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  • 1. Day 4 http://www.slideshare.net/ejvr527
  • 2. Plant-like Protists
  • 3. Phylums of protists • Euglenophta • Pyrrophyta
  • 4. Euglenophytes • Unicellular aquatic algae – both autotrophic and heterotrophic • Two flagella with different lengths • Also called Euglenozoa, Euglenoids, and Euglenophyta • Heterotrophic • Charasteristics genus is Euglena • Swimmers but can change shape • Can live as saprophytes, organisms that absorb nutrients available in decayed material
  • 5. Flagella • Whip-like structure that acts like a cells motor • Located on the anterior(front) • Twirls weeeeeeee • Reservoir – Inward pocket where flagellum is attached
  • 6. Chloroplast • Traps sunlight used for photosynthesis • Rod-like structures Eyespot • Found at the anterior end near the resevoir • Helps find bright areas to gather sunlight for photosynthesis
  • 7. • Pellicle – stiff structure that help cell’s shape • Nucleus – center of the cell that contains the DNA – Controls the cell’s activities • Nuleolus – Structure found within the nucleus • Cytoplasm – jelly-like fluid found in the interior • Contractile vacuole – star-like structure helps remove excess water to prevent it from exploding
  • 8. Habitat • Nutrient-rich freshwater system • Some in salt waters • Often abundant in quiet, inland waters where they bloom and color the surface of ponds and ditches green or red
  • 9. Nutrition • Heterotrophic – organic compounds – Osmotrophic – dissolved nutrients – Phagotrophic – engulfs • Autotroph – produce own food – Phototrophic – obtain energy
  • 10. Reproduction: Asexual • Mitosis – Chromosomes in the nucleus are separated, forming two identical sets in two separate nuclei • Cytokinesis – Cytoplasm is divided to form two cells
  • 11. Euglenophyta’s ecology • Highly eutrophic environments, rich in minerals • Often found in ponds and ditches near cow pasture, hog lots, chicken farms, etc. • Thick green or red scum on the surface of the algae bloom • Often found in water • Can be used as indicators of polluted areas
  • 12. Euglena gracilis • Eat green algae and use it to make food • Undergoes the process of mitosis • Reproduce better • Preys on tiny organisms like amoeba and paramecium • Harmless to humans, often signs of polluted water
  • 13. Euglena sanguinea • Found in red tides • Has astaxanthin • Use the pigment to protect chloroplasts from intense light • May change to green pigment as red pigments move to the center
  • 14. Dinoflagellates • Habitat: organisms, fresh water, ocean • Reproduction: asexual • Eukaryotes without histones • Autotrophs, phagotrophs, symbionts, parasite s
  • 15. flagellum • Propels organism by spinning. • Wraps around the organism between two thick plates of cellulose • Has two ______ • Traverse flagellum • Longitudinal flagellum
  • 16. Ecology • Photosynthetic -> primary producers • Photosynthetic or heterotrophic • Has symbiotic relationships with some corals • Eats waste of animals • Can cause red tide • Some can produce neurotoxins • Limiting nutrient number
  • 17. • Luminescene – luciferases activate luciferin which require oxygen • Gonyaulax & Gymnodinium – produces toxin in red tides • Notiluce scintillans – phagotrophic dinoflagellate • Some have endosymbionts
  • 18. Types of pigments • Chlorophyll – green • Carotene – yellow • Xanthophyll - brown
  • 19. Chrysophytes and Diatoms • Chrysophytes – golden • Carotenoids – pigments – Fucoxanthin: yellow-brown • Stores food as oil • Very diverse • Reproductions varies: – Asexual and sexual • Movement: gliding motion – Has a mucin – Some travel in colonies
  • 20. Structure • Cell wall – Rigid – Has pectin or silica – Some have none: ameboid • Flagella – Some have one or two
  • 21. Acquiring energy • Facultative heterotrophs – Can be heterotrophs when there is inadequate amount of light
  • 22. Plants
  • 23. Algae • Live near or in bodies of water • Has no vascular tissue • Most are multicellular, some unicellular or colonial • Reproductive cycles involve alternating sexual and asexual stages • Well adapted to life in water and intertidal zone
  • 24. Adaptation to water • Thin leaf-life structure • Diffusion of materials through body • No stems • Ease of sexual reproduction
