Sam Houston State University <br />Integration of Higher Education in Rural Area :<br /> Comparison of Traditional and Non-traditional Students<br />Eunjin Hwang<br />
Introduction<br /><ul><li>73% of students in U.S higher education is </li></ul> non-traditional students.<br />
1. Definitionof Non-traditional Student<br />NCEBprovides the definition of non-traditional students by six characteristics. <br />Source: U.S. Department of Education, NCES. <br />National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) 2000 <br />
According to data analysis of NCEB, the most common characteristic of non-traditional students is financially independent, attend part time, and delayed enrollment. Also, within public 2 –year institution, highly non-traditional students are highly distributed. <br />Figure 1. Percentage of students with nontraditional characteristics 1992-1993 and 1999-2000<br />Figure 2. Percentage distribution of undergraduates according to their student status, by type of institution: 1999–2000<br />Total<br />Source : NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2000 <br />Source : NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2000 <br />
What is the problem?<br />1. Non-traditional students have barriers in pursuing their academic career.<br />Financial poverty<br />Time poverty<br /> - Work full time<br /> - Multiple roles <br />Institutional Barriers<br /> -Learning the rules of academia<br /> - Reading and writing assignment, etc.<br />
2. Non traditional students from low socioeconomic (LSES) backgrounds are more likely to have intensified barriers. <br />3. University students from a LSES background often belong to multiple equity group, the most common of which is living in a rural or isolated area. <br />
Research Question<br />1. How institutional rhetoric of higher education is differently experienced by traditional students and non-traditional students in the first academic year ? <br /> 2. What barriers are experienced by non-traditional students in a rural area?<br />
Significance of This Study<br />This study examines barriers of non traditional students by comparing the difference of academic experience in higher education between non-traditional students and traditional students.<br />Previous studies examined barriers based on qualitative method approach. This study focus on non-traditional students, particularly in a rural area based on quantitative method approach. <br />
Theoretical Framework<br /> 1. Tinto’s Model of Student Retention<br />Figure 4. Tinto, V. Dropout from Higher Education (1975) <br /><ul><li>Criticism: The validity generalizing its constructs to explain attrition among non-traditional students since the model was developed mostly in relation to traditional students and residential academic context.</li></li></ul><li>2. Revised Model : Rovai’s model for adult dropouts <br />l--------------Prior to the course -------------------------l<br />l-----------------During the course------------------l<br />Learner Characteristic<br /><ul><li>Age
Conclusion<br />1. Non traditional students, particularly of low socioeconomic status in a rural area experience intensified study barriers.<br /> 2. To reduce the rate of attrition and support non-traditional students, institutional support such as financial aids and counseling services, etc. should be provided.<br />
Bibliography<br />Bamber, J.,& Tett, L (2000). Transforming the learning experiences of non-traditional students: a perspective from higher education. Studies in Continuing Education, 22(1), 57-75.<br />Deil-Amen, R (2011). Socio-academic integrative moments: rethinking academic and social <br /> integration among two-year college students in career-related programs. Journal of Higher Education, 82(1), 54-91.<br />Gilardi, S.,& Guqlielmetti,C (2011). University life of non-traditional students: engagement styles and impact on attrition. Journal of Higher Education, 82(1), 33-53.<br />Hermida, J (2010). Inclusive teaching: an approach for encouraging non-traditional student success. International Journal of Research& Review, 5(1), 19-30.<br />Marandet, E.,& Wainwright, E (2009). Discourses of integration and exclusion: equal opportunities for university students with dependent children? Space & Polity, 13(2), 109 -125.<br />Marion, B (2001). Experiencing the barriers: non-traditional students entering higher education. Policy & Practice, 16(2), 141-60.<br />Park,J.,& Choi, H (2009) Factors influencing adult learners’ decision to drop out or persist in online learning. Educational Technology& Society, 12(4), 207-217.<br />Tones, M., Fraser, J., Elder, R.,& White, K (2009). Supporting mature-aged students from a low <br /> Socio-economic background. Higher Education, 58(4), 505-529.<br />
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