Upgrading the quality of research outputs of HEIs and promoting a culture of scholarship among Filipino educators<br />Dan...
Outline:<br />Defining research and research culture<br />Quality of research in HEIs and symptoms of weaknesses<br />Fact...
Three (3) core processes in the University<br />teaching, research, and extension<br />+  production<br />03<br />
Research, defined<br />Researchis a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information following a set of procedur...
Research approach:  vary depending on the field of specialization<br />Basically follow a step by step process of:<br />pr...
Research in a bigger picture:<br />Research is a cycle<br />06<br />
but… is doing research a culture in itself?<br />Research by an individual for getting a degree (BS, MA/MS) is an initiati...
Research culture exists in the university if the following elements are present:<br />There is a critical mass of academic...
Research culture exists in the university if the following elements are present:<br />Doing research is a tradition, like ...
Research culture cannot be imposed <br />but is evolved through time.   <br />Enabling mechanisms  supporting research <br...
How then can a department in a university develop a research culture ?<br />It starts with the person– i.e. the faculty, s...
How a research culture develops in a department ?<br />Indoctrination in research starts with:                          - ...
How to get started?<br />Start at writing research proposals to get funding<br />Get to know some funding sources         ...
What else?<br />Get mentored. Mentors are senior faculty who has track record in research<br />Start writing a manuscript ...
What is the state of research in our HEIs?<br />Beyond thesis and dissertation the academe hasnot (yet) done enough in res...
Symptoms of weaknesses<br />1. We are one of the lowest in Asia in the ff. indicators :<br />low number of PhDs, scientist...
R & D Indicators Among ASEAN Countries<br />17<br />
Symptoms of weaknesses<br />2. Patent landscape of PHL based on a 3-Yr Local Patent Applications (Source: IPO Phil)<br />1...
Symptoms of weaknesses<br />3.  Poor standing in the Global Competitiveness Index 2010-11.<br />Switzerland tops the list,...
Symptoms of weaknesses<br />4. Philippines lag behind in SEA in no. of research output.<br />(all disciplines)<br />20<br />
Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />23<br />
Limited national budget <br /><ul><li>only 0.12% of our GDP
mainly goes to personnel services and very little for capital expenditures</li></ul>Factors hindering development of a str...
Where are we?<br />25<br />
R&D Expenditure / GDP (%) in Asian Countries<br />Source: JICA Seminar on National R&D Projects, Feb. 13-Mar. 18, 2001, To...
Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />2. 	Weak state policies and framework in research res...
Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />3.   Weak generation and protection of Intellectual P...
The World Economic Forum’s  Global Competitiveness Reportindicates a correlation between the protection  of intellectual p...
4. 	Unattractive salary package and lack of incentives (e.g. in publications) for our researchers<br />results in brain-dr...
Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />5. 	Lack of emphasis on research in university curric...
Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />6. 	Little weight given to research performance vs. t...
Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />7.	Proliferation of gray literatures because of diffi...
Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />8.	Weak leaders and lack of dedicated and well-traine...
Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />9.	Institution’s tendency to assign faculty members w...
Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />10. Lack of Institutional Code of Ethics in Research<...
101 ways to promote a culture of scholarship among Filipino educators<br />63<br />
Improve research policies & frameworks<br /><ul><li>Policy on faculty recruitment should give track record in research as ...
Develop research agenda that address national, regional and local issues/needs
Institutionalized research in the academe thru policies that include:                                                     ...
Improve research policies & frameworks<br /><ul><li>Implement an institutional Code of Ethics in Research that will guide ...
Improve research policies & frameworks<br /><ul><li>Revisittheacademic policy of giving “Deloading” – why not “ResearchLoa...
No more Non-thesis programs (esp. in sciences)-  this only promotes graduates without  research skills that is counterprod...
2. Promote intellectual property system in the university: for economic gain<br /><ul><li>Change the academic mindset in S...
Promote entrepreneurship as a mindset among researchers (e.g.- Silicon Valley started from university-based entrepreneurship)
Strive to publish                                                                                           - original res...
3. Faculty/human resource development<br /><ul><li>HEI’s should have only faculty members with graduate degrees </li></ul>...
