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1. Definitionof Non-traditional Student NCEBprovides the definition of non-traditional students by six characteristics. Source: U.S. Department of Education, NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) 2000
According to data analysis of NCEB, the most common characteristic of non-traditional students is financially independent, attend part time, and delayed enrollment. Also, within public 2 –year institution, highly non-traditional students are highly distributed. Figure 1. Percentage of students with nontraditional characteristics 1992-1993 and 1999-2000 Figure 2. Percentage distribution of undergraduates according to their student status, by type of institution: 1999–2000 Total Source : NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2000 Source : NCES. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2000
What is the problem? 1. Non-traditional students have barriers in pursuing their academic career. Financial poverty Time poverty - Work full time - Multiple roles Institutional Barriers -Learning the rules of academia - Reading and writing assignment, etc.
2. Non traditional students from low socioeconomic (LSES) backgrounds are more likely to have intensified barriers. 3. University students from a LSES background often belong to multiple equity group, the most common of which is living in a rural or isolated area.
Research Question 1. How institutional rhetoric of higher education is differently experienced by traditional students and non-traditional students in the first academic year ? 2. What barriers are experienced by non-traditional students in a rural area?
Significance of This Study This study examines barriers of non traditional students by comparing the difference of academic experience in higher education between non-traditional students and traditional students. Previous studies examined barriers based on qualitative method approach. This study focus on non-traditional students, particularly in a rural area based on quantitative method approach.
Theoretical Framework 1. Tinto’s Model of Student Retention Figure 4. Tinto, V. Dropout from Higher Education (1975)
Criticism: The validity generalizing its constructs to explain attrition among non-traditional students since the model was developed mostly in relation to traditional students and residential academic context.
2. Revised Model : Rovai’s model for adult dropouts l--------------Prior to the course -------------------------l l-----------------During the course------------------l Learner Characteristic
Conclusion 1. Non traditional students, particularly of low socioeconomic status in a rural area experience intensified study barriers. 2. To reduce the rate of attrition and support non-traditional students, institutional support such as financial aids and counseling services, etc. should be provided.
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