cutting”: NoSustainability“Clear Cutting”: NoSustainability
  57. 57. Image Credit: “Crustmania” via Flickr (CC-By)http://www.flickr.com/photos/crustmania/233523196/
  58. 58. Thankfully, universities pass thosesalary savings on to students.Right?Thankfully, universities pass thosesalary savings on to students.Right?
  59. 59. Wrong.Wrong.
  60. 60. Image Credit: “Brainchildvn” via Flickr (CC-By)http://www.flickr.com/photos/brainchildvn/3957949195
  61. 61. Source: Washington Monthly<http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/college_guide/blog/college_pricing_one_big_red_li.php>Source: Washington Monthly<http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/college_guide/blog/college_pricing_one_big_red_li.php>
  62. 62. “Sustainability” strategiesthat fail to addressunderlying problems worklike this:“Sustainability” strategiesthat fail to addressunderlying problems worklike this:
  63. 63. Sustainability ConcernsSustainability ConcernsMonoculture: Short-term cost-effective, butnot resilientMonoculture: Short-term cost-effective, butnot resilient
  64. 64. Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?
  65. 65. Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?
  66. 66. Who Will Own the Past:Who Will Own the Past:
  67. 67. Who Will Own the Past’s Metrics:Who Will Own the Past’s Metrics:
  68. 68. Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?Monoculture of over-centralization●While cost-free (“freeas in beer”), not libre(“free as in speech”).Not legal to copy intoother repositories●Lock-in and risks offavoritismMonoculture of over-centralization●While cost-free (“freeas in beer”), not libre(“free as in speech”).Not legal to copy intoother repositories●Lock-in and risks offavoritism
  69. 69. Who Will Own the Past?Who Will Own the Past?Governance questions with moreopen repositories?Governance questions with moreopen repositories?
  70. 70. Sustainability ConcernsSustainability ConcernsDiverse Ecosystem:Expensive but moreresilientDiverse Ecosystem:Expensive but moreresilient
  71. 71. Thousand FlowersThousand FlowersSustainability of particular interests shouldnot be an end to itself.Sustainability of particular interests shouldnot be an end to itself.
  72. 72. Thousand FlowersThousand FlowersShould we emphasize “sustainability” (for a few)or “resilience” (for a community)?Should we emphasize “sustainability” (for a few)or “resilience” (for a community)?
  73. 73. Thousand FlowersThousand FlowersCan Libre (“free as in speech”) promoteresilient knowledge stewardship withoutlock-in to particular set of institutions orpractices?…we need to think of sustainability inlarger terms (not just a matter of cleverbusiness models!)Can Libre (“free as in speech”) promoteresilient knowledge stewardship withoutlock-in to particular set of institutions orpractices?…we need to think of sustainability inlarger terms (not just a matter of cleverbusiness models!)
  74. 74. Final ThoughtsFinal ThoughtsOpen Access (and opendata) are key challengesfor 21st centuryarchaeology●Legal and institutionalchanges need to be faced●Sustainability as muchpolitical and ideological as afinancial issueOpen Access (and opendata) are key challengesfor 21st centuryarchaeology●Legal and institutionalchanges need to be faced●Sustainability as muchpolitical and ideological as afinancial issue
  75. 75. Thank you!Thank you!Special Thanks!Mappa Project, University of Pisa, andthe conference sponsors

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