1. PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education
A Special Project as a
Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements of the Course
REJULIOS M. VILLENES
MA – Educational Management
ORLANDO D. SERDON, DEM
This coursework would not have been accomplished
without the encouragement, inspiration, generosity and
kindness of friends, mentors, and relatives. It is for this
reason that I wish to acknowledge these God-given gifts.
To our Almighty God, for the good health, strength,
blessing, and guidance while taking up the summer class
of graduate studies.
To my wife, Ma.Lyn, who continuously wake me up late
at night to force me do this coursework. To my children,
Tsam & Jiji, for taking away the pains.
To Dr. Orlando D. Serdon, our course professor who love
to pose challenges for the next instructional leaders and
for allowing us continue in his subject through personal
reading and with this course work. To Dr. RVA & Dr.
ESV who supported us always in our study.
To those who in one way or another, contributed in the
accomplishment of this coursework. Merci!
3. D E D I C A T I O N
The stars in the night sky won’t be very bright as they
shine at day time.
All this is for you, Tsam Tsam…
My daughter, Louisse Avery, the strongest girl
I’ve ever seen.
The cold-blooded heart will never be the same again,
ever. It’s because of you too, Jiji.
And also for you my son, Rejeus Lynch.
4. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Table of Contents v
I. EDCOM Report of 1991
1. Introduction & Overview 1
2. EDCOM Findings 4
3. Recommendations of EDCOM 7
II. Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report
1. Introduction 9
2. RA 7722 11
3. RA 7796 14
4. RA 7784 16
5. RA 7836 19
6. RA 7797 21
III. Analysis of Strengths and Weaknesses
of the Enacted Laws
1. Introduction 22
2. Responsiveness to Global Market 23
3. Attainment of National Objectives 24
4. Quality Output and Competitiveness 26
5. Strengths and Weaknesses:
An Analysis 28
1. Relevant Laws
In School Legislation
2. 1987 Philippine Constitution
The report assessed the scenario of education in the
Philippines. This is considered as a contemporary assessment
that also studied the future directions of the educational set-up
in the country. Thus, marking the Fifth Republic as one of the
milestones of the Philippine education.
Different concerns arise in the educational setting. No new
directions are seen to be a parcel of the attainment of its
national goals. Hence, the Congress agreed to review the
current educational set-up in the country – to identify its status,
what it really needs, and its future path.
EDCOM stands for the Congressional Commission on
Education to Review and Assess Philippine Education. It was
created by a Joint Resolution of the Eight Philippine Congress
on the 17th
of June in 1990. It is composed of five (5)
congressmen and five (5) senators, with Chairman headed by
the Senate and Co-Chair from the House. Furthermore, it was
established by a
Joint Resolution of
Congress on the
17th of June in
6. assisted by a Technical Secretariat and three (3) panels of
The Commission dwelled on both intensive and extensive
research studies to identify the real situation of the education in
the country. They utilized both qualitative and quantitative
method of research to gather necessary data and information.
This is much advanced in compared with the previous studies
conducted (e.g. PCSPE), since the Commission included
regional consultations in the then fourteen (14) regions of the
country. They consulted every components of the stakeholders
group, involving parents, teachers, school administrators,
Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) officials,
business sector, and Local Government Units (LGUs), up to
Non-government organizations, civic organizations, religious
leaders, workers and the marginalized sectors (e.g. farmers).
The aim was to elicit common concerns and issues about the
current educational set-up, participants’ assessment of the
school’s performance, quality of educational programs &
services, and their suggestions to revolutionize the system.
Since the commission would like to establish a concrete result,
they also conducted studies in the provincial and city levels.
Likewise, dialogues and consultations were done with the
academe and with different professional groups, concerned
individuals and experts from specific fields of education, such
as follows: Early Childhood and Preschool Education;
Elementary and Secondary Education; Teacher Education;
Military Education; Educational Research and Evaluation;
Tertiary Education; Vocational and Technical Training;
Guidance and Counseling; Graduate Education; Education in
every parcel of
the of the
dwelling with both
What is the Report All About: Introduction 2
7. Specific Professions; Governance, Financing and Economics
Education; Testing and Measurement of Learning Outcomes;
Special Education; Education of Indigenous People; and,
Moreover, media and non-formal education sector were also
solicited data. These include the National Inter-University
Forum on Education (NIUFE), the Federation of Accrediting
Agencies of the Philippines (FAAP), the Philippine
Association of Graduate Education (PAGE), etc.
Review on literatures, such as the former studies conducted,
was also conducted. This is to consider the previous
recommendations to advance the current study. Two of the
important studies were the PCSPE and the SOUTELE.
Statistics were also drawn out from DECS and its bureaus, the
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), and
National Statistics Office (NSO). Foreign literatures were also
considered, like data from international publications and
journals (e.g. UNSECO and the World Bank).
All of the gathered data were subjected to comprehensive
analyses through the Panel of Consultants, discussions &
reactions to provide consensus of data, and the general
meetings of the standing committees and the commissioners.
What is the Report All About: Introduction 3
Previous reports in
8. EDCOM Findings
In 1991, Philippines is said to have the most expanded school
systems in the world. In that era, our country has the highest
participation rate in elementary, secondary and tertiary levels.
Covering up to 97.78% participation rate in elementary level, it
is said that Philippines is close to the attainment of universal
elementary education. On the other hand, Philippines scored
89% literacy rate though its functional literacy showed only
The report’s findings revealed a very disturbing result even the
above-cited statement credited recognition on the educational
system. The following is the summarized findings of the report:
1. Too Little Investment in Education
The government is not spending enough for education
as compared with ASEAN countries. Only 1.3% of the
GDP is allotted to the education sector.
2. Disparities in Access in Education
The rich and high income families were favored by the
educational institutions, whether formal and nonformal.
There is a high percentage of incomplete primary and
elementary schools in depressed regions.
3. Low Achievement
Pupils on average learn only 55% or even less of what
must be learned. On the other hand, rich and high
income families got higher achievement records.
