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  1. 1. For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group. THE LANCET Oncology Vol 3 August 2002 481 ReviewTobacco marketing Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK. Lancet Oncol 2002; 3: 481–86 Tobacco industry marketing has played a crucial part in the spread of smoking habits around the world (figure 1). Over the past three decades, research has established that tobacco advertising encourages people to start smoking as well as ensuring that existing smokers do not give up.1–6 More limited research has also established that other promotional activities, such as merchandising, sports sponsorship, and loyalty schemes, all encourage smoking.7–13 Many tobacco producers use sophisticated techniques to target potentially profitable groups, such as young or disadvantaged individuals, but rarely make any compensation for the social consequences of widespread tobacco use.14–19 However, marketing is much more than targeting promotions at vulnerable groups. It involves the use of sophisticated techniques to influence behaviour—not just of individual customers, but also of policy makers, shopkeepers, smugglers, and lawyers. Marketing strategies have undergone a paradigm shift in recent years, moving away from an emphasis on generating one-off sale transactions, to building powerful long-term relationships with customers. In putting this review together, we analysed research from media/marketing journals, evidence obtained from tobacco-industry documentation acquired as part of the House of Commons Health Committee Inquiry into the Tobacco Industry in the UK,14 and recent observational data.20 Of the tobacco-industry documents, many are from the industry’s main advertising agencies, which are extremely candid about specific details of marketing activities. Similar sets of archival data exist from litigation in the USA and Canada, which provide an overview of strategic marketing tactics, but we do not discuss them in detail here.15–19 The observational data comes from recent and ongoing research done by investigators at the Cancer Research UK Centre for Tobacco Control Research (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK). In particular, we use results from the centre’s continuing audit of tobacco marketing activity to illustrate the type of tobacco marketing that is done in the UK.20 The audit is essentially qualitative and comprises a sample of adult smokers and a sample of retailers who regularly provide information on tobacco marketing in their local area. SA is Research Co-ordinator, GH is Director, and LM is Senior Research Fellow, all at the Cancer Research UK Centre for Tobacco Control Research, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. Correspondence: Dr Lynn MacFadyen, Cancer Research UK Centre for Tobacco Control Research, University of Strathclyde, 173 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RQ, UK. Tel: +44 (0)141 548 4237. Fax: +44 (0)141 553 4118. Email: Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry Susan Anderson, Gerard Hastings, and Lynn MacFadyen Figure 1. Cigarettes are the most popular form of tobacco sold in the UK.
  2. 2. For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group. THE LANCET Oncology Vol 3 August 2002 http://oncology.thelancet.com482 Review Tobacco marketing Marketing strategies that target specific markets Tobacco companies develop and market brands by focusing on four main characteristics: product, price, placement, and promotion. These headings are central to the theory of marketing and enable brands to be directed at different consumer groups, according to their individual needs and values. q Product. Tobacco products are manufactured with amounts of nicotine, tar, and extra ingredients, which vary between brands. These subtle changes mean that each type of cigarette has a signature taste and strength, and can be designed to suit a particular social group. q Price. Some, but not all, smokers consider price to be important in their choice of brand. Low-income smokers may be forced to buy economy brands because of their budget restrictions, but are often unhappy about having to do so because of commonly held views that cheaper cigarettes are lower quality than more expensive brands. Tobacco companies produce a range of premium, mid- priced, and economy brands to cater for personal budget requirements. q Placement. The route by which products are made available to the public is also an important determinant of the popularity of a particular brand. Tobacco companies aim to ensure that all their products are available to all smokers and, as a consequence, cigarettes are available almost everywhere including grocers shops, newsagents, petrol stations, supermarkets, fast-food outlets, off-licences (liquor stores), pubs and bars (via vending machines), and even ice cream vans. Cigarettes can also be obtained through the internet and from