K to 12 enhanced basic ed by mi villenes (proj in ed m514)
K to 12
A SPECIAL PROJECT IN SCHOOL LEGISLATION
MA. LYN IGLIANE-VILLENES
MAEd – Educational Management
ORLANDO D. SERDON, DEM
Professor, EdM 514 School Legislation
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education
A Special Project as a
Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements of the Course
MA.LYN IGLIANE - VILLENES
MA – Educational Management
ORLANDO D. SERDON, DEM
I would like to acknowledge the people behind this undertaking who helped me to finish
First is to our Almighty God, for the knowledge, strength, and guidance in accomplishing
To my Cham and Jiji, who serves as my inspiration.
To my husband, Rej, who encouraged and helped me to finish this coursework.
To Dr. Orlando D. Serdon, our course professor, for his sharing of valuable knowledge
and insights about rightful supervisorship.
To those who are not mentioned but in one way or another contributed in realization of
this thing, a big thank you.
This project is dedicated to the most wonderful gifts
I received from God
My Cham Cham
1. What is K to 12?
Essentially, K to 12 Program deals with the aim in improving the quality of basic
education in the country. It stands for Kindergarten to Grade 12. Unlike before, basic
education in the Philippines will commence at the Kindergarten level and follows by a 12-
years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School,
and two years of Senior High School) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and
skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level
skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.
Recently, President Aquino signed a law adding three extra years to the country’s 10-year
basic education curriculum in a bid to make Filipino students at par with their peers in other
countries. He quoted that, “This lays the foundations for a better future for every Filipino
child.” With the signed law, it makes enrolment in kindergarten compulsory before children
can begin the traditional six years of primary school and adds two more years to high school.
The RA 10533, also known as Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, or the K-to-12 Act,
establishes a “universal kindergarten” and introduces “Grades 11 and 12” to high school
education in public and private schools.
Moreover, K to 12 was crafted to plug the shortcomings of the 10-year basic education
cycle in which students had less time to understand their lessons, and had to compete with
better-prepared graduates from other countries. Competing with the international standards
challenges the Philippine government to innovate the former curriculum.
K to 12 seems not to be new in the educational sector. USA has it several decades ago.
Philippines patterned it with the set-up in US, while the latter took only the concept in United
Kingdom. Other countries have also changed their schooling to 12 years of basic education,
where only 3 countries in the world have less than 12 year basic education cycle Philippines,
along with Angola and Djibouti, are identified among the last three.
2. Comprehensively discuss its component (curriculum content) and its
The K to 12 Enhanced Basic Education Cycle Distribution of Years
Figure 1 shows the distribution of 12 years in the Enhanced Basic Education Cycle of the
country. Schooling will commence at Kindergarten (K), then the primary education (Grades 1-6),
then the junior high school (Grades 7-10), and senior high school (Grades 11 & 12).
K to 12 has also its salient feature which is strategically developed to achieve the success
of its implementation. The infographics on the next page shows the Six Salient Features of K to
Strengthen Early Childhood Education
Making the Curriculum Relevant to Learners
(Contextualization and Enhancement)
Ensuring Integrated and Seamless Learning
Building Proficiency through Language
(Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education)
Gearing Up for the Future
(Senior High School)
Nurturing the Holistically Developed Filipino
(College and Livelihood Readiness, 21st
Under Republic Act No. 10157, also known as the Kindergarten
Act of 2012, every Filipino child now has access to early childhood
education through Universal Kindergarten. At 5 years old, children start
studying and are given the ways to gradually adjust to the primary
Study reveals that children who underwent Kindergarten have
better completion rates than those who did not. Children who complete a
standards-based Kindergarten program are better prepared, for primary
education. Education for children in the early years lays the foundation for
lifelong learning and for the total development of a child. As described in
Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory, kindergarten years are the so-
called “teachable moments”. The early years of a human being, from 0 to
6 years, are the most critical period when the brain grows to at least 60-
70% of adult size. Hence, this period must be filled up with the essential
knowledge required for learning.
Maximizing concrete experiences will pave way to a more learning experience.
Examples, activities, songs, poems, stories, and illustrations are based on local culture, history,
Strengthen Early Childhood Education
Making the Curriculum Relevant to Learners
(Contextualization and Enhancement)
and reality. This makes the lessons contextualized
which are relevant to the learners and easy to
understand. Hence, meaningful learning will be
Moreover, students acquire in-depth
knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes through
continuity and consistency across all levels and
Discussions on issues such as Disaster Risk
Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation, and
Information & Communication Technology (ICT) are
given importance in the said curriculum.
Like the idea of Spiral Curriculum by Jerome Brunner, subjects will be taught from the
simplest concepts to more complicated concepts through grade levels in a progression. As early
as elementary, pupils are expected to acquire knowledge in areas such as Biology, Geometry,
Earth Science, Chemistry, and Algebra through their elementary subjects. Basic foundations will
be ensured to be mastered before going to study the complex ones. This also certifies mastery of
knowledge and skills after each level. For example, currently in High School, Biology is taught
Year, Chemistry in 3rd
Year and Physics in 4th
Year. In the enhanced basic education
program, these subjects are connected and integrated from Grades 7 to 10. This same method
will be applied also in other subjects.