What is the Report All About: The Findings 4
findings found to be
9. 4. High Drop-out Rate in Less Developed Communities
Drop-out rates in elementary and secondary schools are
highest in rural and less developed communities and
among poor students.
5. Special Needs Neglected
Muslim and cultural communities as well as special
learners suffer from benign neglect.
6. Limited ECE & NFE Services
Only rich families acquired early childhood education
and development. Nonformal education services are
inadequate and found only in developed communities.
7. Schooling Length & Class Interruptions, Less
Disruptions in regular class schedules and length of
school year correlates with less learning and less
8. Inadequate science and technology
Science and technology including modern innovations
are inadequate, or if not, unsuited to classroom
9. Ineffective VE
Values education in schools is lacking and ineffective.
10. Bilingual Education affects learning
The use of Filipino and English as mode of instruction
distresses the quality of learning.
What is the Report All About: The Findings 5
10. 11. Manpower Mismatched
Incompatibility in the supply and demand for educated
and trained manpower is seen.
12. Irrelevance of Education
Education is found to be insignificant to the individual
and social needs.
13. Incompetent Training & Instruction
Inadequacy of trained and effective teachers was
shown. Graduate studies are mediocre, limited and
14. Ineffective and Inefficient Organization
Organizational structure of the educational system is
“ineffective and inefficient”.
The report also showed that same problems were reported since
the Monroe Survey in 1925 up to EDCOM Report of 1991. No
significant improvement in Philippine education is seen for
over 65 years.
Transform – for
over 65 yrs, same
problems were still
were shown – a
What is the Report All About: The Findings 6
11. Recommendations of EDCOM
Based on the findings, EDCOM recommended the following
1. The prioritization of basic education by to ensure the
then Department of Education, Culture and Sports’
(DECS) undivided attention to this sector;
2. The development of alternative learning modes
especially for literacy acquisition;
3. The use of the mother tongue as language of learning
from Grades 1 to 3, with Filipino gradually becoming
the medium of instruction in basic education and
English a subsidiary medium of instruction in later
4. The expansion and enrichment of technical/vocational
5. The strengthening of pre-service teacher education and
provision of incentives to make the rewards of teaching
commensurate to its importance as a career;
6. Professionalization of teachers and teaching with
licensure exams and increase in the basic minimum
7. Support for both public and private education;
8. The facilitation of planning, delivery, and education
financing and training by industry, workers, teachers,
parents and local governments;
9. Greater access of poor children to all levels of
What is the Report All About: EDCOM Recommendations 7
is clear and
plans are realistic
12. 10. More cost-effective public college and university
education with curricular programs that are relevant to
the communities they serve;
11. The search for new sources of funds (including taxes)
to finance basic education;
12. Strengthening graduate education and research;
13. Creation of Commission on Higher Education (CHED)
to be the main body responsible for colleges and
universities, both private and public.
14. The restructuring of the Department of Education,
Culture and Sports’ (DECS), now Department of
Education (DepEd), to ensure clearer program focus,
rational resource allocation and realistic planning;
With the proposed restructuring of the Philippine Education,
this will ensure that program focus is clear and resources are
allocated rationally and plans are realistic and attainable.
For the final point, the EDCOM commended also that the
government should put all our money in basic education
because it is “all the formal schooling the masses of our people
get”. However, the government must ensure more efficiency
and productivity from our education establishment.
What is the Report All About: EDCOM Recommendations 8
The 11-month study conceded its significance, thereby
encouraging the Congress, the Senate and the House, to
consider the study as basis in making legislations with regards
in improving the education in the country. Chaired by Sen.
Edgardo Angara and Co-chair Cong. Carlos Padilla, they urged
their colleagues to use their recommendations as the bases for
The Congress formed the Congressional Oversight Committee
on Education under the Chairs of the Committee on Education
of both houses of Congress to follow up the necessary
legislations essential to implement the EDCOM
There at least 5 laws passed based in the EDCOM
Recommendation. These are as follows:
2LAWS ACNHORED IN
...more than ever
education is the
”EDCOM Letter of
Transmittal to the
14. 1. RA 7722: An Act Creating the Commission on Higher
Education. May 18, 1994.
2. RA 7796: An Act Creating the Technical Education and
Skills Development Authority. August 25, 1994.
3. RA 7784: An Act to Strengthen Teacher Education in
the Philippines by Establishing Centers of Excellence
Creating a Teacher Education Council. August 4, 1994.
4. RA 7836: An Act to Strengthen the Regulation and
Supervision of the Practice of the Teaching Profession
and Prescribing a Licensure Examination for Teachers
and for Other Purposes. December 15, 1994.
5. RA 7797: An Act to Lengthen the School Calendar
from 200 Days to not more than 220 Class Days. 1994.
Aside from the Republic Acts authored in the Congress,
administrative and executive reforms recommended by the
EDCOM were also implemented by the DECS (DepEd) and
the government’s executive branch. These are as follows:
1. Reduction of the number of incomplete elementary
schools throughout the country.