some market stalls. q Promotion. Several techniques are used to maximise the public awareness of each brand. The position of products in retail outlets is very important, and teams of sales representatives regularly visit retailers to ensure that their products are in the best possible position and that the correct pre-agreed amount of display space is allocated to them. Key mid-priced and economy brands are promoted heavily and made widely available in low-income communities. Tobacco brand images can achieve extensive publicity if they are used to sponsor sporting events including Formula 1 motor racing, snooker, cricket, darts, and golf; all of which receive high-profile television coverage and have the potential to reach a wide audience. The consensus image of a particular sport or event is carefully researched, and companies then choose the most appropriate forum for placing their particular brand.21 An example of this type of strategy comes from research conducted for Gallaher Group plc who identified Formula 1, big-boat sailing, basket ball, and ice hockey as the most active sports, which have the potential to create a “more dynamic, exciting” brand image.22 Similarly, Silk Cut sponsorship of Rugby League was proposed so that Silk Cut would be seen as an “exciting, dynamic, and less pretentious brand”.23 ‘Brand stretching’ is the use of tobacco brand names on non-tobacco products or services, eg, clothing, rucksacks, umbrellas and caps.20 It is far less stringently controlled than other types of marketing, so is a convenient way for tobacco companies to get around advertising restrictions.24 Cigarette packets are also promotional devices in themselves. The brand image is strengthened and consolidated by eye-catching designs and colours. Recently, evidence has been collected that supports the view that there are psychological benefits to owning products with an attractive design.25 The packaging of several brands including Silk Cut, Mayfair, and Royals, have all recently been redesigned with the likely aim of rejuvenating their image. Tobacco marketing in practice Despite many recent developments which have restricted tobacco-company operations—including increased dom- estic and international regulation, a more informed and health-aware customer base, increased taxation, pressure from public-health bodies, and the burgeoning black market for tobacco—the industry as a whole remains immensely profitable and is worth about £12 billion per year (about $40 billion per year) in the UK alone.26 This impressive financial performance belies a steady decline in the overall size of the market for tobacco in the UK, which peaked in the 1980s and gradually levelled out during the 1990s. The most recent national statistics for smoking prevalence in the UK reveal that, even today, 28% of men and 26% of women are smokers.27 The continued success of the tobacco industry is due, in part, to the sophistication of marketing strategies. There are three basic tenets to modern marketing: q customer orientation, which encompasses demographics, lifestyle, aspirations, and product needs; q building enduring relationships with customers; and, q addressing the context of the business and tackling key market influences. The remainder of this review focuses on how the UK tobacco industry put these three principles into operation and how specific groups are targeted. Customer orientation The market for tobacco is not a homogeneous one; important sub-groups exist, which are separated by demographic characteristics, lifestyles, aspirations, and smoking habits. Therefore, tobacco companies divide the tobacco market into smaller target groups, for which they formulate separate products and marketing strategies. For example, there are brands specially designed for health- conscious women (low-tar brands), those for low-income smokers (economy brands), and others aimed at young image-conscious smokers (premium brands). In the UK, there are two key target groups: the starter market and low- income smokers. Young smokers as a target market The starter market consists of those taking up smoking for the first time and is an important battleground for the tobacco industry. The largest proportion of this group (figure 2) are children and young people in their mid to late teens. Around two-thirds of smokers begin before the age of 18 and one-third before the age of 16.28 In absolute terms,