  • 25. Divisions • Rhodophyta(red algae) • Phaephyta(brown algae) • Chlorophyta(green algae)
  • 26. Rhodophyta • Pigments: – Chl a(all) – Phycoerythrin absorbs blue light – Appears green, pink, red, purple, black • Food reserve: Floridean starch • No flagella and centrioles • Lives in marine but some in freshwater or polar regions • Mostly multicellular
  • 27. Phaeophyta • Pigments: – Chl a and c – Fucoxanthin – Dusky olive/ yellow-brown • Lives in marine but sometimes in coastal waters • Food reserve: laminarin • All multicellular
  • 28. Chlorophyta • Pigments: – chl a and b – Carotenoids • Food reserve: starch • Lives in freshwater, marine, moist • Cell wall – cellulose • Uni-, multi-, celullar or colonial • Ancestors of modern plants
  • 29. Clamydomonas • 2 flagella • Cup-shaped chloroplast • 2 small contractile vacuoles • Eyespot • Cell wall not made of cellulose • Found in ditches
  • 30. • Gonium – 4-42 cells living together, funtion independently • Volvox – 500-50,000 – arranged in hollow spheres • Oedogonium – Thread like colonies – holdfast cell attached to bottom – Asexual: broken filaments divide and grow – Sexual: formation of gametes
  • 31. reproduction • Diploid < -> haploid stages • Asexual <-> sexual modes • Asexual: spores • Sexual: gametes
  • 32. Nonvascular plants
  • 33. plants 1. Photosynthetic 2. Multicellular eukaryotes 3. Cellulose cell wall 4. Presence of plastid 5. Undergo alternations of generations – Multicellular diploid and haploid
  • 34. Terrestrial life • More sunlight • More carbon dioxide • More nutrients • More minerals • Less herbivores, pathogens, etc.
  • 35. Similarities w/ algae • Alternation of generation • Needs H2O for reproduction
  • 36. Lack water conducting tubules • Osmosis, surface tension – Only works for short distances
  • 37. Lack waxy cuticle • Waxy cuticle -> prevents _____ – Loses H2) easily
  • 38. Lack true roots • Rhizoids – root-like structures – For anchorage – Does not mainly function as a collector of nutrients
  • 39. Limited reproduction in a dry environment • Reproduce when water is available • Can survive drying periods but it may stop growing.
  • 40. Similar to modern mosses • Simple structure • Stay close to the ground • Cooksonia – Simple branched – Reproductive – structures
  • 41. Mosses • Phylum Bryophyta – Adapted to wet, low nutrients, low temp – Habitats: polar regions, tropical • Gametophyte: – Stem-like structure: thin upright shoot – Leaf-like structure:____ cell thick – No vascular tissues – No true leaves/ stems
  • 42. • Sporophyte – Stalk: holds up capsule – Capsule: produces spores – Fully dependent on gametophyte • w/ rhizoids
  • 43. Liverworts • Phylum Hepaticophyta – Live in constantly wet plaes Sexual: • Gametophyte: like flat green leaves on the ground or lobed shaped like a liver • Sporophyte: tiny umbrella structure
  • 44. Asexual reproduction • Gemmae: – Multicellular spheres w/ many haploid cells – Divided by mitosis • Gemma cups – Cup-like structures that produce gemmae
  • 45. Hornworts • Gametophyte: like liverworts’ • Sporophyte: tiny horn like structures
  • 46. Vascular Plants: Tracheophytes • Tracheo  “wind pipe” or “vascular” • Xylem(water and minerals) • Phloem(sugars from leaves) • Larger and more complex • Sporophyte is more prominent • Demonstrate increase levels of ogranization
  • 47. Primitive vascular plants Fern Allies
  • 48. Division Lycophyta: Club mosses • Oldest extant group • Sporangia organized into strobili • Homosporous / heterosporous • Contained vascular tissue Example genera: • Lycopodium: bisexual – Isospores: gametophytes • Selaginella: – Small – microspore – male – Larger – megaspore - female
  • 49. Division Sphenophyta: Scouring rushes • Whorls – leaves produced at nodes • Isospores • Spores being elaters – Gametophyte – small, photosynthetic, free living • Silica concentrated • Jointed stems
  • 50. Division Psilophyta • Oldest living lineage of vascular plants • Lack roots • Stem is photosynthetic • No leaves but enations  not vascular • Resembles cooksonia
  • 51. Ferns
  • 52. Whisk ferns
  • 53. Lycopods
  • 54. Horsetails
  • 55. Ferns
  • 56. Seed plants
  • 57. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
  • 58. Gymnosperms
  • 59. Gingkoes
  • 60. Gnetophytes
  • 61. Conifers
  • 62. Cycads
  • 63. Angiosperms
  • 64. Monocots
  • 65. Dicots