2. Increase in the number of high schools in provinces and
3. Increase in teachers’ salary from Salary Grade 10 to
Salary Grade 17, throughout the annual budget of the
4. Flexibility in the use of the Bilingual Policy in the
elementary grades. Teachers are allowed to use the
dominant language of the community as medium of
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: Introduction 10
15. RA 7722: Higher Education Act of 1994
Full Title: An Act Creating the Commission on Higher
Education, Appropriating Funds Therefor and for Other
Primarily, the State shall ensure the protection and promotion
of the right of all citizens to affordable quality education at all
levels. Likewise, the state shall ensure education that is
accessible to all. In response, the Philippine Government
passed into law the Higher Education Act of 1994 which
primarily creates the Commission on Higher Education
CHED is bestowed with the following powers and functions:
1. Formulate and recommend development plans, policies,
priorities, and programs on higher education and
2. Formulate and recommend development plans, policies,
priorities and programs on research;
3. Recommend to the executive and legislative branches,
priorities and grants on higher education and research;
4. Set minimum standards for programs and institutions of
higher learning recommended by panels of experts in
the field and subject to public hearing, and enforce the
5. Monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and
institutions of higher learning for appropriate incentives
as well as the imposition of sanctions such as, but not
limited to, diminution or withdrawal of subsidy,
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: Higher Education Act of 1994 11
where higher and
educations will be
16. recommendation on the downgrading or withdrawal of
accreditation, program termination or school closure;
6. Identify, support and develop potential centers of
excellence in program areas needed for the
development of world-class scholarship, nation building
and national development;
7. Recommend to the Department of Budget and
Management the budgets of public institutions of higher
learning as well as general guidelines for the use of
8. Rationalize programs and institutions of higher learning
and set standards, policies and guidelines for the
creation of new ones as well as the conversion or
elevation of schools to institutions of higher learning,
subject to budgetary limitations and the number of
institutions of higher learning in the province or region
where creation, conversion or elevation is sought to be
9. Develop criteria for allocating additional resources such
as research and program development grants,
scholarships, and other similar programs: Provided,
That these shall not detract from the fiscal autonomy
already enjoyed by colleges and universities;
10. Direct or redirect purposive research by institutions of
higher learning to meet the needs of agro-
industrialization and development;
11. Devise and implement resource development schemes;
12. Administer the Higher Education Development Fund,
as described in Section 10 hereunder, which will
promote the purposes of higher education;
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: Higher Education Act of 1994 12
attached to the
Office of the
17. 13. Review the charters of institutions of higher learning
and state universities and colleges including the
chairmanship and membership of their governing
bodies and recommend appropriate measures as basis
for necessary action;
14. Promulgate such rules and regulations and exercise
such other powers and functions as may be necessary to
carry out effectively the purpose and objectives of this
15. Perform such other functions as may be necessary for
its effective operations and for the continued
enhancement, growth or development of higher
Moreover, CHED is created to address the needs on ensuring
academic freedom, continuing intellectual growth, advancing
of learning & research, developing responsible & effective
leadership, educating high- & middle-level professionals, and
enriching the country’s historical & cultural heritage.
Its coverage shall
be both public
as well as degree-
in all post-
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: Higher Education Act of 1994 13
18. RA 7796: TESDA Act of 1994
Full title: An Act Creating the Technical Education and Skills
Development Authority, Providing for its Powers, Structure
and for Other Purposes
Known also as “Technical Educational and Skills Development
Act of 1994” or the “TESDA Act of 1994.”
TESDA is tasked primarily to provide technical education
towards skills development. Technical education refers to the
education process designed at post-secondary and lower
tertiary levels, officially recognized as non-degree programs
aimed at preparing technicians, para-professionals and other
categories of middle-level workers by providing them with a
broad range of general education, theoretical, scientific and
technological studies, and related job skills training. Skills
development is the process through which learners and workers
are systematically provided with learning opportunities to
acquire or upgrade, or both, their ability, knowledge and
behavior pattern required as qualifications for a job or range of
jobs in a given occupational area.
Furthermore, TESDA, as a product of EDCOM Report of
1991, is tasked to attain the following bestowed objectives:
1. Promote and strengthen the quality of technical
education and skills development programs to attain
2. Focus technical education and skills development on
meeting the changing demands for quality middle-level
and absorbed the
and the personnel
education of the
and Sports (DECS)
program of the
Bureau of Local
the Department of
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: TESDA Act of 1994 14
19. 3. Encourage critical and creative thinking by
disseminating the scientific and technical knowledge
base of middle-level manpower development programs;
4. Recognize and encourage the complementary roles of
public and private institutions in technical education
and skills development and training systems; and,
5. Inculcate desirable values through the development of
moral character with emphasis on work ethic, self-
discipline, self-reliance and nationalism.
Currently, TESDA is offering numerous skills training and
development courses. They also introduced the “TESDA
Specialista” where they provide specific skills for a particular
workforce, hence, giving a specialized skill to an individual.
National Certificates (NC), ranging levels I-IV, is given to the
trainees who have passed the threshold of the required skill in a
given area. Other private schools and colleges offering
technical training programs are also given the chance for
accreditation and examination for NC. Moreover, Certificate of
Competencies and Diploma is awarded to trainees who
complete the training under such courses.
TESDA is tasked to
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: TESDA Act of 1994 15
20. RA 7784: Teacher Education Council Act of 1994
Full Title: An Act to Strengthen Teacher Education in the
Philippines by Establishing Centers Of Excellence, Creating a
Teacher Education Council for the Purpose, Appropriating
Funds therefor, and for Other Purposes
The need to address the country’s cry towards a teacher
education system whose mission is to education and train
human engineers with unquestionable integrity and competence
whom are also committed for professional growth as well as
helping their students grow as responsible individual citizen of
the country gave birth to this act. RA 7784 is also notably a
result of EDCOM Report of 1991.
Teacher Education Council is in close collaboration with the
CHED as regards teacher education curriculum and selection of
Centers of Excellence in Teacher Education. It is delegated to
convey policies and standards that shall strengthen and
improve the system of teacher education all over the country.
