Day 3

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  • LYTIC VIRUSESinfluenzarhinovirus (common cold)LYSOGENIC VIRUSESherpes I and IIsome retrovirusesMIXED STAGE VIRUSES
  • Retroviruses RNA viruses
  • Plantae – photsyn, Animal – mobile orgs food4eFungi – cellwallchitinMonera - microorgs
  • Myco – lack cell wall – penicillinCyano – photo – blue –green algaeaPositive – violet blue nega – red pinkPepti – weaker to antibiotics
  • Last universal common ancestor
  • Day 3

    1. 1. Viruses
    2. 2. Structure, Properties, Reproductive cycle, Types, Importance
    3. 3. Reproductive cycle
    4. 4. Reproductive cycle
    5. 5. Structure and Properties • Can only replicate inside living cells • Protein coat/capsid • Nucleic acid core • Lipid envelope
    6. 6. • Genetic material • DNA • RNA • Linear/circular • Shape • Helical • Icosahedral • Enveloped • Complex • Presence of envelope • Animal viruses • Type of reproductive cycle • Lytic cycle • Lysogenic • Retroviruses
    7. 7. Types of animal viruses
    8. 8. Importance • Virus vs. cancer cells • Virus as carriers or vectors for treatment • Weapons and biological warfare • Agriculture • nanotechnology
    9. 9. Diversity of life A system that names and organizes organisms in a logical manner is used
    10. 10. Biological classification 1. Assigns a universally accepted name to each organism
    11. 11. Biological classification 2. Place organisms in groups that have a real biological meaning Artificial classification • Superficial • Uses only one or few characteristics Natural classification • Uses all or most characteristics • Shows evolutionary relationships
    12. 12. Branches that deal with classification • Taxonomy • Phylogeny • Evolutionary history of a species / group of species • Systematics • Taxonomy + Phylogenetics • Study of biodiversity in context of evolutionary history
    13. 13. Taxonomy • Branch that deals with identification, classification, and naming or organisms • Sorts species into broader taxonomic categories. Sorts species into closely related organisms • Ex: Varanus mabitang, V. mabitang, Varanus sp., Varanus spp.
    14. 14. • Aristotle – air, land, and water dwellers • Theophrastus – herbs, shrubs, trees • John Ray – “species” • Species – a group of structurally-similar organisms that pass on these similarities to their offspring • Genus- group of close-related species • Latin • Carolus Linnaeus = father of modern taxonomy
    15. 15. Levels of Classification • KPCOFGS
    16. 16. Binomial System of Classification 1. Genus Species 2. Genusspecies 3. Genus species 4. Genuz species 5. Genus species 6. Genus species 7. Genus species 8. Genus Species 9. Genus Species 10. Genus species
    17. 17. Schemes of Biological Classification • Structural information • Cytological information • Embryological information • Behavioral information • Biochemical organization • Evolutionary relationships
    18. 18. Plantae Animalia Fungi Monera
    19. 19. prokaryotes Eukaryotes
    20. 20. Prokaryotes • Unbound nucleoid • Simple appendages • Circular DNA • No membrane bound organelles • Binary fission as reproduction • Complex cell wall • Ribosomes – small • Cytoskeleton • Smaller than eukaryotes
    21. 21. Structure • Cell wall • site of antibiotic action • Cell membrane • contains pigments and enzymes • Cytoplasm • cytoplasmic streaming • Nucleiod region • Ribosomes • Flagellum • Pili
    22. 22. Domain Archaea • prokaryotic • Membranes – branched hydrocarbon chains attached to glycerol by either linkages • Cell walls : no peptidoglycan • rRNA unique to Archaea • Halophiles, hyperthermophiles • Autotroph/ heterotroph
    23. 23. Domain Bacteria • Prokaryotic cells • Membranes – unbranched fatty acid chains attached to glycerol by ester linkages • Cell walls: peptidoglycan • Great deal of diversity • rRNA unique to Bacteria • unicellular • Mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria, gram-positive, gram-negative • Autotroph / heterotroph
    24. 24. Domain Eukarya • Eukaryotic cells which have membranes similar to bacteria • Some have cell walls
    25. 25. • Phylogeny • Differences in the sequences of nucleotides in the cell’s ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) LUCA Super phylum
    26. 26. Reproduction • Archaea - asexual repro: binary fission, budding, or fragmentation • Eubacteria – asexual repro • Protist – asexual repro. Meiosis • Fungi - asexual or sexual • Plantae – asexual: mitosis / sexual • Animalia – sexual reproduction

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