4. Administrator’s call<br /><ul><li>Discourage the proliferation of gray literatures in the university, rather encourage ...
Give weight to research performance as with teaching to encourage more faculty engaging in research.
Assign returning scholars to the research labs - to practice what they have learned rather than giving them admin position...
4. Administrator’s call<br /><ul><li>Invest in faculty development.
Incentivize research  such as giving of cash rewards for every publications in peer-refereed journals, patents acquired,  ...
Increase collaboration with research institutions                         - link with foreign institutions to imbibe new i...
Hold regular small-group roundtable discussion on research among peers</li></ul>70<br />
4. Administrator’s call<br /><ul><li>Reorient university-based R&D towards systematic and purposive utilization of research
Maintain a pool of good researchers, with good learning attitude as well as being team players – this is where a strong re...
Improve the mentoring system                                                       -   involve students in research projec...
5. Researcher’s appeal<br /><ul><li>Increase the national budget for research
Entice more Filipinos to return and help build the culture of research (more than the Balikscientist program)
Welcoming environment for returning scholars; provide opportunities to engage in research in their field of expertise.</li...
5. Researcher’s appeal<br /><ul><li>Philippine’s mainstream media to have more research writers (esp. in science) who can ...
Better coordination among government agencies to avoid redundancy in research programs resulting only to unnecessary waste...
5. Researcher’s appeal<br /><ul><li>More incentives to Filipino researchers</li></ul>	- e.g. adopt the Technology Transfer...
A strategy to strengthen research<br />Research performanceevaluation- benchmarking -<br />75<br />
Research performance evaluation (benchmarking)<br />To answer such questions as:<br />What is the relative standing of Ins...
Search Tools- tracks citation counts for published articles<br />Google Scholar<br />Thompson ISI WoS<br />SCOPUS– now cal...
Publications output and citation by InstitutionBased on Scopus AFFIL search<br />79<br />
80<br />
Benchmark of Research Quality <br />36<br />
Benchmark of Research Quality :<br />Publications in peer reviewed journals<br />Papers produced per faculty <br />Citatio...
1. Peer review<br />Traditionally plays a central role in quality assurance of scientific research<br />38<br />
2. Papers produced per faculty<br />tells of the critical mass of researchers a university has<br />39<br />
3. Citation per faculty<br />Supplementary information for peer review<br />Help to monitor the quality and integrity of t...
Popular Ranking Systems include research performance quality in ranking<br />THE-QS World University Rankings<br />QS.com ...
THE-QS World University Rankings<br />Overall ranking<br />Asian ranking<br />Subject area rankings:<br />Arts & humanitie...
THE-QS World University Rankings<br />43<br />
QS.com Asian University Rankings <br />44<br />
Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities<br />Original goal was to discern what kind of resear...
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Upgrading the Quality of Research Outputs of HEIs and Promoting a Culture of Scholarship among Filipino Educators by Dr. Danilo B. Largo

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University of San Carlos' Office of Research Director Dr. Danilo B. Largo talked about upgrading the quality of research outputs of HEIs and promoting a culture of scholarship among filipino educators during C&E's Academic Publishing Forum on January 26, 2011 at C&E Information and Resource Center, Quezon City.