Also, tt conducts activities in support of DepEd programs and
projects. One of this is the implementation of the 2002 Basic
Education Curriculum (BEC) and now the RA 10533 Enhanced
Basic Education Act of 2013, also known as the K to 12 Basic
Also, the emphasis of the law highlighted the need to have
center of excellence where innovations towards development
and quality standard assurance are set forth. It shall also
address the need towards achieving a quality education for
RA 7784 points out
“that the teacher
is the key to
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: TEC Act of 1994 16
21. A center of excellence shall be to:
1. Experiment and try out relevant and innovative pre-
service teacher education/training programs;
2. Organize and coordinate collaborative research on
identified areas for systematic investigation in teacher
education as basis for improving teacher education/
3. Serve as teacher resource center for curricular/
instructional materials development;
4. Serve as the center mode for networking specific data;
5. Provide professional assistance to Teacher Education
Institutions (TEIs) that have expressed the need for
6. Encourage mutual support among TEIs in the region for
upgrading their programs; and,
7. Facilitate and help expedite accreditation among TEIs.
On the other hand, the Council is bestowed the functions and
1. Identify and designate among existing private and
public schools, teacher education institutions as Centers
of Excellence for Teacher Education, at the national,
regional, and provincial levels;
2. Formulate policies and standards that shall strengthen
and improve the system of teacher education in all
existing public and private schools;
3. Initiate a periodic review of curricula and programs for
teacher education and training through participatory
methods, such as self-assessment by institutions;
4. Adopt an adequate and effective system of incentives
such as scholarship grants, loan programs, subsidies,
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: TEC Act of 1994 17
pertains to the
22. stipends and other similar benefits and incentives, in
order to attract and encourage outstanding high school
graduates whether from public or private schools, to
pursue teacher education;
5. Encourage the establishment of consortia and other
cooperative arrangements among teacher education
schools, public or private, for greater efficiency and
economy in the use of resources;
6. Design collaborative programs or projects that will
enhance pre-service teacher training, in-service
training, re-training orientation and teacher
7. Direct the conduct of relevant studies as may be needed
in the formulation of policies and in the planning and
successful implementation of plans, programs and
projects required in attaining the purposes of this Act;
8. Review existing and recommend new legislation and
policies of the government in order to improve teacher
education and promote the welfare of teachers;
9. Recommend appropriate measures to the President,
Congress, and heads of other government offices and
agencies to improve, enhance and strengthen teacher
10. Call upon any department, bureau, office, or
Government Corporation, local government unit and
other concerned agencies for assistance in areas falling
within their mandate.
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: TEC Act of 1994 18
23. RA 7836: Philippine Teachers Professionalization
Act of 1994
Full Title: An Act to Strengthen the Regulation and
Supervision of the Practice of Teaching in the Philippines and
Prescribing a Licensure Examination for Teachers and for
Teachers Professionalization Act, otherwise known as LET
Law, identifies the vital role of teachers in nation-building and
development through a responsible and literate citizenry. The
State shall ensure and promote quality education by proper
supervision and regulation of the licensure examination and
professionalization of the practice of the teaching profession.
Two noteworthy objectives are identified in the said law. First
is the promotion, development and professionalization of
teachers and the teaching profession; and the supervision and
regulation of the licensure examination.
Under the said law, the Board for Professional Teachers is also
formed. The Board is a collegial body under the general
supervision and administrative control of the Professional
Regulation Commission. Also, a Licensure Examination for
Teachers (LET) is mandated by the act. A LET passer shall
receive a Certificate of Registration as a professional and a
professional license. Otherwise, a non-LET (or PBET) passer
shall not be allowed to teach under the Department of
Education as a regular permanent teacher.
RA 7836 paved way
giving birth to
Teachers and the
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994 19
24. The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers is also
promulgated under Resolution No. 434 in response with the
professionalization of teachers. The Code contains all needed
knowledge on how a professional teacher thinks, speak and act.
In 2004, Former President Gloria Arroyo signed RA 9293
which amended certain sections of RA 7836. Summarized as
follows are the certain amendments on the said act:
1. Qualifications of requirement of an applicant where
non-education graduates shall have 18 units of
Professional Education courses before taking up the
examination (Sec. 1, Sec. 15, e, 3);
2. Registration and exception where only professional
teachers are allowed to teach or given permanent
teaching position in DepEd (Sec. 2, Sec. 26);
3. Professionals who have not practiced teaching shall
have a 12-unit refresher course;
4. Hiring para-teachers (with rating not lower than 5% of
the passing rate) with 2 years permit in ARMM (Sec. 2,
Sec. 26); and,
5. Transitory provisions with regards to issuing permits to
para-teachers (Sec. 3, Sec. 31).
CHED Memorandum Order No. 11 of 2009 further refined and
updated the content of RA 7836, where they required non-
education graduates not only 18 units of Professional
Education courses but also an additional 12 units of
Experiential Learning Courses (6 units of Field Study courses
and 6 units of Practice Teaching).
sections in RA
7836. CMO No.
11 of 2004 further
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994 20
25. RA 7797: Lengthening School Calendar Act of
Full Title: An Act to Lengthen the School Calendar from Two
Hundred (200) Days to not More than Two Hundred Twenty
(220) Class Days
Adding 20 days from the former regular length of schooling is
the main feature of this act. The start of first day of class shall
be the first Monday of June but not later than the last day of
August. Also, no additional pay for teachers is stressed since
teachers are receiving their salary all-round year, except for
those number of hours basis payment system. The Education
Secretary shall formulate the necessary rules and regulations in
answer with this act forwarding to both Houses of the
number of school
days from 200 to
Laws Anchored in EDCOM Report: Lengthening School Calendar Act of 1994 21
This section discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the laws
passed. These laws are anchored with the recommendation of
the EDCOM Report of 2001. The analysis will be divided
according to the following themes:
1. Responsiveness to global market;
2. Attainment of national objectives; and,
3. Quality of output and competitiveness.
Each law were dealt for both intensive and extensive treatment.
It may look simple but the message given is clear and concise.
The themes will also be discussed before the analysis. Thus, it
would be very difficult to analyze strengths and weaknesses if
there’s no prior knowledge on the given themes. Related
literatures and studies are the primary bases for the discussion.
STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES OF
THE ENACTED LAWS
Laws for the liberal
education of youth,
especially for the
lower classes of
people, are so
extremely wise and
useful that to a
generous mind, no
expense for this
purpose would be
”John Adams (1735-1826)
2nd President of the USA
27. Responsiveness to Global Market
The birth of globalization established the need of education on
being responsive to international standards. It is a process of
closer integration and exchange between different countries
and peoples worldwide. Hence, every minute is getting
complex where standards are getting high. Philippine
education, per se, must compete against the set standards.
