Aids presentation by akash (akash


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  • Aids presentation by akash (akash

    1. 1. What is How does How may we HIV : AIDS get infected by HIV : AIDS infects us? HIV : AIDSHow can we Prevent Symptoms of Detection of HIV : AIDS HIV : AIDS HIV : AIDSSuperstitions Medical HIV : AIDS AIDS treatments patients tips awareness for HIV : AIDS Conclusion
    2. 2. About AidsHow it is Caused What is AIDS? AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.How it is Spread An HIV-positive person receives an AIDS diagnosis after developing one of the CDC -defined AIDS indicator illnesses. An HIV-positive person can also receive an AIDS diagnosis onHow to prevent the basis of certain blood tests (CD4 counts) and may not have experienced any serious illnesses.Symptoms A positive HIV test does not mean that a person has AIDS. A diagnosis of AIDS is made by a physician according to the CDC AIDS Case Definition. Learn moreDetections What is the Difference Between HIV and AIDS?Superstitions HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.Medical treatment H-Human: because this virus can only infect human beings. I-Immuno-deficiency: because the effect of the virus is to create a deficiency, a failure to workPatient Care properly, within the body’s immune system. V-Virus: because this organism is a virus, which means one of its characteristics is that it isConclusion incapable of reproducing by itself. It reproduces by taking over the machinery of the human cell. Start End A-Acquired: because it’s a condition one must acquire or get infected with; not something transmitted through the genes. I-Immune: because it affects the body’s immune system, the part of the body which usually works to fight off germs such as bacteria and viruses. D-Deficiency: because it makes the immune system deficient (makes it not work properly). S-Syndrome: because someone with AIDS may experience a wide range of different diseases and opportunistic infections.
    3. 3. About AidsHow it is Caused More about HIV : AIDSHow it is Spread AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome .AIDS is caused by HIV, a very fragile RNA type of retrovirus, which like any other micro-organism lives inside the living cells of the body. Outside body it doesn’tHow to prevent survive for more than half an hour. There are two types of HIV virus, i.e. HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is present all over the world and in India moreSymptoms than 80% people are affected by it. HIV-2 is mainly found in Africa and also present in India. Some people are infected with both the viruses. People only infected with HIV-2 live longer than those infected with HIV-1 andDetections chances of transmission of HIV-2 from mother to child are very rare. .Superstitions How long does it takeMedical treatment for HIV to cause AIDS?Patient Care Currently, the average time between HIV infection and the appearance ofConclusion signs that could lead to an AIDS diagnosis is 8-11 years. This time varies greatly from person to Start End person and can depend on many factors including a person’s health status and behaviors. Today there are medical treatments that can slow down the rate at which HIV weakens the immune system. There are other treatments that can prevent or cure some of the illnesses associated with AIDS. As with other diseases, early detection offers more options for treatment and preventative health care.. Life Cycle of HIV : AIDS VIRUS
    4. 4. About AidsHow it is Caused What causes AIDS?How it is Spread Over time, infection with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) can weaken the immune system to the point that the system has difficulty fighting off certain infections. These types of infections areHow to prevent known as opportunistic infections. Many of the infections that cause problems or that can be life- threatening for people with AIDS are usually controlled by a healthy immune system. The immuneSymptoms system of a person with AIDS has weakened to the point that medical intervention may be necessary to prevent or treat serious illnesses..DetectionsSuperstitionsMedical treatmentPatient CareConclusion Start End