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Upgrading the Quality of Research Outputs of HEIs and Promoting a Culture of Scholarship among Filipino Educators by Dr. Danilo B. Largo

  1. 1. Upgrading the quality of research outputs of HEIs and promoting a culture of scholarship among Filipino educators<br />Danilo B. Largo<br />Director, Office of Research<br />University of San Carlos<br />Cebu City<br />01<br />
  2. 2. Outline:<br />Defining research and research culture<br />Quality of research in HEIs and symptoms of weaknesses<br />Factors hindering the development of a strong research universities<br />101 ways to promote a culture of scholarship among Filipino educators<br />Research Performance evaluation <br />Benchmark of research quality<br />02<br />
  3. 3. Three (3) core processes in the University<br />teaching, research, and extension<br />+ production<br />03<br />
  4. 4. Research, defined<br />Researchis a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information following a set of procedures in obtaining new knowledge. <br />04<br />
  5. 5. Research approach: vary depending on the field of specialization<br />Basically follow a step by step process of:<br />problem identification thru observation<br />making a hypothesis<br />constructing a theoretical framework <br />designing or adopting a method<br />gathering of data<br />processing the data, analyzing and interpreting, and <br />drawing conclusions and making recommendations<br /> This is the Scientific Method<br />05<br />
  6. 6. Research in a bigger picture:<br />Research is a cycle<br />06<br />
  7. 7. but… is doing research a culture in itself?<br />Research by an individual for getting a degree (BS, MA/MS) is an initiation<br />Research done by an individual as a habit is an individualculture<br />Research done by a group of individuals in addressing a common problem is a groupculture<br />07<br />
  8. 8. Research culture exists in the university if the following elements are present:<br />There is a critical mass of academics in a unit with a passion to do research.<br />Lack of funding is not a deterrence to do research.<br />Doing research is purpose-driven: to generate knowledge and filling one’s pocket, while desirable, is only secondary.<br />Publications of output generated are primary measure of research accomplishment.<br />There is a sense of bayanihan among the members of the research team; a community of researchers able to share talents and time with attention to quality of work.<br />08<br />
  9. 9. Research culture exists in the university if the following elements are present:<br />Doing research is a tradition, like a habit.<br />Each member of a research team contributes to knowledge generation as a whole.<br />Inter- and intradepartmental collaboration exists.<br />A mentoring system exist – the senior faculty guiding the (neophyte) junior faculty who in turn guides the students. <br />09<br />
  10. 10. Research culture cannot be imposed <br />but is evolved through time. <br />Enabling mechanisms supporting research <br />(policies) in the university hastens this evolution.<br />10<br />
  11. 11. How then can a department in a university develop a research culture ?<br />It starts with the person– i.e. the faculty, students<br />By changing the traditional hiring policy of HAVING GOOD TEACHERS and NOT HAVING GOOD RESEARCHERS !<br />the Challenge isto have critical mass of good researchers <br />11<br />
  12. 12. How a research culture develops in a department ?<br />Indoctrination in research starts with: - Faculty member’s exposure to department research, with peers acting as mentor, and - Faculty attending in professional organization’s annual meetings, symposia, conferences, etc.<br />Building confidence: - by having a research project and present findings in professional meetings.<br />12<br />
  13. 13. How to get started?<br />Start at writing research proposals to get funding<br />Get to know some funding sources - govtfunding agencies (GFAs), e.g. CHED, DOST, - foreign sources – e.g. USAID, AusAid, GTZ, Ford Foundation, Sumitomo Foundation, etc.- in-house funding<br />Know the application format of each agency<br />Try for collaborative projects - one with seasoned researchers in the group<br />Start small research, like a laboratory or a class exercise<br />13<br />
  14. 14. What else?<br />Get mentored. Mentors are senior faculty who has track record in research<br />Start writing a manuscript of your research output<br />Present your output in internal forums:<br />first, in regular round-table discussions of your department<br />then, in in-house R&D review organized by the university<br />Haveyour manuscript corrected (content, grammar) by your peers for improvement<br />Present in a higher level forums organized by professional organizations outside the university.<br />Publish your work and be known - i.e. in a professional journal, preferably peer-refereed/reviewed <br />14<br />
  15. 15. What is the state of research in our HEIs?<br />Beyond thesis and dissertation the academe hasnot (yet) done enough in research to address current issues and problems that propel economic progress. <br />15<br />
