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Integration of higher education


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This study explores barriers of non-traditional students in a rural area in pursuing their academic career by comparing non-traditional students to traditional students in terms of their academic …

This study explores barriers of non-traditional students in a rural area in pursuing their academic career by comparing non-traditional students to traditional students in terms of their academic experience.

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  • 1. Sam Houston State University
    Integration of Higher Education
    in a Rural Area
    : Comparison of Traditional and
    Non-traditional Students
    Eunjin Hwang
  • 2. Introduction
    • 73% of students in U.S higher education is
    non-traditional students.
  • 3. 1. Definitionof Non-traditional Student
    NCEBprovides the definition of non-traditional students by six characteristics.
    Source: U.S. Department of Education, NCES.
    National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) 2000
  • 4. According to data analysis of NCEB, the most common characteristic of non-traditional students is financially independent, attend part time, and delayed enrollment. Also, within public 2 –year institution, highly non-traditional students are highly distributed.
    Figure 1. Percentage of students with nontraditional characteristics 1992-1993 and 1999-2000
    Figure 2. Percentage distribution of undergraduates according to their student status, by type of institution: 1999–2000
    Source : NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2000
    Source : NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2000
  • 5. 2. Social Factors
  • 6. What is the problem?
    1. Non-traditional students have barriers in pursuing their academic career.
    Financial poverty
    Time poverty
    - Work full time
    - Multiple roles
    Institutional Barriers
    -Learning the rules of academia
    - Reading and writing assignment, etc.
  • 7. 2. Non traditional students from low socioeconomic (LSES) backgrounds are more likely to have intensified barriers.
    3. University students from a LSES background often belong to multiple equity group, the most common of which is living in a rural or isolated area.
  • 8. The Purpose of the Study is..
  • 9. Research Question
    1. How institutional rhetoric of higher education is differently experienced by traditional students and non-traditional students in the first academic year ?
    2. What barriers are experienced by non-traditional students in a rural area?
  • 10. Significance of This Study
    This study examines barriers of non traditional students by comparing the difference of academic experience in higher education between non-traditional students and traditional students.
    Previous studies examined barriers based on qualitative method approach. This study focus on non-traditional students, particularly in a rural area based on quantitative method approach.
  • 11. Theoretical Framework
    1. Tinto’s Model of Student Retention
    Figure 4. Tinto, V. Dropout from Higher Education (1975)
    • Criticism: The validity generalizing its constructs to explain attrition among non-traditional students since the model was developed mostly in relation to traditional students and residential academic context.
  • 2. Revised Model : Rovai’s model for adult dropouts
    l--------------Prior to the course -------------------------l
    l-----------------During the course------------------l
    Learner Characteristic
    External factors
    -Scheduling conflicts
    -Family issues
    -Financial problems
    -Managerial support
    -Personal issues(
    Internal factors
    • Social integration
    • 15. Academic integration
    ( instructor follow-up, activity
    level, instructional design,
    assignment level, etc. )
    • Technology/technical/usability
    • Lack of motivation
    Learner Skills
  • 16. Conclusion
    1. Non traditional students, particularly of low socioeconomic status in a rural area experience intensified study barriers.
    2. To reduce the rate of attrition and support non-traditional students, institutional support such as financial aids and counseling services, etc. should be provided.
  • 17. Bibliography
    Bamber, J.,& Tett, L (2000). Transforming the learning experiences of non-traditional students: a perspective from higher education. Studies in Continuing Education, 22(1), 57-75.
    Deil-Amen, R (2011). Socio-academic integrative moments: rethinking academic and social integration among two-year college students in career-related programs. Journal of Higher Education, 82(1), 54-91.
    Gilardi, S.,& Guqlielmetti,C (2011). University life of non-traditional students: engagement styles and impact on attrition. Journal of Higher Education, 82(1), 33-53.
    Hermida, J (2010). Inclusive teaching: an approach for encouraging non-traditional student success. International Journal of Research& Review, 5(1), 19-30.
    Marandet, E.,& Wainwright, E (2009). Discourses of integration and exclusion: equal opportunities for university students with dependent children? Space & Polity, 13(2), 109 -125.
    Marion, B (2001). Experiencing the barriers: non-traditional students entering higher education.Policy & Practice, 16(2), 141-60.
    Park,J.,& Choi, H (2009) Factors influencing adult learners’ decision to drop out or persist in online learning. Educational Technology& Society, 12(4), 207-217.
    Tones, M., Fraser, J., Elder, R.,& White, K (2009). Supporting mature-aged students from a low Socio-economic background. Higher Education, 58(4), 505-529.