  3. 3. For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group. THE LANCET Oncology Vol 3 August 2002 483 ReviewTobacco marketing around 450 children start smoking every day.29 During the first half of the 1990s the demand for cigarettes in this market sector increased, particularly among young girls, but it subsequently decreased during the second half of the decade. The most recent statistics show that 10% of school children aged 11–15 smoke regularly (at least one cigarette a week), with a further 6% smoking occasionally, and 11% are ex-smokers.30 People who start smoking when they are young smoke for an average of 25 years,31 so each new starter is worth around £36 000 to the tobacco industry. With such rewards at stake, the tobacco industry cannot afford to lose this type of customer (figure 2). The tobacco manufacturer RJ Reynolds has discussed how important this group is: “If younger adults turn away from smoking, the industry will decline, just as a population which does not give birth will eventually dwindle.”32 When they first start smoking, young people react to very different messages than adult long-term smokers. Starter smokers use cigarettes to help express their self-image and identity, to show solidarity with their peers, and to make them feel adult and sociable by association with a product that is dangerous.33,34 They tend to have anxieties about their identity and how they are perceived by others, and thus use smoking as a way of addressing this worry; it can also help them to project a consolidated identity. These conclusions are supported by academic studies and research from the tobacco industry. Qualitative investigations commissioned by tobacco manufacturers have explored some of the reasons that prompt young adults to smoke. They conclude that young adult smokers are also searching for an identity and speculate that cigarettes are an ever-present statement of identity, and therefore are perceived to have a social benefit by many young people.35 Another study states that new smokers use cigarettes like a badge—“as a sign of maturity, discernment, and independence.”36 Young people prefer products that have medium tar content and those that are perceived to be mainstream and popular. Unlike adult smokers, they are not simply motivated by a need for nicotine; indeed, their initial contacts with nicotine may be extremely uncomfortable. However, younger smokers consider image to be of utmost importance and pay most attention to “openly fashionable brands and up-to-date designs.”37 New and more effective ways to sell tobacco products to younger people are constantly under investigation by tobacco companies. Ideas such as the ‘lad’s’ cigarettes, with packets or actual cigarettes that feature scantily clad women, are thought to appeal to younger smokers.38 Contrary to common perception, young smokers are not very price sensitive. They value popular, mainstream, and premium brands, much in the same way as designer clothing brands are favoured by younger people; they also respond positively to brands that are heavily advertised.38–41 Young smokers do not seem to be interested in ‘value for money’ but they do consider the actual price paid (lay-down price), ie, some individuals are willing to pay 50 pence for a single cigarette, rather than buying in bulk or sticking to cheap cigarettes. The tobacco industry has responded to this finding by producing packs of 10 premium-brand cigarettes (rather than packs of 20), to reduce the lay-down price. Production of these half-size packs can also help to circumvent the effects of increased taxation on cigarettes.42 For starter smokers, easy access to cigarettes is essential, and despite the regulations preventing under-age sales, 80% of young smokers manage to purchase their cigarettes from independent retailers, mostly newsagents, despite being under the legal smoking age of 16.43 The Centre for Tobacco Control Research tobacco activity audit20 has illustrated that advertising is heavily used at the point-of-sale to attract this group; almost every conceivable space in shops from floors, lighting, clocks, open and closed signs, and even the staff themselves are used to promote popular brands. The use of attractive imagery is also essential for cigarette promotions to younger smokers.44,45 The behaviour of smokers aged 15 and 16 years is associated with their awareness of, and involvement with, a number of promotional devices.46 Advertising in traditional media, eg, billboards, newspapers, and magazines, is one of the most successful and wide-reaching techniques.20 Subtle and complex ideas, humour, and puzzles, are used on advertisements to make brand images stick in the mind of potential customers. Low-income smokers as a target market Smokers on low incomes are a major source of income for tobacco companies and are a loyal and reliable customer base. Analysis of the smoking population reveals that there are important differences in smoking prevalence and cessation between different socioeconomic groups. Individuals with lower incomes are most likely to smoke47,48 and in the most deprived areas of the UK, smoking prevalence is nearly double the national average.48 Research has shown that cigarettes are an essential and protected purchase for people on low income, even when Figure 2. Young people are one key target markets for tobacco company marketing strategies. Rights were not granted to include this image in electronic media. Please refer to the printed journal.