Ensuring Integrated and Seamless Learning
Different studies were made in relation
with the use of the mother tongue as the mode of
instruction in the everyday learning endeavor.
Results show significant evidences that using
student’s mother tongue promotes better learning.
In K to 12, students are able to learn best
through their first language, their Mother Tongue
(MT). Twelve (12) MT languages have been
introduced for SY 2012-2013: Bahasa Sug, Bikol,
Cebuano, Chabacano, Hiligaynon, Iloko,
Kapampangan, Maguindanaoan, Meranao,
Pangasinense, Tagalog, and Waray. Other local
languages will be added in succeeding school years.
Aside from the Mother Tongue, English and Filipino are taught as subjects starting Grade
1, with a focus on oral fluency. From Grades 4 to 6, English and Filipino are gradually
introduced as languages of instruction. Both will become primary mode of instruction in Junior
and Senior High School. After Grade 1, every student can read in his or her Mother Tongue.
Furthermore, learning in Mother Tongue also serves as an essential foundation for students to
learn Filipino and English easily.
Building Proficiency through Language
(Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education)
What’s new with K to 12? This one is the added feature in the basic education curriculum
– the introduction of Senior High School.
Senior High School is two years of specialized upper secondary education; students may
choose a specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school capacity. The choice of career
track will define the content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12.
Figure 2 below shows the learning areas to be offered in Senior High and its target track.
Subjects Offered and the Track Direction of Senior High
There are 7 Learning Areas under the Core Curriculum. These are Languages, Literature,
Communication, Mathematics, Philosophy, Natural Science, and Social Sciences. Current
content from some General Education subjects are embedded in the SHS curriculum.
Gearing Up for the Future
(Senior High School)
Students who will pursue Academic Track will be taking the following subjects:
Business, Accountancy, Management (BAM); Humanities, Education, Social Sciences (HESS);
and Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM).
Technical-Vocational-Livelihood Track will be taking up courses on TVET (Technical
Vocational Education & Training) which could obtain National Certificates, Level I or II, in
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), provided that the student will
pass the competency-based examination. NC I and NC II improves employability of graduates in
fields like Agriculture, Electronics, and Trade.
The Filipino student after going to the K to 12 education (Kindergarten, the enhanced
Elementary and Junior High curriculum, and a specialized Senior High program), are expected to
be a holistically developed citizen pursuing their different paths – may it be further education,
employment, or entrepreneurship.
In general, they will acquire the necessary knowledge for living. The inforgraph below
will explain what a K to 12 graduates is.
Century Skills in a K to 12 Graduate
Nurturing the Holistically Developed Filipino
(College and Livelihood Readiness, 21st Century Skills)
THESUBJECTS The Curriculum
(List of Subjects)
Elementary Education Subjects
a. Filipino (1-6)
b. Mother Tongue (1-3)
c. English (4-6)
3. Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (EsP)
4. Araling Panlipunan (AP)
5. Music, Arts, Physical Education & Health (MAPEH)
Junior High School Subjects
5. Araling Panlipunan (AP)
6. Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (EsP)
7. Music, Arts, Physical Education & Health (MAPEH)
8. Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE)
Senior High School Track
2. Sports and Arts
See Appendix II for Descriptions
The operation of the program in public schools is being done in
stages. Starting SY 2012–2013, Grade 1 entrants are the first batch to fully
undergo the program, and current 1st
year Junior High School students (or
Grade 7) are the first to undergo the enhanced secondary education
program. To facilitate the transition from the existing 10-year basic
education to 12 years, DepEd is also implementing the SHS Modeling.
Figure 4 & 5 shows the implementation plan for public & private
Schematic Implementation Plan in Public Schools
Schematic Implementation Plan in Private Schools
IMPLEMENTATIONPLAN IMPLEMENTATION & TRANSITION MANAGEMENT
(Schematic Implementation Plan)
3. Give suggestion for the improvement of the plan.
K to12 is described as extending basic education by two years, so instead of having a
high school graduate at 16 (years old), we will have high schoolers graduating at 18. It basically
aims to expand comprehensively the congested learning areas taught in the 10-year basic
Why there’s a need for K to 12? Primarily, to enhance the quality of education in the
country. Accordingly, three significant reasons are identified to be the leading reason for
enacting this program.
At present, the Philippines is the only country in Asia and among the three remaining
countries in the world that uses a 10-year basic education cycle. In a presentation made by the
South East Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO-INNOTECH) on Additional
Years in Philippine Basic Education (2010), the comparative data on duration of Basic and Pre-
University Education in Asia shows that the Philippines allots 10 years not just for the basic
education cycle but also for the pre-university education while all the other countries have either
11 or 12 years in their basic education cycle.
Another reason includes the performance rate of the students in the country. Achievement
scores highlight our students’ poor performance in national examinations. For example, the
National Achievement Test (NAT) results for grade 6 in SY 2009-2010 showed only a 69.21%
passing rate while the NAT results for high school is at a low 46.38%. Furthermore, international
tests results in 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science study (TIMSS) show that
the Philippines ranked 34th
out of 38 countries in HS Math and 43rd
out of 46 countries in HS II
Science. Hence, placing Philippines in the lowest spot in 2008 even with only the science high
schools joining the Advanced Mathematics category.
In the instruction itself, studies show that the present curriculum is found to be congested.