  16. 16. Symptoms of weaknesses<br />1. We are one of the lowest in Asia in the ff. indicators :<br />low number of PhDs, scientists and engineers<br />low number of publications in peer-reviewed journals,<br />low number of journals in science and technology published in the Philippines which are ISI indexed<br />low number of patents by own residents as applied to our IP Office<br />low number of foreign direct investments in the country<br />16<br />
  17. 17. R & D Indicators Among ASEAN Countries<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Symptoms of weaknesses<br />2. Patent landscape of PHL based on a 3-Yr Local Patent Applications (Source: IPO Phil)<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Symptoms of weaknesses<br />3. Poor standing in the Global Competitiveness Index 2010-11.<br />Switzerland tops the list, out of 139 economies in the 2010-2011 GCI<br />followed by Sweden (no. 2), Singapore (no. 3) and U.S.A. (no. 4)<br />Philippines ranks no. 85<br />it ranked No. 87 in 2009-2010 and No. 71 in 2008-2009 <br />aside from Singapore, Malaysia (No. 26), China (No. 27), India (No. 51), above us in ASEAN are Thailand (38), Indonesia (44), Vietnam (59), and even Vietnam (no. 59) and Sri Lanka (No. 62).<br />Rankings are calculated from both publicly available data and the Executive Opinion Survey, a comprehensive annual survey conducted by the World Economic Forum <br />19<br />
  20. 20. Symptoms of weaknesses<br />4. Philippines lag behind in SEA in no. of research output.<br />(all disciplines)<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />23<br />
  22. 22. Limited national budget <br /><ul><li>only 0.12% of our GDP
  23. 23. mainly goes to personnel services and very little for capital expenditures</li></ul>Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />24<br />
  24. 24. Where are we?<br />25<br />
  25. 25. R&D Expenditure / GDP (%) in Asian Countries<br />Source: JICA Seminar on National R&D Projects, Feb. 13-Mar. 18, 2001, Tokyo.<br />26<br />
  26. 26. Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />2. Weak state policies and framework in research results in the poor generation of intellectual property outputs <br />results to our poor standing in the Global Competitiveness Index of WEF<br />27<br />
  27. 27. Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />3. Weak generation and protection of Intellectual Property<br />IP as driver of economic development <br />IP as creation of the human mind in the various fields <br />IP as intangible asset when created, becomes tangible asset in the form of product – WIPO<br />IP types:<br />Copyrights, trademarks, patents, utility models, trade secrets, industrial designs, lay-out designs (in integrated circuits) <br />An IP-conscious academe helps drive the economy.<br />28<br />
  28. 28. The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Reportindicates a correlation between the protection of intellectual property rights and national competitiveness. In 2004, the 20 countries that were perceived as having the most stringent intellectual property protection were classed among the top 27 in the WEF’s growth competitiveness index. Conversely, the 20 countries perceived as having the weakest intellectual property regimes were ranked among the bottom 36 for growth and competitiveness.<br />International Chamber of Commerce<br />22<br />Copyright, Office of Research<br />
  29. 29. 4. Unattractive salary package and lack of incentives (e.g. in publications) for our researchers<br />results in brain-drain contributing to less and less people engaged in research, including a low ratio of scientists and engineers per million population <br />Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />29<br />
  30. 30. Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />5. Lack of emphasis on research in university curricula<br /><ul><li>results to weak research culture among faculty and students</li></ul>30<br />
  31. 31. Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />6. Little weight given to research performance vs. teaching in policies on ranking and promotion<br />leads to poor research quality and the ability to innovate which are needed to develop new technologies<br />31<br />
  32. 32. Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />7. Proliferation of gray literatures because of difficulty maintaining a peer-refereed journal due to:<br />lack of capable person to lead (as editor)<br />lack of reviewers<br />little or no budget allocated for its maintenance<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />8. Weak leaders and lack of dedicated and well-trained research mentors (who are not publishing)<br />Only result to weak researchers<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />9. Institution’s tendency to assign faculty members who have PhD in administrative or management posts, instead of assigning them in the laboratory<br />this breeds only “disk researchers” instead of cutting-edge researchers<br />34<br />
  35. 35. Factors hindering development of a strong research universities<br />10. Lack of Institutional Code of Ethics in Research<br /><ul><li>which only results in poor research management.</li></ul>35<br />
  36. 36. 101 ways to promote a culture of scholarship among Filipino educators<br />63<br />
  37. 37. Improve research policies & frameworks<br /><ul><li>Policy on faculty recruitment should give track record in research as priority criteria; hire only faculty with at least a master’s degree in the field.