  4. 4. For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group. THE LANCET Oncology Vol 3 August 2002 http://oncology.thelancet.com484 Review Tobacco marketing funds are severely limited.47 By the beginning of 1999, the low-price sector was the largest market area in the UK50,51 and, as a consequence, low-income smokers are now the real source of competition between tobacco companies. Despite the cost disadvantages, low-income smokers, particularly those who are younger and do not have dependants, are remarkably loyal to specific brands. For these individuals, the black market is the only long-term way of mitigating the cost of smoking, without compromising the brand.52 However, loyalty is vulnerable to fluctuations in income: lower cost brands or roll-ups are cheaper and often better value. But many smokers are hesitant about switching and some believe that it causes short-term health effects such as sore throats.51 Low-income smokers are sensitive to the social stigma associated with smoking very cheap products. Industry research confirms that this group are “uncomfortable” when smoking economy brands and feel like they are receiving “repeated reminders that [they are] smoking a cheap cigarette”.53 According to studies, almost all low- income smokers would prefer to smoke premium brands, so tobacco companies are pushed into emphasising quality when promoting low-priced products in order to retain the loyalty of this group.53 These individuals generally choose brands that will satisfy their need for nicotine, contain medium tar, and are reasonably priced. Mid-price cigarettes have been aggressively promoted in recent years to counter the perception that they are of lesser quality than higher priced brands. Other strategies for enticing low-budget smokers have been investigated. These include the ‘Concept’ rolling device, whereby the customer is supplied with tobacco, cigarette papers, and filters, as they would need for normal rolling tobacco, but they are also given a device that rolls cigarettes that look identical to manufactured cigarettes. The smokers thus get the look and feel of a ready-made cigarette, but do not have to pay as much. Many of the same communication devices—eg, advertising, sponsorship, and point-of-sale promotions— are used to reach low income smokers as ‘starter’ smokers. However, the advertising messages tend to focus more on low price and high quality, than image and lifestyle aspirations, in an attempt to challenge the negative view commonly associated with cheaper brands. Another key promotional device for low-income smokers is the coupon or loyalty scheme. Smokers are encouraged to collect coupons, pack fronts, and tail slips from packs of cigarettes and exchange them for products such as household or electrical goods. The loyalty scheme rewards customers for repeat purchasing and creates positive associations with particular brands. Low-income smokers appreciate loyalty schemes as they believe they are getting better value by sticking to one brand and this approach can help to counter the effects of price increases by rewarding smokers for their loyalty.54 The black market is an important distribution channel for low-income smokers. Research has shown that the wide availability of smuggled tobacco perpetuates smoking and makes it increasingly difficult for smokers to quit.52 Building long-term relationships with customers Ultimately, the purpose of all these marketing activities is to build positive and enduring relationships with customers; brand recognition is of vital importance in this process as smokers tend to form strong and long-term attachments to their product of choice. Forming associations between brands and evocative and symbolic images helps customers to differentiate between similar products and has been described by a tobacco industry representative as being “not just important, but essential”.55 However, brand building takes a long time. Marketing strategies are carefully managed to create the most competitive and profitable brand. Testament to these efforts, is the fact that smokers habitually refer to cigarettes by their brand names and not by the name of the company behind them; indeed, many smokers are completely unaware of which company manufactures their brand. The most successful products can trigger recognition by simple visual clues—the colour purple, for example, is enough to make consumers think of Silk Cut. Long-established and familiar brands provide a platform for companies to move from one-off transactions with their customers to building relationships with them. From this basis, other incentives such as loyalty schemes and new technology are used to increase customer retention. As well as encouraging repeat sales, loyalty schemes enable companies to collect data on their customers and build profiles of those who participate in the scheme— Gallaher Ltd claim to hold more than 7 million names on their database.56 Information such as demographics, geography, brand choice, and lifestyle can be extrapolated from the data. Direct marketing activities, ie, personal mailings, are subsequently planned according to the customer information.57 Technological advances have greatly improved the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of direct marketing and the tobacco-activity audit20 has confirmed the most common types as: money off vouchers and gift catalogues for the loyalty schemes; competitions; overseas promotions; personal letters about company business developments; free gifts (Lambert & Butler distributed large golfing umbrellas to named individuals); and free samples of new products (Richmond distributed a free 10 pack of cigarettes as part of a direct mailing when the new brand was first launched). Tobacco companies have been quick to take advantage of technology in the promotion of their products. The internet is widely used for marketing purposes, for example, Rizla sells a range of clothing through its website and many internet sites deal in online cigarettes sales.20 Marlboro has even produced a copy of their logo which can be downloaded onto mobile phone (cell phone) displays. Addressing the business context The resources devoted by tobacco companies to building relationships with their customers are matched by their activities in other areas. In forming comprehensive marketing strategies, tobacco companies consider factors other than their customers that may influence the market. They actively seek to build relationships and forge links with