    5. 5. About AidsHow it is Caused How is HIV Transmitted?How it is Spread HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to another through: •BLOOD (INCLUDING MENSTRUAL BLOOD)How to prevent •SEMEN •VAGINAL SECRETIONSSymptoms •BREAST MILK Blood contains the highest concentration of the virus, followed by semen, followed by vaginalDetections fluids, followed by breast milk. The following “bodily fluids” are NOT infectious: Saliva,Tears,Sweat,Faeces,Urine.SuperstitionsMedical treatment Activities That Allow HIV Transmission •Unprotected sexual contact.Patient Care • Direct blood contact, including cuts through used razors blades etc. • Direct blood contact, including injection drug needles, blood transfusions, accidents in health careConclusion settings or certain blood products. •Mother to baby (before or during birth, or through breast milk). Start End Learn more
    6. 6. About AidsHow it is Caused How is HIV : AIDS Transmitted?How it is Spread Activities That Allow HIV Transmission Unprotected sexual contactHow to prevent Direct blood contact, including injection drug needles, blood transfusions, accidents in health care settings or certain blood productsSymptoms Mother to baby (before or during birth, or through breast milk)Detections Sexual intercourse (vaginal and anal): In the genitals and the rectum, HIV may infect the mucous membranes directly or enter through cuts and sores caused during intercourse (many of whichSuperstitions would be unnoticed). Vaginal and anal intercourse is a high-risk practice. Oral sex (mouth-penis, mouth-vagina): The mouth is an inhospitable environment for HIV (inMedical treatment semen, vaginal fluid or blood), meaning the risk of HIV transmission through the throat, gums, andPatient Care oral membranes is lower than through vaginal or anal membranes. There are however, documented cases where HIV was transmitted orally, so we can’t say that getting HIV-infectedConclusion semen, vaginal fluid or blood in the mouth is without risk. However, oral sex is considered a low risk practice. Sharing injection needles: An injection needle can pass blood directly from one person’s Start End bloodstream to another. It is a very efficient way to transmit a blood-borne virus. Sharing needles is considered a high-risk practice. Mother to Child: It is possible for an HIV-infected mother to pass the virus directly before or during birth, or through breast milk. Breast milk contains HIV, and while small amounts of breast milk do not pose significant threat of infection to adults, it is a viable means of transmission to infants. The following “bodily fluids” are NOT infectious:  Saliva  Tears  Sweat Can I get HIV from oral sex?  Faeces There have been a few documented cases of HIV transmission through oral  Urine. sex. While no one knows exactly what that risk is, cumulative evidence indicates that The risk from receiving oral sex, for both a man and a woman, is considered to be very low. When performing oral sex on a woman (cunnilingus), moisture barriers such as a dam (sheet of latex), a cut-open and flattened condom, or household plastic wrap can reduce the risk of exposure to vaginal secretions and/or blood.
    7. 7. About AidsHow it is Caused How can be HIV : AIDS Prevented?How it is Spread PRVENTION IS THE ONLY CURE FOR HIV / AIDS Prevention is simple easy and the only answer we have got today unless we find some cure.How to prevent HIV can be easily prevented by adopting simple measures such as:SymptomsDetectionsSuperstitionsMedical treatmentPatient Care SAFE SEX: SAFE SAFE SAFE SAFE RAZORConclusion BLOOD: NEEDLES: PREGNENCY AND BLADE: The only safe sex is ‘no Judicious use Insist your sex’; all other Before taking Never share of blood and doctors and Start End practices like use only nurses to use any major your shaving masturbation, step in life blades with pretested sterile or anyone and cuddling, hug HIV free disposable like marriage also ask your ging, rubbing, blood or needles and or having barber to use sticking to one child partner or blood instruments. properly products. ascertain that cleansed razor using condom you are HIV and new blade if one cannot free. avoid multiple during shaving partners are or hair cut. safer sex (Although the risk of getting practices. infection from a saloon is minimal)
    8. 8. About AidsHow it is Caused What are the symptoms of HIV : AIDS ?How it is Spread An HIV infected person initially looks normal and perfectly healthy. The symptoms of AIDS develop after few years and include: -How to preventSymptomsDetectionsSuperstitionsMedical treatmentPatient CareConclusion Start End Long Unexplained Persistent Persistent White standing, diarrhea ( cough ( for unexplained blotches in unexplained for more more than 1 fatigue and the mouth fever ( for than 1 month) weight loss or on tongue more than 1 month) of more month) than 5 kg within short period Learn more