This means that students do not get enough time to perform tasks because the curriculum is
designed to be taught in a span of 12 years and not 10 years. The more evident result of this is
the fact that most students finished secondary level without the readiness to take upon higher
education or employment. These students are not equipped with the basic skills or competencies
needed at work. Likewise, the short duration of our basic education program puts Filipinos who
are interested to either work or study abroad at a disadvantage. This is because other countries
see our 10-year program as incomplete, which then, causes Filipino graduates to not be
considered as professionals abroad.
Suggested Points: Make Reforms Transform
Logically, the need for K to 12 must be addressed by answering it critically and clearly.
The following points are some of the suggested points on how to improve the Enhanced Basic
1. Address the Perennial Problems
The figure in left shows the ultimate
problem in DepEd. If these problems
won’t be addressed before the full
implementation, same results will
occur. To achieve better quality results,
the existing problems must be solve
first. State’s investment in education is
not a waste. Use people’s money in
education instead of using funds on
political and ghost projects.
2. Enhancing Instructional Supervision
Common problems still exist – not only with resources but also with the so-called
incompetent instructional leaders. According to studies conducted by Marzano, et. al.
(2011), the ham-fisted supervision leads to school and learner’s poor performance.
Although DepEd screens the would-be principals through an examination, still, some
school heads that is not yet passing the exam is still in the supervision practice. No
point of removing them as instructional leaders – the point is to train them thoroughly
so that K to 12 implementation in the grassroots level won’t be ending up
3. Encouraging Classroom Teachers Towards Professional Growth
Without classroom teachers, K to 12 won’t be possible. They are in the frontline.
They are in the grassroot level. They are the one responsible in carrying out the
program. Hence, professional advancement of these “carriers of success” must be
4. Enough Training Programs and Seminar-Workshops in the Implementation of
K to 12
Well, DepEd is giving an orientation training a month before the implementation. Is
this enough? Others may say yes, but we aren’t sure if they really digest it if without
practice. Thus, continuous training on K to 12, especially on 21st
strategies, would be a big help.
5. Make Prior Studies for Instructional Materials Templates and Competencies
One problem of K to 12 is on its new instructional materials. Materials for Grades 3
and 9 are not yet ready. The Central Office and IMCS are still on its process on
developing materials. Before the development of materials, make sure that the said
offices issued the Resource Writing Teams the exact templates and competencies to
be used so that no time will be wasted. Problems arise when changes in templates,
format and competencies are given late when materials are already written.
6. Creation of Majorship or Specialization Suited to Grades 11 & 12
TEIs are not yet developing curriculum and framework in addressing the need for
Specialists in Grades 11 & 12. It would be much better if the higher education will be
offering specialization on the said grades, especially for Sports & Arts and Technical-
7. Training for Technical Competencies on TLE
Subjects in TLE are very interesting since skills are surely be taught, like practical
electricity, PC hardware servicing, food processing, commercial cooking, and the
likes. Teachers who will be teaching these subjects or field of specialization must
obtain first their National Certificates in TESDA to ensure that they are really skilled
and qualified to teach such fields.
8. Make 21st
Century Learning Reality
The inculcation of realistic 21st
century education features are the main point of K to
12 – to create a 21st
century learner capable of employment, entrepreneurship, and
further education. If skills required in 21st
century learning are not given since the
basic foundation, surely, nothing will change.
9. Support Teachers Needs
Giving importance to teachers will surely bring a good effect in the teaching-learning
process. Other countries (e.g. Finland) giving priorities and treating teachers like
other elite jobs (attorney, doctors) will mean a big thing towards the professional and
morale status of teachers. Increasing salaries noted no significant correlation with the
quality of output, but the fact that teachers are recognized by the State is something
more important. A high positive correlation is seen on the latter reason.
10. Quality vs Quantity
K to 12 is not merely adding kinder and two years of Senior High School. DepEd
officials must closely monitor if work done is at its best. If quality will be set aside,
only the quantity of education cycle will be remarkably noted in the history of
I. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs) ON THE ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS
1. When will the K to 12 Program be implemented?
Universal Kindergarten began in SY 2011–2012.
The enhanced curriculum for Grade 1 and Grade 7 (1st Year Junior High School)
was rolled out this SY 2012–2013, and will be progressively introduced in the
other grade levels in succeeding school years.
Grade 11 will be introduced in SY 2016–2017 and Grade 12 in SY 2017–2018.
The first batch of high school students to go through K to 12 will graduate in
2. Where will the additional two years be added?
The two years will be added after the four-year high school program.
This will be called Senior High School.
3. Why are we implementing 12 years of basic education and not 11 years?
A 12-year program is found to be the adequate period for learning under basic
education. It is also a standard for recognition of students and/or professionals
abroad (i.e. the Bologna Process for the European Union and the Washington
Accord for the United States).
Other countries like Singapore have 11 years of compulsory education, but have
12 to 14 years of pre-university education depending on the track. The Philippines
is the last country in Asia and one of only three countries (Angola and Djibouti)
worldwide with a 10-year pre-university cycle.