  5. 5. For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group. THE LANCET Oncology Vol 3 August 2002 485 ReviewTobacco marketing third parties including retailers, policy makers, and organisations that have influence over public opinion. Retailers As the main suppliers of cigarettes to customers, retailers are the target of significant investment from tobacco companies that want to build strong distribution chains. Extensive research into communicating with independent retailers is done in order to “aid the optimisation of these communications” and help “maximise selling through the independent sector”.58 Retailers participating in the tobacco activity audit20 have contributed to a greater understanding of the relationship between manufacturer and retailer. This bond is enhanced by the supply of trade promotions such as the display gantries, which help attract customers and increase support for the brand. Tobacco sales agents collect information on the type and prices of brands stocked by different outlets; they supply this information to retailers along with promotional material, information about new products, and free samples. Visits by company representatives are beneficial to retailers as they are made to feel that their co- operation is valued by the tobacco company. The supply of cigarette display cabinets and other shop-fittings such as lighting and flooring, serves the dual purpose of keeping the brand names of a particular manufacturer prominent in the mind of the consumer and keeping the retailer on favourable terms. Retailers may also be involved in some kind of reward scheme, such as receiving bonuses for keeping an agreed display. These reward schemes are beneficial for retailers personally and for their businesses, but can be viewed as manufacturers attempting to ‘buy’ the retailer’s loyalty as well as space in their stores. Reward schemes are expected to increase in importance after the forthcoming ban on tobacco advertising in the UK comes into effect and loyalty bonuses are set to get bigger. The ban will mean a reduction in shop- window advertising so the most important issue for tobacco manufacturers will be ensuring that their products have a good position in shops, and research shows they are willing to pay for it.20 Bootleggers Rather than opposing black-market cigarette sales, many tobacco manufacturers use the illegal trade in smuggled cigarettes as another avenue for promoting their products. Documents discussing the development of the Amber Leaf roll-your-own brand describe the importance of establishing a market presence through bootleggers, who account for up to 70% of sales in many areas. “Bootleggers only bother with big brands [like] Old Holborn and Golden Virginia. We need to . . . encourage a willingness among bootleggers to sell Amber Leaf.”59 Policy makers and politicians Faced with increasing government regulation, tobacco companies also seem to be building alliances with politicians. British American Tobacco’s appointment of former UK Finance Minister Kenneth Clarke to sit on the Board of Directors could be viewed as an attempt to gain political influence. Public opinion Tobacco manufacturers are increasingly adopting a socially responsible attitude to business, which has a direct effect on public opinion. They have made considerable attempts to publicise this business strategy to consumers, retailers, and industry critics. Last year, one tobacco company invested over £3 million in a UK university for the purpose of setting up a Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility. This approach is an innovative way of gaining respect for the industry by association with academic establishments, and it helps to emphasise the change in corporate philosophy. The tobacco industry as a whole is working hard to challenge their ailing public image by instituting youth smoking prevention initiatives. This decision is in obvious contradiction to commercial priorities and, unfortunately, the campaigns do not seem to be based on contemporary health-communication expertise and are likely to be ineffectual.60 Conclusion Marketing is vital for maintaining the success of tobacco manufacturers; it is multifaceted and ubiquitous. The tobacco industry is moving its emphasis away from maximising single sales, towards building long-term relationships with customers and other key stakeholders in the tobacco market. This policy promotes competitive advantage and thereby boosts sales and profitability, but also enables the tobacco companies to retain legitimacy. Relationships are being built with policy makers, retailers, and the public as a whole to try to ensure that tobacco is seen as an acceptable product in a free market economy. In this way, tobacco manufacturers can ensure that their business activities can continue with a minimum of interference from policy makers and the public. It remains to be seen whether the tobacco industry can continue to grow on the back of their marketing strategies as they have done in the past. Conflict of interest None declared. Search strategy and selection criteria References for this review include published literature about tobacco industry techniques retrieved from searches of literature databases including Medline, PubMed, INFOTRAK, SSI, IBSS, and Emerald. Only articles written in English were included and those published in peer-reviewed academic journals since 1990 were given priority. Combinations of the following search terms were used: “tobacco”, “cigarette”, “smoking”, “marketing”, “advertising”, “promotion”, “young people”, “branding”, “product design”, “packaging”, “sponsor- ship”, and “price”. Documents from the tobacco industry documents that were released as a result of the Health Select Committee’s investigation of the UK tobacco industry were also included. As were internal communications and doc- umentation from advertising agencies with tobacco accounts. Finally, data from an observational audit of marketing activities in the UK were also used.