    9. 9. About AidsHow it is Caused 1.Opportunistic infections common in people with AIDS cause such symptoms as: abdominal coma coughing extreme fatigue fever lack ofHow it is Spread cramps coordination nausea seizures severe shortness of sore throat sweatsHow to prevent headaches breathSymptoms swollen lymph weight loss vision loss vomiting difficult or mental glands painful symptomsDetections swallowing such as confusion andSuperstitions forgetfulnessMedical treatment mouth ulcers in pelvic persistent or persistent skin severe and swollen lymph the genital inflammatory frequent yeast rashes or flaky persistent glandsPatient Care region disease infections (oral skin diarrhea or vaginal)Conclusion well as severe Herpes infections causing: Start End Anal sores genital sores mouth sores Shingles, a painful nerve disease 3.Children with AIDS are prone to the same opportunistic infections as adults, but as well experience severe forms of bacterial infections such as: conjunctivitis ear infections tonsillitis delayed failure to (pink eye) development thrive 4.AIDS sufferers commonly develop various cancers caused by viruses such as: Cervical Cancer Kaposis Sarcoma 5.Cancers of the immune system (lymphomas) which are more aggressive and difficult to treat in AIDS sufferers and which appear in light-skinned people as: round brown, reddish or purple spots which In dark-skinned people: develop in the skin or in the mouth the spots are more pigmented
    10. 10. About AidsHow it is Caused How can be HIV : AIDS detected?How it is Spread You can not tell by looking at person’s face whether he or she is infected with HIV. The infected person looks perfectly healthy and feels well for years.How to prevent ELISA HIV: AIDS TESTSymptoms The infection can only be detected by doing a blood test i.e. ELISA HIVDetections antibody test. If someone is found to be positive by ELISA and confirmed by second test (done on different blood sample and by different method) the person is said to be seropositive.SuperstitionsMedical treatment SPOT RAPID HIV: AIDS TESTPatient Care This is simple rapid test for finding out the HIV status of a person in which the result can be given to the patient within half an hour. Rarely there areConclusion chances of a false positive report and hence a positive report should be confirmed by doing ELISA test. Start End WESTERN BLOT (WB) TEST Specialized and costly confirmatory test for HIV. Done only to confirm a positive ELISA or SPOT test report. Ever since the standard of ELISA and SPOT test has improved the role of this test seems to be very little in diagnosis of HIV infection. CD4 AND VIRAL LOAD TESTING Very costly tests and done only in those affording patients who are willing to start anti-HIV (anti-retroviral) drugs. It is mandatory to do pre-test and post-test counselling of all the patients before and after the test respectively
    11. 11. About AidsHow it is Caused HIV : AIDS Various SuperstitionsHow it is Spread There is no risk of contracting HIV infection in daily routine activities and by casual contact with HIV positive person.How to prevent AIDS virus is not transmitted through:SymptomsDetectionsSuperstitionsMedical treatmentPatient CareConclusion Start End Embracing or kissing Touching hand Sharing bathroom or Coughing, saliva or (social) shaking or hugging toilet sneezing Eating together or Sharing clothes Mosquito bite, Insect Patient caring sharing utensils bite or houseflies
    12. 12. About AidsHow it is Caused HIV : AIDS Medical TreatmentsHow it is Spread SPECIFIC ANTI-HIV TREATMENT:How to prevent Many new anti-HIV drugs which prevent the spread of the virus and can postpone various complications are now available at selected places in market and few of them are alsoSymptoms manufactured in India e.g. AZT, 3TC, D4T, Saquinavir, ddc, nevirapine etc. But theseDetections medicines are very costly and in India 90% of HIV patients cannot even think of them. One year expenses of good combinations of these drugs and blood testing comes to around 1.5Superstitions to 2.5 lacks. These medicines can prolong the life of the patient but not cure him.Medical treatmentPatient CareConclusion Start End