4. How will K to 12 help in ensuring employment for our graduates?
The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum will be sucient to prepare students for
The curriculum will enable students to acquire Certificates of Competency
(COCs) and National Certifications (NCs). This will be in accordance with
TESDA Training Regulations. This will allow graduates to have middle-level
skills and will o er them better opportunities to be gainfully employed or become
There will be a school–industry partnership for technical–vocational courses to
allow students to gain work experience while studying and o er the opportunity
to be absorbed by the companies.
5. What would be the assurance that K to 12 graduates will be employed?
DepEd has entered into an agreement with business organizations, local and
foreign chambers of commerce, and industries to ensure that graduates of K to 12
will be considered for employment.
There will be a matching of competency requirements and standards so that 12-
year basic education graduates will have the necessary skills needed to join the
workforce and to match the College Readiness Standards for further education
and future employment.
6. How will the K to 12 Program help working students (college level)?
DepEd is in collaboration with Commission on Higher Education (CHED) to
provide more opportunities for working students to attend classes.
DepEd is working with the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) to
ensure that jobs will be available to K to 12 graduates and that consideration will
be given to working students.
7. How will the K to 12 Program help students intending to pursue higher
The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum is in accordance with the College
Readiness Standards of CHED, which sets the skills and competencies required of K
to 12 graduates who intend to pursue higher education.
8. What will happen to colleges and universities during the initial nationwide
implementation of Senior High School in SY 2016–2017 and SY 2017–2018?
To manage the initial implementation of the K to 12 Program and mitigate the
expected multi-year low enrolment turnout for colleges, universities, and
Technical-Vocational Institutions (TVI) starting SY 2016-2017, DepEd shall
engage in partnerships with them to use their existing facilities and teaching sta .
This ensures that during the transition period, the reduction in enrollment in these
colleges and universities may be o set.
9. Where will Senior High School be implemented?
Existing public schools may implement Senior High School. DepEd will have
partnerships with CHED, TESDA, and private schools to use their facilities,
especially for the transition years. In addition, new standalone Senior High Schools
will be built.
10. How will DepEd recruit enough teachers for SY 2016-2017 onwards?
With the continuous increase of the DepEd budget, more teachers are being hired
to fill all necessary gaps in schools.
To aid transition, hiring of (1) graduates of Science, Mathematics, Statistics,
Engineering, and other specialists in subjects with a shortage of qualified
Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) applicants, (2) graduates of Technical-
Vocational courses, (3) Higher Education Institution faculty, and (4) Practitioners
will be allowed.
11. What are the guidelines for graduates of Science, Mathematics, Statistics,
Engineering, and other specialists in subjects with a shortage of qualified
Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) applicants?
These graduates will be permitted to teach in their specialized subjects in
elementary and secondary education. They must pass the LET within five years
after their date of hiring to remain employed full-time.
They will no longer be required to pass the LET if these graduates are willing to
teach on a part-time basis.
12. What are the guidelines for hired technical-vocational course graduates, faculty
of Higher Education Institutions, and practitioners?
Graduates of technical-vocational courses must have necessary certification
issued by TESDA and undergo training to be administered by DepEd or a Higher
Education Institutions (HEI).
Faculty of colleges and universities must be full-time professors and be holders of
a relevant Bachelor’s degree.
Faculty of TVIs and HEIs will be given priority in hiring for the transition period.
DepEd and Private Education Institutions may also hire practitioners with
expertise in the specialized learning areas o ered by the K to 12 Program as part-
13. How will K to 12 a-ect the college curriculum?
The college General Education Curriculum is being revised. It will have fewer
units with the removal of unnecessary remediation as K to 12 graduates adheres to the
College Readiness Standards. With K to 12, the college curriculum will comprise of a
year’s worth of General Education subjects and at least two years of major subjects.
14. Will K to 12 change TESDA Technical Vocational Education and Training
No. TESDA will continue to o er TVET programs. Students may also be eligible
for NC I and NC II through Junior High School and Senior High School, respectively.
15. What is my role in supporting this program?
Be informed. Education shapes our future and as Filipinos, it is our duty to be
aware of reforms in basic education that will move our country forward.
Spread awareness. Tell your family, friends, and networks about the K to12
Program and help them stay informed.
16. What will happen to the curriculum? What subjects will be added and removed?
There is a continuum from Kindergarten to Grade 12, and to technical-vocational
and higher education.
The current curriculum has been enhanced and has been given more focus to
allow mastery of learning.
In Grades 11 and 12, core subjects like Mathematics, Science, and Languages will
be strengthened. Specializations in students’ areas of interest will also be oered.
17. Will students choose specializations or will this be determined by assessment?
Students will undergo several assessments to determine their interests and
strengths. These will include an aptitude test, a career assessment exam, and an
occupational interest inventory for high schools, and should help students decide
on their specialization.
To help guide students in choosing career tracks they intend to pursue, career
advocacy activities will be regularly conducted, which will be supported by career
and employment guidance counsellors.
18. For Senior High School, what will happen if majority of our students want to
specialize in Agriculture and only one is interested to take Mathematics or
Business? How will this be accommodated?
This is an extreme situation. The areas of specialization will be offered according
to the resources available in a locality and the needs of students.
19. What will happen to special schools such as science high schools, high schools for
the arts, trade schools, etc.?
These schools will remain special schools with enriched curriculum for Grades 7
20. What will happen to multi-grade teaching?
Multi-grade teaching will continue, and will use the K to 12 curriculum.