  38. 38. Develop research agenda that address national, regional and local issues/needs
  39. 39. Institutionalized research in the academe thru policies that include: - reasonable budget - a Manual ofResearch with provisions for giving incentives, e.g. cash reward for publication, for awards and recognition received in research, etc.</li></ul> <br />64<br />
  40. 40. Improve research policies & frameworks<br /><ul><li>Implement an institutional Code of Ethics in Research that will guide researchers:</li></ul> - in the proper use of IP’s to avoid misconducts such as infringement, plagiarism, fabrication and falsification of data <br /> - in dealingwith authorship issues in publications<br /> - of ethical practice in research involving humans and living animals as participants/subjects in research<br /><ul><li>Implement academic policy that requireadvisers of theses and dissertation to have track record in research, esp. those with publications in peer-reviewed journals. </li></ul>65<br />
  41. 41. Improve research policies & frameworks<br /><ul><li>Revisittheacademic policy of giving “Deloading” – why not “ResearchLoad” to make research comparable to teaching in terms of compensation package.
  42. 42. No more Non-thesis programs (esp. in sciences)- this only promotes graduates without research skills that is counterproductive to developing research-oriented graduates.</li></ul>66<br />
  43. 43. 2. Promote intellectual property system in the university: for economic gain<br /><ul><li>Change the academic mindset in S&T fields: from “publish-or-perish” to “patent, publish and profit” (to borrow IPO’s dictum)
  44. 44. Promote entrepreneurship as a mindset among researchers (e.g.- Silicon Valley started from university-based entrepreneurship)
  45. 45. Strive to publish - original research outputs in peer-refereed journals - textbooks, manuals, and other forms of copyrightable materials</li></ul>67<br />
  46. 46. 3. Faculty/human resource development<br /><ul><li>HEI’s should have only faculty members with graduate degrees </li></ul>getting a masters or doctoral degree give opportunities to learn research the way it should be.<br />68<br />
  47. 47. 4. Administrator’s call<br /><ul><li>Discourage the proliferation of gray literatures in the university, rather encourage development of more peer-reviewed journals.
  48. 48. Give weight to research performance as with teaching to encourage more faculty engaging in research.
  49. 49. Assign returning scholars to the research labs - to practice what they have learned rather than giving them admin positions.</li></ul>69<br />
  50. 50. 4. Administrator’s call<br /><ul><li>Invest in faculty development.
  51. 51. Incentivize research such as giving of cash rewards for every publications in peer-refereed journals, patents acquired, recognition and awards received, etc.
  52. 52. Increase collaboration with research institutions - link with foreign institutions to imbibe new ideas - write joint research proposals with partners – for capability building
  53. 53. Hold regular small-group roundtable discussion on research among peers</li></ul>70<br />
  54. 54. 4. Administrator’s call<br /><ul><li>Reorient university-based R&D towards systematic and purposive utilization of research
  55. 55. Maintain a pool of good researchers, with good learning attitude as well as being team players – this is where a strong research culture develops
  56. 56. Improve the mentoring system - involve students in research projects (e.g. as research assistants, field/laboratory assistants, etc.) – for them to gain experience and build confidence</li></ul>71<br />
  57. 57. 5. Researcher’s appeal<br /><ul><li>Increase the national budget for research
  58. 58. Entice more Filipinos to return and help build the culture of research (more than the Balikscientist program)
  59. 59. Welcoming environment for returning scholars; provide opportunities to engage in research in their field of expertise.</li></ul>72<br />
  60. 60. 5. Researcher’s appeal<br /><ul><li>Philippine’s mainstream media to have more research writers (esp. in science) who can bridge the information gap between scientists and the public.