Rothaermel (2013) in his book Global Strategy: Completing
Around the World expounded four Global Strategies which can
respond to the demands of global market.
1. International strategy
Leveraging home-based core competencies
Giving the same services in both domestic and
2. Localization (product differentiation) strategy
Maximize local responsiveness via a multi-domestic
Consumers will perceive them to be domestic
3. Global standardization (cost leadership) strategy
Economies of scale and location economies
Pursuing a global division of labor based on best-of-
class capabilities reside at the lowest cost
4. Transnational strategy
Combination of localization strategy (high
responsiveness) with global standardization strategy
(lowest cost position attainable)
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed: Responsive to Global Market 23
28. It seems to be that the cited four strategies are suited for the
business industry, but in reality, these strategies are also seen in
the educational set-up. These strategies are said to be
responsive with global education.
Attainment of National Objectives
Batas Pambansa Bilang 232, also known as Education Act of
1982, defined the national development goals of the State.
These are as follows:
1. To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of
economic development and social progress;
2. To ensure the maximum participation of all the people
in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such
3. To achieve and strengthen national unity and
consciousness and preserve, develop and promote
desirable cultural, moral and spiritual values in a
Moreover, in achieving the cited objectives, the state shall
maintain and establish a complete, adequate and integrated
system of education relevant to the goals of national
development. The government’s role in achieving this is to
ensure, within the context of a free and democratic system,
maximum attribution of the educational system towards the set
objectives. Hence, the citizens are encourage to participate in
full effort to achieve the above-cited objectives.
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed: Attainment of National Objectives 24
…the state shall
relevant to the
goals of national
29. In this act, education shall be the right of every individual. This
right must be exercised attaining full quality education. It is
inclusive – regardless of sex, age, creed, socio-economic status,
physical and mental conditions, ethnic origin, political or other
affiliations. Hence, the State shall ensure, promote and
maintain equality of access to education and the enjoyment of
the benefits of education as well.
Along with equality and inclusiveness in education, the State
shall also promote the right of the nation’s cultural
communities in the exercise of our right to develop ourselves
within the context of our cultures, customs, traditions, interest
and belief, and recognizes education as an instrument for our
maximum participation in national development and in
ensuring their involvement in achieving national unity.
The State, with this law, is bestowed to achieve the following
objectives for the educational system in the country:
1. Provide for a broad general education that will assist
each individuals in the peculiar ecology of his own
a. attain his potentials as a human being;
b. enhance the range and quality of individual and
group participation in the basic functions of society;
c. acquire the essential educational foundation of his
development into a productive and versatile citizen;
2. Train the nation's manpower in the middle-level skills
for national development;
3. Develop the profession that will provide leadership for
the nation in the advancement of knowledge for
improving the quality of human life; and,
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed: Attainment of National Objectives 25
The state shall
ensure a free and
education to all
30. 4. Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions
of the nation through a system of educational planning
The above-mentioned 4 objectives are necessary in the
attainment of national development goals.
Quality of Output and Competitiveness
Ensuring quality education is a primary function of the State.
EFA Global Monitoring Report of 2005 has specified what
quality education needs to be, considering factors and elements
affecting it. The framework below shows what it is.
A Framework for Understanding Education Quality
In the quest towards high quality of output and competitiveness
in education, there is a need to have well-trained teachers,
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed: Quality of Output and Competitiveness 26
Quality of output
how high quality
31. sufficient learning resources, and the likes. The framework
shown in Figure 1 best describes how a quality education
Moreover, Moyle (2004) in his study provides the needed
characteristics on how to produce quality outcomes. First and
foremost, he identified the key which lies on the educators. The
following are the gist of his findings:
1. Understands cultural and cross-cultural settings;
2. Demonstrates high level of communication skills;
3. Shows ability to work in and within a community;
4. Illustrates the ability to work on a broader collegial
5. Possesses high level of professionalism and integrity;
6. Exemplifies high level of self and professional
With these, it is assured accordingly that good outcomes will
Different ideas and notions with regards to quality of output
and effectiveness are defined in such unique way which grants
itself to achieve one.
On the other hand, Amanchukwu (2011) made point on the role
of the government in enhancing the education of the country.
She stressed that “The type of education given to the people of
a nation determines the type of government that might exist in
The type of
to the people of a
the type of
might exist in that
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed: Quality of Output and Competitiveness 27
32. Strengths and Weaknesses: An Analysis
Five notable laws are passed in consonance with the findings
and recommendations of EDCOM Report of 1991. These are as
1. RA 7722: Higher Education Act of 1994;
2. RA 7796: TESDA Act of 1994;
3. RA 7784: Teacher Education Act of 1994;
4. RA 7836: LET Law of 1994; and,
5. RA 7797: Lengthening of School Calendar Act of 1994.
These laws were subjected for a review considering the
1. Responsiveness to global market;
2. Attainment of national objectives; and,
3. Quality of output and competitiveness.
On RA 7722: Higher Education Act of 1994
Responsiveness to Global Market
The Philippine government tries to keep in pace with
the international developments and standards. Hence,
we can consider that through CHED, colleges and
universities will be at its place for competing against
Though the government’s educational sector tried to
compete with the said standards (e.g. Bologna Accord,
Washington Accord), there must be a systematized plan
& investment in the fulfilment of it.
Attainment of National Objectives
Basically, the law is enacted to carry out the realization
of achieving the national development goals. Through
Laws derived from
shall at least
address the need
attainment of the
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed 28
33. CHED, national objectives are the ultimate threshold of
output and outcome of every education endeavors.
Quality of Output and Competitiveness
Students graduated in our country, who typically
receives education from our HEIs, is not considered to
be having the same competencies compared to what
they have. For instance, common scenarios (not in all
situation) include medicine graduates who are supposed
to be doctors are only categorized as nurses in USA.