21. Alternative Learning System (ALS) age requirement is only 16 years old for the
high school equivalency test. Will this change to 18? Students might want to turn
to ALS if they can save two years of formal school education costs.
The ALS is based on the existing 10-year basic education curriculum. When the
new 12-year curriculum will be in place, ALS will likewise be revised.
22. Will K to 12 enhance programs targeted to indigenous people, Muslim learners,
and people with special needs?
Yes, the K to 12 curriculum was designed to address diverse learner needs, and
may be adapted to fit specific learner groups.
23. Is Kindergarten a pre-requisite for entering Grade 1?
Yes. Republic Act No. 10157, or the Kindergarten Education Act, institutionalizes
Kindergarten as part of the basic education system and is a pre-requisite for
admission to Grade 1. Public schools will continue to admit children who have not
taken Kindergarten into Grade 1 until SY 2013-2014.
24. Is there an overlap between the daycare program of the LGUs and DepEd
There is no overlap. Daycare centers of the LGUs take care of children aged 4 and
below, whereas the DepEd Kindergarten program is for five-year-old children.
25. Should schools now prepare permanent records for Kindergarten students?
Yes. Although the assessment on readiness skills of students in Kindergarten is
not academically driven, a good measure of the child’s ability to cope with formal
schooling is needed for future learning interventions.
26. Who is in charge of Kindergarten teacher compensation? The LGU o DepEd?
DepEd is the main agency that employs and pays Kindergarten teachers.
There are LGUs that help in the Kindergarten program and provide honoraria for
27. Will MTB-MLE include other languages in the future?
For SY 2012-2013, 12 Mother Tongue languages are being used for MTB-MLE.
More languages like Ivatan will be added in succeeding years.
28. Which mother tongue will be used in multi-cultural areas?
The common language in the area or lingua franca shall be used as the medium of
The principle of MTB-MLE is to use the language that learners are most
comfortable and familiar with.
II. K TO 12 LEARNING AREAS
Learning Area Description
Integrated Language Arts
Ang Filipino ay naglalayong malinang ang (1)
kakayahang komunikatibo at (2) kahusayan sa
pagunawa at pagpapahalagang pampanitikan ng mga
mag-aaral. Lilinangin ang makrong kasanayan
(pakikinig, pagsasalita, pagbasa, pagsulat at panonood)
sa tulong ng iba’t ibang dulog at
pamamaraan tulad ng Komunikatibong Pagtuturo ng
Wika (KPW), Pagtuturong Batay sa Nilalaman (PBL)
ng iba’t ibang akdang pampanitikan at Pagsasanib ng
Gramatika sa Tulong ng iba’t ibang Teksto (PGRT), at
isinasaalang-alang din ang pagsasanib ng mga
pagpapahalang pangkatauhan sa pag-aaral at
pagsusuri ng iba’t ibang akdang pampanitikan.
Science This course deals with the basic concepts in Biology,
Chemistry, Physics and Earth/Space Science. Every
quarter presents the different science disciplines across
grade levels in increasing complexity. The course is
focused on the development of awareness and
understanding of practical everyday problems that
affect the learners’ lives and those around them.
Mathematics It includes key concepts and principles of number
sense, measurement, algebra, geometry, probability
and statistics as applied, using appropriate technology,
in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning,
communicating, making connections, representations
and decisions in real life.
Araling Panlipunan Ang asignaturang ito ay naglalayong tumalakay sa
kasaysayan ng Pilipinas gamit ang sipi ng mga piling
primaryang sanggunian mula sa iba’t ibang panahon
at uri; at magpamalas ng malalim na pang-unawa sa
mga pangunahing kaisipan at mga napapanahong isyu
sa pag-aaral ng kasaysayan, pamahalaan, kultura at
lipunan ng mga rehiyong Asyano; kasaysayang
pandaigdig at napapanahong isyu; at ang kaisipan at
napapanahong isyu sa ekonomiks at pambansang
Technology and Livelihood Education (TIE) provides
an enriched general education that will prepare our
graduates for higher education, world of work and
lifelong learning. The integration of Entrepreneurship
concepts such as Personal Entrepreneurial
Competencies (PECS), Environment and Market (E
M), and Process and Delivery prepares the students for
gainful employment and to set up their own business in
the areas of Agri-Fishery Arts, Industrial Arts, Home
Economics, and Information and Communication
Music, Art, Physical
This learning area covers four (4) major components
namely: Music, Art, Physical Education and Health.
• Music and Art deal with the study of man’s aesthetic
expression through sounds (music) and visuals (art)
mirroring the sentiments and ideas of society and
culture, and contributing to the development of
individual and collective identity. It is designed to be
student-centered, based on spiral progression, and
grounded in performance-based learning focused on
appreciation and application where basic fundamentals
are further reinforced. The program design empowers
the learners to effectively correlate Music and Art to
the study of Philippine Culture, as influenced by
history, the culture of its neighbors, and the effects of
globalization and the advancement of information
Physical Education and Health promote the
development of active and healthy lifestyle. Physical
Education focuses on five strands namely: body
management, movement skills, games and sports,
rhythm and dance and physical fitness.