    13. 13. About AidsHow it is Caused HIV : AIDS Patients careHow it is Spread GENERAL CARE:How to prevent •Sympathetic attitude, family and public supportSymptoms •Patient should be advised to takeDetections adequate rest and diet rich in proteins and vitaminsSuperstitions •Patient should be advised not toMedical treatment donate blood or organsPatient Care •Patient should be advised to use condom with any sexual partnerConclusion •As far as possible patient should avoid eating outside food Start End •Patient should be encouraged to give up all habits i.e. smoking, alcohol or chewing pan or tobacco •Patient should drink boiled water •Patient should be advised to do regular exercise or yoga •If patients follow above general care tips they can live 1-2 year longer. SYMPTOMATIC TREATMENT: •Early treatment of common problems like fever, cough, diarrhea etc. from family doctor •Early detection and treatment of opportunistic infections like TB etc. Do and Dont
    14. 14. About Aids Dos and Do NotsHow it is Caused When dealing with a person living with HIV / AIDS (PLWHA) the bottom line is that you must treat them , the way out would like to be treated if you were infected with HIV.How it is Spread DOs: DON’TS: 1.Sympathies and empathies with them 1.Don’t accuse them for getting infected, it doesn’t helpHow to prevent 2.Provide them family and social support 2.Don’t try to probe into when, where the person was infectedSymptoms 3.Allow them to be a part of the family as he / she was prior to disclosure of the infection 3.Don’t make them feel guiltyDetections 4.Allow them to get back to their work as soon as soon as 4.Don’t isolate them in their home / workplace he / she is physically fit, since HIV infection doesn’t require 5.Don’t separate them from spouse or children, since theySuperstitions special rest are the best support for them. It is important for them to 5.Keep them engaged in some activity, as an empty mind is spend quality family time togetherMedical treatment a devil’s workshop 6.Don’t use gloves in feeding the infected person or to wipe 6.Make efforts to reduce their stress off his saliva, sweat, nasal secretions and tearsPatient Care 7.Encourage them to exercise and meditate as these help 7.Don’t share razors, tooth brush and other sharp objects prolong the life span with infected person or for that matter with any body elseConclusion 8.Provide them with a high protein, high vitamin diet and 8.It is not necessary to wash their clothes separately clean potable water (boiled) 9.Don’t disclose the HIV status of infected person to 9.Convince them to stop all addictions such as tobacco friends, employer and insurance company Start End cigarettes, alcohol or other psychotropic / recreational 10.Don’t humiliate the infected person, his / her spouse or drugs children 10.Register them with a health care facility for regular 11.Don’t scare them of suffering and death. In the terminal checks and follow up stage, prepare them for a smooth journey to death 11.Take immediate steps to treat even minor ailments. 12.Don’t get conned by the fake claims, false cures, witch However, it is not necessary to disclose their HIV status to hunters and faith healers. Wait for declaration of the noble their family physician prize for the real cure 12.Dispose off blood stained tampons and bandages 13.Don’t spend the entire available money limit in the first properly, either by flushing or by disinfecting them first bout of illness, it may be the first of such illnesses in the with detergent pipeline. Make a proper planning of your spending 13.Advice them to use safe sex (condoms) with their sex capability. partner, even if partner is already HIV positive 14.Don’t take many relatives to see the patient admitted in 14.Purse them at any appropriate time, to make a will hospital 15.Provide foster care to their children 15.Don’t test for HIV repeatedly, once the presence of infection is established it remains there forever 16.Help fight the discrimination meted out to them by hospitals , doctors and employers 17.Educate family members and friends about HIV / AIDS, if they already know the HIV status of the patient.
    15. 15. About AidsHow it is Caused HIV : AIDS ConclusionHow it is Spread Remember AIDS does not discriminate caste, creed, race, religion, educational or social status. Prevention of AIDS is our joint responsibility. Education andHow to prevent awareness is the only weapon in our hand. Let us accept the challenge to fight against AIDS. We must support and care for the people with HIV / AIDS withSymptoms compassion and understanding.DetectionsSuperstitionsMedical treatmentPatient CareConclusion Start End
    16. 16. E-Learning Project on HIV : AIDS awareness by AkashMukherjee• R&D and Animation: Akash Mukherjee• Class : 3rd Semester _ M.Sc. In Multimedia• College : The Indian Institute of Digital Art and Animation