Other cases in some places in Europe include having
PhD or EdD holders being classified as only MA/MS
graduates. The Bologna Accord and Washington
Accord are the primary cause of these results.
Strength: Through CHED, setting standards for competencies
is seen. Also, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) had foster
competency in overcoming the three complex and more
formidable context of global trends, which are as follows: the
massification of higher education; corporatization of
educational institutions; and, globalization.
Weakness: The organization itself, CHED, is always criticized
to be practicing the jurassic role tradition, where the
commission acts as if they hold HEIs’ operations and services
(practicing the job of the then Bureau of Higher Education
under DECS). Critics commented “it should not be” rather by
helping HEIs carry out their true purpose of existence.
The commission is also criticized annually be militant groups
and student sectors on its power in controlling increased
Tuition and Other Fees Increases (TOFIs).
…there must be a
& investment in
the fulfilment of
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed 29
34. RA 7796: TESDA Act of 1994
Responsiveness to Global Market
TESDA graduates are recognized in the global market
because of its training programs that mold skills
development. Through its National Competency
certificates, graduates are not only accepted here in our
country but also in abroad. Blue collar jobs trained by
TESDA are oftentimes earning much compared to
white collar workers.
The recent report on responsive to the needs of the
global market of World Economic Forum (WEF) in
September 2011 ranks Philippines at number 65 out of
144 economies. This is a good leap from no.75 to its
present rank. One of the major causes is because
Philippines, so far, is improving its education and
Attainment of National Objectives
Primarily, TESDA’s goals are anchored with the
national development goals. The institution promotes
and strengthens the quality of technical education and
skills development programs in the country to build a
competitive citizen who can attain go with international
Five strategies are also implemented by TESDA in
order to achieve the said desired goal. These strategies
are currently implemented to address the real need of
the technical education and training of the nation. These
five are as follows: institutional capability building;
technical education and skills development program;
initiation of training programs; entrepreneurship
PH ranked 65th out
of 144 economies
in 2011 according
to WEF. This is
because of the
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed 30
35. programs; and, provision of employment opportunities
for trained manpower.
Quality of Output and Competitiveness
According to the World Competitiveness Yearbook,
conducted by the Switzerland-based Institute for
Management Development (IMD) in partnership with
the Asian Institute of Management (AIM)-Policy
Center, Philippines ranked 40th
among the 49 countries
covered. Though our country ranked in the bottom
(compared to our neighboring Asian nations),
Philippines has improved performance in different
aspects. Philippines scored high on having high on the
quality of human resource. This means that the labor
force, which comprised mostly of trained individuals,
receives quality training that leads to quality output.
TESDA’s initiative and innovations are much clearly
seen. On the contrary, the workforce of the country will
be much great if the government invested on its quality
training and education. IMD quoted that “the
Philippines' failure to improve labor productivity and
infrastructure prevented it from improving its overall
Strength: Much has been said about the three themes which
fall under its strength. TESDA’s major attribute is the prime
mover of technical training and skills development in the
country, which some of its programs are recognized
internationally. TESDA Specialista innovates the sleeping
program of the previous years through the initiative of the new
administrators. Standards are also set by TESDA which other
tech-voc institutions must comply.
On a positive
note, the survey
cited that the
is on the quality of
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed 31
36. Weakness: One attribute of TESDA before is that “it is only
for those who couldn’t afford the degree programs”. Thus,
making a cruel impression in the said institution. The previous
administrations didn’t change any but remain stagnant. Now, it
is no longer the same sleeping giant as before.
RA 7784: Teacher Education Act of 1994
Responsiveness to Global Market
In partnership with the education sector, TEC is
designed to gear up with the international standards.
Hence, the law creates center of excellence and identify
institutions suited to receive one. Specific standard,
which is much cruel and strict, sees if an institution is
qualified to be a center of excellence. For example,
Philippine Normal University is granted as the Center
of Excellence in Teacher Education.
Standards set forth by the council made our educational
sector keep in pace with the global market.
Attainment of National Objectives
The objectives of creating center of excellence and the
council is geared toward the attainment of our national
objectives. Both have ensured the quality that will be
observed and scrutinized towards the attainment of it.
Programs and innovations are also seen developed by
the council and centers.
Quality of Output and Competitiveness
In result, identified institutions as center of excellence
have brought their maximum performance to achieve a
quality output and competence. Rumors have said that
others are struggling to compete with the said standard.
Education in the
country must also
calling on quality
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed 32
37. Still, the point is towards the attainment of a quality
output and competence.
Strength: Sole and foremost feature of this act is the
establishment of centers of excellence. Identifying such
institutions promotes a high quality perspective. Other who
was not identified will be geared to include them to be one.
Hence, standards are getting high and services will be aligned
to the set criteria.
The created Council in the law is also a strength where it sees
how TEIs perform and set standards in their institutions.
Weakness: Though the law is geared toward high quality and
competence, Philippines is not yet aligned with the
international standards. The top universities of the country,
Ateneo De Manila and University of the Philippines, ranked
beyond the 200 spot according to the THES-QS World
University Rankings from the last five years.
RA 7836: LET Law of 1994
Responsiveness to Global Market
Essentially, making teaching practice as a professional
work is an answer towards the call on a quality
education. One attribute of a nation being responsive to
the global demands is achieving high quality education.
Thus, making teachers a part and parcel of this
Attainment of National Objectives
No question herein with regards to professionalizing
teachers and achieving national objectives. If an
individual is competent enough, then there is a high
significant correlation that the said objectives will be
Still, PH higher
education is left
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed 33
38. Through the board examination, teachers are qualified
into the practice in the teaching profession. The board
exam assesses the readiness of the teachers in terms of
its knowledge on liberal arts, pedagogy, and its field of
With the formed Code of Conduct of Teachers, the
State is guaranteed that teachers will be morally and
professionally upright in the practice.