Each strand is sequentially developed across grade
levels including activities that are varied and age
appropriate to address the needs and interest of
learners. The Health program deals with physical,
mental, emotional, social, moral and spiritual
dimensions of health that enable learners to acquire
essential knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary to
promote good nutrition, prevent and control diseases,
substance use and abuse, and reduce health-related risk
behaviors and injuries with the view to maintaining
and improving personal, family, community, national
and global health.
Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao
Ang Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao ay naglalayong
malinang at mapaunlad ang kakayahan ng mga
magaaral sa moral na pagpapasya at paggawa ng mga
pasyang batay sa idinidikta ng tamang konsensya. Apat
na tema ang nililinang sa paraang expanding spiral
mula Kindergarten hanggang Grade 10: (a)
Pananagutang Pansarili at Pagiging Kasapi sa Pamilya
(b) Pakikipagkapwa at Katatagan ng Pamilya, (c)
Paggawa Tungo sa Pambansang Pag-unlad at
Pakikibahagi sa Pandaigdigang Pagkakaisa, at (d)
Pagkamaka-Diyos at Preperensya sa Kabutihan. Ang
nilalaman at istraktura ng Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao
ay nakaangkla sa dalawang disiplina: Ethics at Career
Guidance. Ang Etika ay ang siyensya ng moralidad ng
kilos ng tao. Ang Career Guidance ay ang paggabay sa
mag-aaral na magpasya ng kursong akademiko o
teknikal-bokasyonal na tugma sa kanyang mga talento,
kakayahan at aptitude at mga trabahong kailangan sa
ekonomiya kakayahan at aptitude at mga trabahong
kailangan sa ekonomiya.
III. K TO 12 ACT OF 2013
Republic Act No. 10533
S. No. 3286
H. No. 6643
Republic of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
Third Regular Session
Begun and held in Metro Manila, on Monday, the twenty-third day of July, two thousand twelve.
[REPUBLIC ACT NO. 10533]
AN ACT ENHANCING THE PHILIPPINE BASIC EDUCATION SYSTEM BY STRENGTHENING
ITS CURRICULUM AND INCREASING THE NUMBER OF YEARS FOR BASIC EDUCATION,
APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:
SECTION 1. Short Title. — This Act shall be known as the “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013″.
SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy. — The State shall establish, maintain and support a complete, adequate, and
integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people, the country and society-at-large.
Likewise, it is hereby declared the policy of the State that every graduate of basic education shall be an
empowered individual who has learned, through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and
geared towards excellence, the foundations for learning throughout life, the competence to engage in work and
be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to
engage in autonomous, creative, and critical thinking, and the capacity and willingness to transform others and
For this purpose, the State shall create a functional basic education system that will develop productive and
responsible citizens equipped with the essential competencies, skills and values for both life-long learning and
employment. In order to achieve this, the State shall:
(a) Give every student an opportunity to receive quality education that is globally competitive based on a
pedagogically sound curriculum that is at par with international standards;
(b) Broaden the goals of high school education for college preparation, vocational and technical career
opportunities as well as creative arts, sports and entrepreneurial employment in a rapidly changing and
increasingly globalized environment; and
(c) Make education learner-oriented and responsive to the needs, cognitive and cultural capacity, the
circumstances and diversity of learners, schools and communities through the appropriate languages of
teaching and learning, including mother tongue as a learning resource.
SEC. 3. Basic Education. — Basic education is intended to meet basic learning needs which provides the
foundation on which subsequent learning can be based. It encompasses kindergarten, elementary and
secondary education as well as alternative learning systems for out-of-school learners and those with special
SEC. 4. Enhanced Basic Education Program. — The enhanced basic education program encompasses at least
one (1) year of kindergarten education, six (6) years of elementary education, and six (6) years of secondary
education, in that sequence. Secondary education includes four (4) years of junior high school and two (2)
years of senior high school education.
Kindergarten education shall mean one (1) year of preparatory education for children at least five (5) years old
as a prerequisite for Grade I.
Elementary education refers to the second stage of compulsory basic education which is composed of six (6)
years. The entrant age to this level is typically six (6) years old.
Secondary education refers to the third stage of compulsory basic education. It consists of four (4) years of
junior high school education and two (2) years of senior high school education. The entrant age to the junior
and senior high school levels are typically twelve (12) and sixteen (16) years old, respectively.
Basic education shall be delivered in languages understood by the learners as the language plays a strategic
role in shaping the formative years of learners.
For kindergarten and the first three (3) years of elementary education, instruction, teaching materials and
assessment shall be in the regional or native language of the learners. The Department of Education (DepED)
shall formulate a mother language transition program from Grade 4 to Grade 6 so that Filipino and English
shall be gradually introduced as languages of instruction until such time when these two (2) languages can
become the primary languages of instruction at the secondary level.
For purposes of this Act, mother language or first Language (LI) refers to language or languages first learned
by a child, which he/she identifies with, is identified as a native language user of by others, which he/she
knows best, or uses most. This includes Filipino sign language used by individuals with pertinent disabilities.
The regional or native language refers to the traditional speech variety or variety of Filipino sign language
existing in a region, area or place.
SEC. 5. Curriculum Development. — The DepED shall formulate the design and details of the enhanced basic
education curriculum. It shall work with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) to craft harmonized
basic and tertiary curricula for the global competitiveness of Filipino graduates. To ensure college readiness
and to avoid remedial and duplication of basic education subjects, the DepED shall coordinate with the CHED
and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA).
