Integrationof higher education
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Integrationof higher education



This study explores barriers of non-traditional students in a rural area in pursuing their academic career by comparing non-traditional students to traditional students in terms of their academic ...

This study explores barriers of non-traditional students in a rural area in pursuing their academic career by comparing non-traditional students to traditional students in terms of their academic experience.



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    Integrationof higher education Integrationof higher education Presentation Transcript

    • Sam Houston State University
      Integration of Higher Education
      in a Rural Area
      : Comparison of Traditional and
      Non-traditional Students
      Eunjin Hwang
    • Introduction
      • 73% of students in U.S higher education is
      non-traditional students.
    • 1. Definitionof Non-traditional Student
      NCEBprovides the definition of non-traditional students by six characteristics.
      Source: U.S. Department of Education, NCES.
      National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) 2000
    • According to data analysis of NCEB, the most common characteristic of non-traditional students is financially independent, attend part time, and delayed enrollment. Also, within public 2 –year institution, highly non-traditional students are highly distributed.
      Figure 1. Percentage of students with nontraditional characteristics 1992-1993 and 1999-2000
      Figure 2. Percentage distribution of undergraduates according to their student status, by type of institution: 1999–2000
      Source : NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2000
      Source : NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2000
    • 2. Social Factors
    • What is the problem?
      1. Non-traditional students have barriers in pursuing their academic career.
      Financial poverty
      Time poverty
      - Work full time
      - Multiple roles
      Institutional Barriers
      -Learning the rules of academia
      - Reading and writing assignment, etc.
    • 2. Non traditional students from low socioeconomic (LSES) backgrounds are more likely to have intensified barriers.
      3. University students from a LSES background often belong to multiple equity group, the most common of which is living in a rural or isolated area.
    • The Purpose of the Study is..
    • Research Question
      1. How institutional rhetoric of higher education is differently experienced by traditional students and non-traditional students in the first academic year ?
      2. What barriers are experienced by non-traditional students in a rural area?
    • Significance of This Study
      This study examines barriers of non traditional students by comparing the difference of academic experience in higher education between non-traditional students and traditional students.
      Previous studies examined barriers based on qualitative method approach. This study focus on non-traditional students, particularly in a rural area based on quantitative method approach.
    • Theoretical Framework
      1. Tinto’s Model of Student Retention
      Figure 4. Tinto, V. Dropout from Higher Education (1975)
      • Criticism: The validity generalizing its constructs to explain attrition among non-traditional students since the model was developed mostly in relation to traditional students and residential academic context.
    • 2. Revised Model : Rovai’s model for adult dropouts
      l--------------Prior to the course -------------------------l
      l-----------------During the course------------------l
      Learner Characteristic
      • Age
      • Gender
      • Education
      • Employment status
      External factors
      -Scheduling conflicts
      -Family issues
      -Financial problems
      -Managerial support
      -Personal issues(
      Internal factors
      • Social integration
      • Academic integration
      ( instructor follow-up, activity
      level, instructional design,
      assignment level, etc. )
      • Technology/technical/usability
      • Lack of motivation
      Learner Skills
    • Conclusion
      1. Non traditional students, particularly of low socioeconomic status in a rural area experience intensified study barriers.
      2. To reduce the rate of attrition and support non-traditional students, institutional support such as financial aids and counseling services, etc. should be provided.
    • Bibliography
      Bamber, J.,& Tett, L (2000). Transforming the learning experiences of non-traditional students: a perspective from higher education. Studies in Continuing Education, 22(1), 57-75.
      Deil-Amen, R (2011). Socio-academic integrative moments: rethinking academic and social integration among two-year college students in career-related programs. Journal of Higher Education, 82(1), 54-91.
      Gilardi, S.,& Guqlielmetti,C (2011). University life of non-traditional students: engagement styles and impact on attrition. Journal of Higher Education, 82(1), 33-53.
      Hermida, J (2010). Inclusive teaching: an approach for encouraging non-traditional student success. International Journal of Research& Review, 5(1), 19-30.
      Marandet, E.,& Wainwright, E (2009). Discourses of integration and exclusion: equal opportunities for university students with dependent children? Space & Polity, 13(2), 109 -125.
      Marion, B (2001). Experiencing the barriers: non-traditional students entering higher education.Policy & Practice, 16(2), 141-60.
      Park,J.,& Choi, H (2009) Factors influencing adult learners’ decision to drop out or persist in online learning. Educational Technology& Society, 12(4), 207-217.
      Tones, M., Fraser, J., Elder, R.,& White, K (2009). Supporting mature-aged students from a low Socio-economic background. Higher Education, 58(4), 505-529.