Quality of Output and Competitiveness
With the introduction of LET in the country, it is said
that teachers are competing against the standards. If an
individual passed the test, he/she is said to be passed
the threshold of standard of being a teacher.
Atleast, teachers without the so called “competence”
will be filtered among others, thus, delivering
significant instruction to the students.
Strength: LET is one of the factors that influences the overall
quality of teachers and teaching. This factor is the primary
trigger towards steering the attainment of quality education.
Much has been said with the discussions of the themes with
regards to the strength of the act. Moreover, the creation of the
Board for Professional Teachers adds up with the monitoring
and standardizing of criteria of quality together with the
Weakness: As can be seen, the R.A. 7836 is not a solution that
guarantees quality teachers. The government-funded LET only
legitimizes even those who lack teaching skills (Dela Cruz,
2013). TEIs must have the drive to improve their programs and
faculty since they are the source of unqualified graduates.
Conversely, CHED must gradually make the education
curriculum in pace with quality standards to ensure quality
does not mean
anything if the bulk
of LET takers are not
the best among the
best of the country’s
”Prof. Rolando Dela Cruz
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed 34
39. graduates. It must be responsible, too, in immediately
abolishing the education programs of schools that consistently
failed to produce LET passers.
RA 7797: Lengthening of School Calendar Act of 1994
This act is passed to add 20 days to the former 200 school days
in the school year. No other significant matters are described
from the law. However, the ultimate aim is to achieve quality
education through receiving quality services from the DepEd.
Hence, it is implied that through adding of school days,
responsiveness to global standards and the attainment of
national development goals are much achievable.
Strength: Adding 20 days is parallel to receiving more
instruction and learning experiences.
Weaknesses: No assurance is guaranteed that learning would
be more meaningful and achievable if more time is added. Still,
perennial problems such as shortage of teachers, lack of
teachers’ competence, problems on adequate rooms & related
things, quality instructional materials, and the likes are
blocking the way towards a quality education. Hence, no
attribution is seen towards learning effectiveness and additional
time for learning if the said problems still exist.
problems in the
still exist. Laws and
the State must
Analysis of Strengths & Weaknesses of the Laws Passed 35
40. R E F E R E N C E S
Batas Pambansa Bilang 232. Education Act of 1982.
CHED Memorandum Order No. 11.
De Jesus, E. C. (2011). Philippine higher education
challenges. Asian Institute of Management.
Dela Cruz, R. S. (2013). The Licensure Examination for
Teachers: Solution or anomaly? Manila Bulletin
(M.B.com.ph). Retrieved from
United Nations (2005). EFA global monitoring report.
Higher Education in the Philippines (2011). Wikipedia.
Llagas, A. T. (2008). Educational laws and surveys programs
and projects of the DepEd. Teacher Education Council,
DepEd: Pasig City.
Miralo, V. A. & Braid, F. R. (2000). Philippine educational
system. Quezon City: Katha Publishing Co., Inc.
Module 7 (n.d.). The role of Technical Education and Skills
Development Authority (TESDA) to Philippine
Development. Taguig City.
Republic Act No. 7722. An Act Creating the Commission on
Higher Education of 1994.
Republic Act No. 7796. An Act Creating the Technical
Education and Skills Development Authority of 1994.
Republic Act No. 7784. An Act to Strengthen Teacher
Education in the Philippines by Establishing Centers of
Excellence Creating a Teacher Education Council of
41. Republic Act No. 7836. An Act to Strengthen the Regulation
and Supervision of the Practice of the Teaching
Profession and Prescribing a Licensure Examination for
Teachers of 1994.
Republic Act No. 7797. An Act to Lengthen the School
Calendar from 200 Days to not more than 220 Class
Days of 1994.
Republic Act No. 9293. Ammendments to Certain Sections of
RA No. 7836.
Rothaermel, F. T. (2013). Global strategy: Competing around
the world. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Companies,
The Global Competitiveness Report (2012). Labor Market
Intelligence Report & Technical Education and Skills
42. A P P E N D I C E S
Relevant Laws in School Legislation
1. RA 7662, Providing Reform on Legal Education;
2. RA 7722, Commission on Higher Education (CHED);
3. RA 7731, Abolishing NCEE;
4. RA 7743, Establishment of Congressional Cities,
Municipal Libraries and Barangay Reading Centers in the
5. RA 7784, Teachers’ Education Council and
Establishment of Centers for Excellence for Teachers’
6. RA 7796, Creating the TESDA;
7. RA 7797, Lengthening School Calendar to 220 school
8. RA 7798, Establishment of Stock Educational
9. RA 7836, strengthening of the Regulation of the Practice
Teaching in the Philippines and prescribing a Licensure
Examination for Teachers
10. RA 7889, Establishing UP in Mindanao;
11. RA 8047, Book Publishing Industry Development Act;
12. RA 8190, Granting Priority Appointment or Assignment
to Public School Teachers Who Reside in a Barangay,
Municipality or City near the school;
13. RA 8292, Providing for Uniform Composition, Powers of
the Governing Board, Manner of Appointment and Term
of Office of the President of Chartered SUC’s;
14. RA 8491, Prescribing the Code of National Flag,
Anthem, Motto, Coat of Arm and other Heraldic Items
15. RA 8492, Establishing a National Museum and providing
for its Permanent Home;
16. RA 8496, Establishing the Philippine Science High
17. RA 8525, Establishing Adopt a School Program;
18. RA 8545, Providing Government Assistance to Students
and Teachers in Private Education; and
43. 19. RA 8557, establishing the Philippine Judicial Academy
that shall serve as a Training School for Justices, Lawyers
and Court Personnel.
20. RA 4670, the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers.
21. R.A. 1265 and DECS Ruling #8: Penalizing all educational
institutions which do not observe the flag ceremony.
Supreme Court resolution declares that all school children
cannot be compelled to salute and pledge allegiance to the
flag if their religious beliefs ban them from doing so.
22. R.A. 6728: Government Assistance to Students and Teachers
of Private Education (GASTPE).