To achieve an effective enhanced basic education curriculum, the DepED shall undertake consultations with
other national government agencies and other stakeholders including, but not limited to, the Department of
Labor and Employment (DOLE), the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), the private and public
schools associations, the national student organizations, the national teacher organizations, the parents-teachers
associations and the chambers of commerce on matters affecting the concerned stakeholders.
The DepED shall adhere to the following standards and principles in developing the enhanced basic education
(a) The curriculum shall be learner-centered, inclusive and developmentally appropriate;
(b) The curriculum shall be relevant, responsive and research-based;
(c) The curriculum shall be culture-sensitive;
(d) The curriculum shall be contextualized and global;
(e) The curriculum shall use pedagogical approaches that are constructivist, inquiry-based, reflective,
collaborative and integrative;
(f) The curriculum shall adhere to the principles and framework of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual
Education (MTB-MLE) which starts from where the learners are and from what they already knew proceeding
from the known to the unknown; instructional materials and capable teachers to implement the MTB-MLE
curriculum shall be available;
(g) The curriculum shall use the spiral progression approach to ensure mastery of knowledge and skills after
each level; and
(h) The curriculum shall be flexible enough to enable and allow schools to localize, indigenize and enhance the
same based on their respective educational and social contexts. The production and development of locally
produced teaching materials shall be encouraged and approval of these materials shall devolve to the regional
and division education units.
SEC. 6. Curriculum Consultative Committee. — There shall be created a curriculum consultative committee
chaired by the DepED Secretary or his/her duly authorized representative and with members composed of, but
not limited to, a representative each from the CHED, the TESDA, the DOLE, the PRC, the Department of
Science and Technology (DOST), and a representative from the business chambers such as the Information
Technology – Business Process Outsourcing (IT-BPO) industry association. The consultative committee shall
oversee the review and evaluation on the implementation of the basic education curriculum and may
recommend to the DepED the formulation of necessary refinements in the curriculum.
SEC. 7. Teacher Education and Training. — To ensure that the enhanced basic education program meets the
demand for quality teachers and school leaders, the DepED and the CHED, in collaboration with relevant
partners in government, academe, industry, and nongovernmental organizations, shall conduct teacher
education and training programs, as specified:
(a) In-service Training on Content and Pedagogy — Current DepED teachers shall be retrained to meet the
content and performance standards of the new K to 12 curriculum.
The DepED shall ensure that private education institutions shall be given the opportunity to avail of such
(b) Training of New Teachers. — New graduates of the current Teacher Education curriculum shall undergo
additional training, upon hiring, to upgrade their skills to the content standards of the new curriculum.
Furthermore, the CHED, in coordination with the DepED and relevant stakeholders, shall ensure that the
Teacher Education curriculum offered in these Teacher Education Institutes (TEIs) will meet necessary quality
standards for new teachers. Duly recognized organizations acting as TEIs, in coordination with the DepED, the
CHED, and other relevant stakeholders, shall ensure that the curriculum of these organizations meet the
necessary quality standards for trained teachers.
(c) Training of School Leadership. — Superintendents, principals, subject area coordinators and other
instructional school leaders shall likewise undergo workshops and training to enhance their skills on their role
as academic, administrative and community leaders.
Henceforth, such professional development programs as those stated above shall be initiated and conducted
regularly throughout the school year to ensure constant upgrading of teacher skills.
SEC. 8. Hiring of Graduates of Science, Mathematics, Statistics, Engineering and Other Specialists in Subjects
With a Shortage of Qualified Applicants, Technical-Vocational Courses and Higher Education Institution
Faculty. — Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 26, 27 and 28 of Republic Act No. 7836, otherwise
known as the “Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994″, the DepED and private education
institutions shall hire, as may be relevant to the particular subject:
(a) Graduates of science, mathematics, statistics, engineering, music and other degree courses with shortages in
qualified Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) applicants to teach in their specialized subjects in the
elementary and secondary education. Qualified LET applicants shall also include graduates admitted by
foundations duly recognized for their expertise in the education sector and who satisfactorily complete the
requirements set by these organizations: Provided, That they pass the LET within five (5) years after their date
of hiring: Provided, further, That if such graduates are willing to teach on part-time basis, the provisions of
LET shall no longer be required;
(b) Graduates of technical-vocational courses to teach in their specialized subjects in the secondary
education: Provided, That these graduates possess the necessary certification issued by the TESDA: Provided,
further, That they undergo appropriate in-service training to be administered by the DepED or higher
education institutions (HEIs) at the expense of the DepED;
(c) Faculty of HEIs be allowed to teach in their general education or subject specialties in the secondary
education: Provided, That the faculty must be a holder of a relevant Bachelor’s degree, and must have
satisfactorily served as a full-time HEI faculty;
(d) The DepED and private education institutions may hire practitioners, with expertise in the specialized
learning areas offered by the Basic Education Curriculum, to teach in the secondary level; Provided, That they
teach on part-time basis only. For this purpose, the DepED, in coordination with the appropriate government
agencies, shall determine the necessary qualification standards in hiring these experts.