  61. 61. Better coordination among government agencies to avoid redundancy in research programs resulting only to unnecessary waste of funds.</li></ul>73<br />
  62. 62. 5. Researcher’s appeal<br /><ul><li>More incentives to Filipino researchers</li></ul> - e.g. adopt the Technology Transfer Act of 2009 and a Magna Cartafor Scientiststo encourage more researchers to stay home <br />- e.g. give institutions tax relief for imported research equipment <br />74<br />
  63. 63. A strategy to strengthen research<br />Research performanceevaluation- benchmarking -<br />75<br />
  64. 64. Research performance evaluation (benchmarking)<br />To answer such questions as:<br />What is the relative standing of Institution A in important subject areas?<br />Has this changed over time?<br />How does the rate of research growth compare?<br />How does the picture look in important niche areas?<br />76<br />
  65. 65. Search Tools- tracks citation counts for published articles<br />Google Scholar<br />Thompson ISI WoS<br />SCOPUS– now called the SciVerse Scopus<br />77<br />
  66. 66. Publications output and citation by InstitutionBased on Scopus AFFIL search<br />79<br />
  67. 67. 80<br />
  68. 68. Benchmark of Research Quality <br />36<br />
  69. 69. Benchmark of Research Quality :<br />Publications in peer reviewed journals<br />Papers produced per faculty <br />Citations per faculty <br />37<br />
  70. 70. 1. Peer review<br />Traditionally plays a central role in quality assurance of scientific research<br />38<br />
  71. 71. 2. Papers produced per faculty<br />tells of the critical mass of researchers a university has<br />39<br />
  72. 72. 3. Citation per faculty<br />Supplementary information for peer review<br />Help to monitor the quality and integrity of the peer-review process<br />Help identify the most suitable peer reviewers<br />Relatedness of research<br />Standing in field<br />40<br />
  73. 73. Popular Ranking Systems include research performance quality in ranking<br />THE-QS World University Rankings<br />QS.com Asian University Rankings<br />Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities<br />Asian University Research Rating System<br />41<br />
  74. 74. THE-QS World University Rankings<br />Overall ranking<br />Asian ranking<br />Subject area rankings:<br />Arts & humanities<br />Life sciences and biomedicine<br />Natural sciences<br />Social sciences<br />IT and Engineering<br />42<br />
  75. 75. THE-QS World University Rankings<br />43<br />
  76. 76. QS.com Asian University Rankings <br />44<br />
  77. 77. Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities<br />Original goal was to discern what kind of research gap existed between Chinese and “world-class” universities<br />Institutions are compared and ranked on a strictly quantitative basis, with no room for subject impressions<br />Academic and research performances are measured the following indicators and weighting:<br />45<br />
  78. 78. Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities<br />46<br />
  79. 79. Asian University Research Rating System<br />Focused only on research<br />Objective criteria<br />Permits self-monitoring<br />Designed for Asian research environment<br />A collective effort of the academic community<br />Intended to support universities to strengthen their research<br />Bench-marking to help with resource allocation decisions<br />Performance monitoring<br />Shows complementarities to facilitate collaboration<br />47<br />
  80. 80. Results of the 2010 THE-QS World University Rankings<br />48<br />
  81. 81. THE-QS World University Ranking (2010)- Overall ranking<br />49<br />
  82. 82. Results of the QS Asian University Rankings<br />50<br />
  83. 83. Table . Top 200 Asian Universities – Overall ranking<br />51<br />
  84. 84. Top 100 Asian Universities - Subject area<br />Natural Science <br />Life Sciences & Biomedicine<br />52<br />
  85. 85. Top 100 Asian Universities - Subject area<br />IT & Engineering<br />Arts & Humanities<br />Social Sciences<br />53<br />
  86. 86. Top 100 Asian Universities - Citations per paper<br />54<br />
  87. 87. Top Asian Universities - Academic Peer Review <br />55<br />
  88. 88. Top Asian Universities - Papers per faculty<br />56<br />
  89. 89. Top Asian Universities - Citations per paper <br />57<br />
  90. 90. What do these ranking figures mean to us? <br />It means that:<br />majority of our universities are not in the map of the best universities in the world, not even in Asia!<br />majority of our universities are dysfunctional, as far as research quality is concerned.<br />58<br />
  91. 91. What do these few Phl universities have in common? <br />All of them have developed a<br />Culture OFresearch.<br />59<br />
  92. 92. Institutions which overcome the barriers in developing research culture and constantly evaluating their research performance thru benchmarking are the ones likely to succeed into (Asia’s) Top Universities rank.<br />82<br />
  93. 93. Thank you for listening.<br />83<br />

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