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  1. 1. Animation Joseph Michael E. Aramil CSC 19- Midterm Lecture
  2. 2. Animation • rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. • The effect is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision. • The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video program, although there are other methods.
  3. 3. Animation Techniques Traditional Animation • The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, which are first drawn on paper. • To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it.
  4. 4. • The animators' drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called cells, which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings.
  5. 5. Traditional animation • Full animation - the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films, which regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement. Ex. Alladin, Lion King, Beauty and the Beast • Limited animation - the use of less detailed and/or more stylized drawings and methods of movement. Ex. Internet Web cartoons, Spongebob
  6. 6. Traditional animation • Rotoscoping - where animators trace live-action movement, frame by frame. The source film can be directly copied from actors' outlines into animated drawings. Ex. Lord of the Rings (1978) • Live/Action Animation - technique, when combining hand-drawn characters into live action shots. Ex. Space jam
  7. 7. Animation Techniques Stop Motion • Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement.
  8. 8. Animation Techniques • There are many different types of stopmotion animation, usually named after the type of media used to create the animation. • Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation.
  9. 9. Stop-Motion Animation • Puppet animation - involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting with each other in a constructed environment Ex. Robot Chicken, Corpse Bride • Clay Animation - uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. Ex. The Gumby Show, Chicken run
  10. 10. Stop-Motion Animation • Cutout animation - type of stop-motion animation produced by moving 2dimensional pieces of material such as paper or cloth. Ex. South Park • Silhouette animation - variant of cutout animation in which the characters are backlit and only visible as silhouettes
  11. 11. Stop-Motion Animation • Model Animation - refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of a live-action world. Ex. King Kong (1933) • Go Motion - is a variant of model animation which uses various techniques to create motion blur between frames of film, which is not present in traditional stop-motion
  12. 12. Stop-Motion Animation • Object animation - refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation, as opposed to specially created items.
  13. 13. Stop- Motion Animation • Graphic animation - uses non-drawn flat visual graphic material (photographs, newspaper clippings, magazines, etc.) which are sometimes manipulated frame-by-frame to create movement. • Pixilation - involves the use of live humans as stop motion characters. This allows for a number of surreal effects, including disappearances and reappearances, allowing people to appear to slide across the ground, and other such effects
  14. 14. Animation Techniques Computer Animation • Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying factor being that the animation is created digitally on a computer.
  15. 15. Computer Animation • 2D animation: are created and/or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or created and edited using 2D vector graphics. • 3D animation: digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. In order to manipulate a mesh, it is given a digital skeletal structure that can be used to control the mesh. This process is called rigging.
  16. 16. Animation Techniques • Flip books - is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. • Sand Animation - sand is moved around on a back- or front-lighted piece of glass to create each frame for an animated film.
  17. 17. Animation Techniques • Pinscreen animation - makes use of a screen filled with movable pins, which can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen. The screen is lit from the side so that the pins cast shadows.
  18. 18. 12 Basic Principles of Animation • Squash and Stretch - the purpose of which is to give a sense of weight and flexibility to drawn objects. It can be applied to simple objects, like a bouncing ball, or more complex constructions, like the musculature of a human face. • Anticipation - is used to prepare the audience for an action, and to make the action appear more realistic.
  19. 19. 12 Basic Principles of Animation • Staging - Its purpose is to direct the audience's attention, and make it clear what is of greatest importance in a scene; what is happening, and what is about to happen.
  20. 20. 12 Basic Principles of Animation • Straight ahead action and pose to pose - "Straight ahead action" means drawing out a scene frame by frame from beginning to end, while - "pose to pose" involves starting with drawing a few, key frames, and then filling in the intervals later.
  21. 21. 12 Basic Principles of Animation • Follow through and overlapping action - “Follow through" means that separate parts of a body will continue moving after the character has stopped. - "Overlapping action" is the tendency for parts of the body to move at different rates
  22. 22. 12 Basic Principles of Animation • Slow in and slow out - The movement of the human body, and most other objects, needs time to accelerate and slow down. • Arcs - Most human and animal actions occur along an arched trajectory, and animation should reproduce these movements for greater realism.
  23. 23. 12 Basic Principles of Animation • Secondary action - Adding secondary actions to the main action gives a scene more life, and can help to support the main action. A person walking can simultaneously swing his arms or keep them in his pockets, he can speak or whistle, or he can express emotions through facial expressions.
  24. 24. 12 Basic Principles of Animation • Timing - Timing refers to the number of drawings or frames for a given action, which translates to the speed of the action on film. • Exaggeration - an effect especially useful for animation, as perfect imitation of reality can look static and dull in cartoons.
  25. 25. 12 Basic Principles of Animation • Solid drawing - taking into account forms in three-dimensional space, giving them volume and weight. • Appeal – A charisma in an actor. A character who is appealing is not necessarily sympathetic. villains or monsters can also be appealing, the important thing is that the viewer feels the character is real and interesting.