SEC. 9. Career Guidance and Counselling Advocacy. — To properly guide the students in choosing the career
tracks that they intend to pursue, the DepED, in coordination with the DOLE, the TESDA and the CHED, shall
regularly conduct career advocacy activities for secondary level students. Notwithstanding the provisions of
Section 27 of Republic Act No. 9258, otherwise known as the “Guidance and Counselling Act of 2004″, career
and employment guidance counsellors, who are not registered and licensed guidance counsellors, shall be
allowed to conduct career advocacy activities to secondary level students of the school where they are
currently employed; Provided, That they undergo a training program to be developed or accredited by the
SEC. 10. Expansion of E-GASTPE Beneficiaries. — The benefits accorded by Republic Act No. 8545, or the
“Expanded Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education Act”, shall be extended to
qualified students enrolled under the enhanced basic education.
The DepED shall engage the services of private education institutions and non-DepED schools offering senior
high school through the programs under Republic Act No. 8545, and other financial arrangements formulated
by the DepED and the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) based on the principles of public-
SEC. 11. Appropriations. — The Secretary of Education shall include in the Department’s program the
operationalization of the enhanced basic education program, the initial funding of which shall be charged
against the current appropriations of the DepED. Thereafter, the amount necessary for the continued
implementation of the enhanced basic education program shall be included in the annual General
SEC. 12. Transitory Provisions. — The DepED, the CHED and the TESDA shall formulate the appropriate
strategies and mechanisms needed to ensure smooth transition from the existing ten (10) years basic education
cycle to the enhanced basic education (K to 12) cycle. The strategies may cover changes in physical
infrastructure, manpower, organizational and structural concerns, bridging models linking grade 10
competencies and the entry requirements of new tertiary curricula, and partnerships between the government
and other entities. Modeling for senior high school may be implemented in selected schools to simulate the
transition process and provide concrete data for the transition plan.
To manage the initial implementation of the enhanced basic education program and mitigate the expected
multi-year low enrolment turnout for HEIs and Technical Vocational Institutions (TVIs) starting School Year
2016-2017, the DepED shall engage in partnerships with HEIs and TVIs for the utilization of the latter’s
human and physical resources. Moreover, the DepED, the CHED, the TESDA, the TVIs and the HEIs shall
coordinate closely with one another to implement strategies that ensure the academic, physical, financial, and
human resource capabilities of HEIs and TVIs to provide educational and training services for graduates of the
enhanced basic education program to ensure that they are not adversely affected. The faculty of HEIs and TVIs
allowed to teach students of secondary education under Section 8 hereof, shall be given priority in hiring for
the duration of the transition period. For this purpose, the transition period shall be provided for in the
implementing rules and regulations (IRK).
SEC. 13. Joint Congressional Oversight Committee on the Enhanced Basic Educational Program (K to 12
Program). — There is hereby created a Joint Oversight Committee to oversee, monitor and evaluate the
implementation of this Act.
The Oversight Committee shall be composed of five (5) members each from the Senate and from the House of
Representatives, including Chairs of the Committees on Education, Arts and Culture, and Finance of both
Houses. The membership of the Committee for every House shall have at least two (2) opposition or minority
SEC. 14. Mandatory Evaluation and Review. — By the end of School Year 2014-2015, the DepED shall
conduct a mandatory review and submit a midterm report to Congress as to the status of implementation of the
K to 12 program in terms of closing the following current shortages: (a) teachers; (b) classrooms; (c)
textbooks; (d) seats; (e) toilets; and (f) other shortages that should be addressed.
The DepED shall include among others, in this midterm report, the following key metrics of access to and
quality of basic education: (a) participation rate; (b) retention rate; (c) National Achievement Test results; (d)
completion rate; (e) teachers’ welfare and training profiles; (f) adequacy of funding requirements; and (g) other
learning facilities including, but not limited to, computer and science laboratories, libraries and library hubs,
and sports, music and arts.
SEC. 15. Commitment to International Benchmarks. — The DepED shall endeavor to increase the per capita
spending on education towards the immediate attainment of international benchmarks.
SEC. 16. Implementing Rules and Regulations. — Within ninety (90) days after the effectivity of this Act, the
DepED Secretary, the CHED Chairperson and the TESDA Director-General shall promulgate the rules and
regulations needed for the implementation of this Act.
SEC. 17. Separability Clause. — If any provision of this Act is held invalid or unconstitutional, the same shall
not affect the validity and effectivity of the other provisions hereof.
SEC. 18. Repealing Clause. — Pertinent provisions of Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 or the “Education Act of
1982″, Republic Act No. 9155 or the “Governance of Basic Education.
Act of 2001″, Republic Act No. 9258, Republic Act No. 7836, and all other laws, decrees, executive orders
and rules and regulations contrary to or inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or
SEC. 19. Effectivity Clause. — This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official
Gazette or in two (2) newspapers of general circulation.
(Sgd.) FELICIANO BELMONTE JR.
Speaker of the House
(Sgd.) JUAN PONCE ENRILE
President of the Senate
This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 3286 and House Bill No. 6643 was finally passed by the
Senate and the House of Representatives on January 30, 2013.
(Sgd.) MARILYN BARUA-YAP
House of Representatives
(Sgd.) EDWIN B. BELEN
Acting Senate Secretary
Approved: MAY 15 2013
(Sgd.) BENIGNO S. AQUINO III
President of the Philippines