  6. 6. For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group. THE LANCET Oncology Vol 3 August 2002 http://oncology.thelancet.com486 Review Tobacco marketing Acknowledgements The Centre for Tobacco Control Research is funded by Cancer Research UK. References 1 Economics and operational research division. Effect of tobacco advertising on tobacco sponsorship: a discussion document reviewing the evidence. The Smee Report. London: Economics and Operational Research Division, Department of Health, 1992. 2 Feighery E, Borzekowski DL, Schoder C, Flora J. Seeing, wanting, owning: the relationship between receptivity to tobacco marketing and smoking susceptibility in young people. Tobacco Control 1998; 7: 123–28. 3 Arnett JJ, Terhanian G. Adolescents’ responses to cigarette advertisements: links between exposure, liking, and the appeal of smoking. Tobacco Control 1998; 7: 129–33. 4 Aitken PP, Eadie DR. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on underage smoking. Br J Addict 1990; 85: 399–412. 5 Aitken PP, Eadie DR, Hastings GB, Haywood AJ. Predisposing effects of cigarette advertising on children’s intentions to smoke when older. Br J Addict 1991; 86: 383–90. 6 While D. Cigarette advertising and the onset of smoking in children: questionnaire survey. BMJ 1996; 313: 398–99. 7 Charlton A, While D, Kelly S. Boys’ smoking and cigarette-brand- sponsored motor racing. Lancet 1997; 350: 1474. 8 Cornwell BT. The utilization of sponsorship-linked marketing programs by tobacco firms: international public policy issues. Memphis: University of Memphis, 1997. 9 Huek J, Gendall P, Stockdale M. Some effects of tobacco sponsorship advertisements on young males. Int J Advertising 1993; 12: 13–28. 10 Redmond WH. Effect of sales promotion on smoking in US ninth graders. Prev Med 1999; 28: 243–50. 11 Pierce JP, Choi WS, Gilpin EA, et al. 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Cigarette advertising and realised market shares among youths and adults, 1979-1993. J Market 1996; 60: 1–6. 40 Pierce JP, Gilpin E, Burns DM, et al. Does tobacco advertising target young people to start smoking? JAMA 1991; 266: 3145–58. 41 Hastings GB, Ryan H, Teer P, MacKintosh AM. Cigarette advertising and children’s smoking: why Reg was withdrawn. BMJ 1994; 309: 933–37. 42 Marketing Services. Tens Packs Report, August 1997. 43 Jarvis L. Smoking among secondary school children in 1996: England. London: Office for National Statistics, 1997. 44 Hankinson G, Cowking P. Branding in action: cases and strategies for profitable brand management. London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1993. 45 King S. Brand-building in the 1990s. J Market Manage 1991; 7: 3–13. 46 MacFadyen L, Hastings G, MacKintosh AM. Cross sectional study of young people’s awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing. BMJ 2001; 322: 513–17. 47 Marsh A, Mackay S. Report 771: Poor smokers. London: Policy Studies Institute, 1994. 48 Reece J, MacKintosh AM, MacAskill SM, Stead M. An investigation into smoking cessation in disadvantaged communities. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde Centre for Social Marketing, 2000. 49 Burrows D (R J Reynolds Marketing Research). Strategic research report: young adult smokers—strategies and opportunities, 1984. 50 Sovereign. Research implications for advertising strategy: a discussion paper, 1998. 51 Stead M, MacAskill S, MacKintosh AM, et al. “It’s as if you’re locked in”—qualitative explanations for area effects on smoking in disadvantaged communities. Health Place 2001; 7: 333–43. 52 Wiltshire S, Bancroft A, Amos A, Parry O. “They’re doing people a service”—a qualitative study of smoking, smuggling, and social deprivation. BMJ 2001; 323: 203–07. 53 O’Malley. Can loyalty schemes really build loyalty? Market Intell Plan 1998; 16: 47–55. 54 Eadie D, Hastings G, MacKintosh AM. Smoking and deprivation study part 2: an investigation into cigarette coupon schemes. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde Centre for Social Marketing, 1995. 55 Salem Worldwide. Salem Worldwide Brand Manual. Accessed June, 2002. 56 Gallaher Ltd. Presentation #3, 1995. 57 Bell F, Francis N. Consumer direct mail—just how effective is it? Netherlands: European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research, 1995. 58 M&C Saatchi. Final, 16 August 1999. 59 S&C Saatchi. Amber Leaf: Gallaher Brief, 1997. 60 Action on Smoking and Health. PR in the playground: tobacco industry initiatives on youth smoking. London: Action on Smoking and Health, 2000.