23. R.A. 8445: amending R.A. 6728: An Act providing
government assistance to students and teachers of private
education”, Expanded Government Assistance to Students
and Teachers in Private Education Act.
24. R.A. 8187: Paternity Leave Act of 1996 – grants paternity
leave of seven (7) days with full payment to married male
employees for the first four deliveries of the legitimate
spouse with whom he is cohabiting; such leave is not
cumulative and non-convertible to cash.
25. R.A. 7192: An Act Promoting the Integration of Women as
Full Partners of Men in Development and Nation Building
and for Other Purposes.
26. Educational Assistance Act of 1976: Study Now Pay Later
27. P.D. 176: Ownership, Control and Administration of
28. R.A. 6655 and DECS Order # 44, s. 1988: An Act
Establishing and Providing for A Free Public Secondary
Education and for Other Purposes; otherwise known as
“Free Public Secondary Act of 1988”
29. R.A. # 4090: Provides for State Scholarship in Science,
Arts and Letters for the poor but deserving students;
creating a State Scholarship Council to integrate,
systematize, administer, and Implement all program
scholarships and appropriating funds thereof.
30. R.A. 5447: Creation of a Special Education Fund Act
enacted in 1968 (to be constituted from the proceeds of
an additional real property tax and certain portion of taxes
in Virginia type cigarettes and duties imposed on
imported tobacco leaf. Activities shall be limited to:
31. organization and extension of classes
32. construction and repair of school buildings (aiding
provincial, municipal, city and barrio schools)
acquisition of school sites.
44. 33. R.A. 1124 created 15 members of the Board of National
Education and reduced the membership of the Board to
eight (8). The highest policy making body in formulating
educational policies and direction and interests.
34. R.A. 6139: regulated the sectarian schools/private schools
in charging higher tuition fees.
35. R.A. 5698: Legal Education Board was created to
improve the quality of law schools.
36. R.A. 7687: an Act instituting/establishing scholarship
program for courses that will encourage the students to
pursue careers in science and technology. (Science and
Technology Scholarship Act of 1994)
37. R.A. 7743 : Establishment of city and municipal libraries.
38. R.A 7880: An Act providing for the fair and equitable
allocation of the DECS’ Budget for the Capital Outlay
(Fair and Equitable Access to Education Act).
39. R.A. 8292: Higher Education Modernization Act of 1997;
establish and maintain and support a complete, adequate,
and integrated system of education relevant to the needs
of the people and society.
40. R.A. 6850: An Act To Grant Civil Service Eligibility
Under Certain Conditions To Government Employees
Appointed Under Provisional or Temporary Status Who
Have Rendered a Total of Seven (7) Years of Efficient
41. R.A.8525: 1998 Act Establishing “Adopt-A-School
Program”; allowing private companies to assist/support in
upgrade and modernization of public schools particularly
those in poverty-stricken provinces.
42. R.A. 8491 : Prescribing the code of the national flag,
anthem, motto, coat of arms and other heraldic items and
devices of the Philippines (Flag and Heraldic Code of the
43. R.A. 7686: an Act to Strengthen the Manpower
Education and Training in the Philippines by
institutionalizing the Dual Training System as An
Instructional Delivery System of Technical, and
Vocational Education and Training; otherwise known as
“Dual Training System Act of 1994”
44. R.A. 7797: an Act To Lengthen the School Calendar
From Two Hundred Days to Not More Than Two
Hundred Twenty (220) class days
45. R.A. 8190: An Act Granting Priority to Residents of the
Barangay, Municipality or City Where the School is
45. Located in the Appointment or Assignment of Classroom
Public School Teachers.
46. R.A. 6972: an Act Establishing A Day Care Center in
Every Barangay, Instituting Therein A Total
Development and Protection of Children Program,
Appropriating Funds Thereof, and for Other Purposes.
47. R.A. 7624: An Act Integrating Drug Prevention and
Control in the intermediate and Secondary Curricula As
Well As In the Non-formal, Informal and Indigenous
Learning System and for Other Purposes
48. R.A. 7165: An Act Creating The Literacy Coordinating
Council, Defining Its Powers and Functions,
Appropriating Thereof, and for Other Purposes
49. R.A. 7743: An Act Providing For the Establishment of
Congressional City, and Municipal Libraries and
Barangay Reading Centers Throughout The Philippines
50. R.A. 7877: Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995
51. R.A. 9163: National Service Training Program (NSTP) of
52. R.A. 6139: An Act to Regulate Tuition and Other School
Fees of Private Educational Institutions.
53. RA 10533 Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, also
known as the K to 12 Basic Education Act
1987 Philippine Constitution
Excerpt from Article XIV, 1987 Philippine Constitution
(Education, Science & Technology, Arts, Culture & Sports) –
This is the very fundamental legal basis of education the
Philippines. It stipulates the following:
the right of all citizens to quality education of all levels
provision for complete, adequate and integrated system of
free public education in the elementary and secondary
availability of scholarship grants, loan programs, subsides
and other incentives for deserving students in the public
and private schools
provision for non-formal, informal and indigenous
inclusion of the study of Constitution in the curriculum
46. education to put emphasis on the inculcation of
nationalism & patriotism as well as other values deemed
important in developing better persons and responsible
supervision and regulation of all educational institutions
by the State
sole ownership of educational institutions by at least 60%
of the capital from Filipino citizens
tax exemptions for non-stock and non-profit educational
enjoyment of academic freedom (teachers, students,
institutions) in all institutions of higher learning
State’s protection for academic, non-academic and non-
Highest budgetary allocation for education
Filipino as the national language; Filipino and English as
official languages for use in communication and
creation of National Language Commission
promotion of science and technology
preservation and enrichment of Filipino culture
promotion of physical education and other related
47. The cover design for this project was
first used in the lay-outing of the
Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual
Education Learner’s Material for Grade
2. This is the second version of the
cover, collaboratively crafted by
Raymar Francia and Rejulios Villenes.