This study explores barriers of non-traditional students in a rural area in pursuing their academic career by comparing non-traditional students to traditional students in terms of their academic
This study explores barriers of non-traditional students in a rural area in pursuing their academic career by comparing non-traditional students to traditional students in terms of their academic experience.
1. Definitionof Non-traditional Student NCEBprovides the definition of non-traditional students by six characteristics. Source: U.S. Department of Education, NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) 2000
According to data analysis of NCEB, the most common characteristic of non-traditional students is financially independent, attend part time, and delayed enrollment. Also, within public 2 –year institution, highly non-traditional students are highly distributed. Figure 1. Percentage of students with nontraditional characteristics 1992-1993 and 1999-2000 Figure 2. Percentage distribution of undergraduates according to their student status, by type of institution: 1999–2000 Total Source : NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2000 Source : NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2000
What is the problem? 1. Non-traditional students have barriers in pursuing their academic career. Financial poverty Time poverty - Work full time - Multiple roles Institutional Barriers -Learning the rules of academia - Reading and writing assignment, etc.
2. Non traditional students from low socioeconomic (LSES) backgrounds are more likely to have intensified barriers. 3. University students from a LSES background often belong to multiple equity group, the most common of which is living in a rural or isolated area.
Research Question 1. How institutional rhetoric of higher education is differently experienced by traditional students and non-traditional students in the first academic year ? 2. What barriers are experienced by non-traditional students in a rural area?
Significance of This Study This study examines barriers of non traditional students by comparing the difference of academic experience in higher education between non-traditional students and traditional students. Previous studies examined barriers based on qualitative method approach. This study focus on non-traditional students, particularly in a rural area based on quantitative method approach.
Theoretical Framework 1. Tinto’s Model of Student Retention Figure 4. Tinto, V. Dropout from Higher Education (1975)
Criticism: The validity generalizing its constructs to explain attrition among non-traditional students since the model was developed mostly in relation to traditional students and residential academic context.
2. Revised Model : Rovai’s model for adult dropouts l--------------Prior to the course -------------------------l l-----------------During the course------------------l Learner Characteristic
Conclusion 1. Non traditional students, particularly of low socioeconomic status in a rural area experience intensified study barriers. 2. To reduce the rate of attrition and support non-traditional students, institutional support such as financial aids and counseling services, etc. should be provided.
Bibliography Bamber, J.,& Tett, L (2000). Transforming the learning experiences of non-traditional students: a perspective from higher education. Studies in Continuing Education, 22(1), 57-75. Deil-Amen, R (2011). Socio-academic integrative moments: rethinking academic and social integration among two-year college students in career-related programs. Journal of Higher Education, 82(1), 54-91. Gilardi, S.,& Guqlielmetti,C (2011). University life of non-traditional students: engagement styles and impact on attrition. Journal of Higher Education, 82(1), 33-53. Hermida, J (2010). Inclusive teaching: an approach for encouraging non-traditional student success. International Journal of Research& Review, 5(1), 19-30. Marandet, E.,& Wainwright, E (2009). Discourses of integration and exclusion: equal opportunities for university students with dependent children? Space & Polity, 13(2), 109 -125. Marion, B (2001). Experiencing the barriers: non-traditional students entering higher education.Policy & Practice, 16(2), 141-60. Park,J.,& Choi, H (2009) Factors influencing adult learners’ decision to drop out or persist in online learning. Educational Technology& Society, 12(4), 207-217. Tones, M., Fraser, J., Elder, R.,& White, K (2009). Supporting mature-aged students from a low Socio-economic background. Higher Education, 58(4), 505-529.