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Sally rm 11

Sally rm 11






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    Sally rm 11 Sally rm 11 Presentation Transcript

    • Business Research Methods 11. Research combining quantitative and qualitative techniques
    • Theme 11
      • Mixed methods research
      • Quantitative and qualitative techniques
      • Mixed methods examples
      • Reflection on mixed methods
      • Case study research design
    • Mixed methods
      • The concept of mixed methods is used to denote a research that integrates quantitative and qualitative research
      • Combining QUANTITATIVE and QUANLITATIVE data collection and data analysis techniques
      • Mixed methods use both approaches to “counterbalance” the weaknesses and strengths of each method
      Bryman & Bell (2007)
    • Qualitative & quantitative methods and techniques
      • Techniques
      • Conversations
      • Unstructured
      • and semi-structured interviews
      Jankowicz (1991) Quantitative Qualitative
      • Techniques
      • Surveys/Self-completion questionnaires
      • Structured
      • interviews
      • Structured observations
      Qualitative Quantitative Ethnography Case Study Focus groups Longitudinal study Experiment Cross-sectional Methods (designs)
    • Some controversies
      • There are many arguments against the compatibility of combining quantitative and qualitative studies
        • Epistemological and ontological considerations suggest incompatibility
        • A technical version supports the fusion of both quantities and qualitative methods
          • The connections between research and philosophical considerations are not fixed
            • They denote just predisposition
          • Both researches are compatible, feasible and desirable
          • “ Research method are much more free-floating that it sometimes supposed”
      Bryman & Bell (2007)
    • Qualitative facilitating quantitative research
      • Providing hypotheses -e.g. Interviews
      • Aiding measurements -e.g. Survey/Metrics
      • Research applied
        • Edwards et al. (1998) studied employee attitude towards TQM
        • Conducting interview with quality managers, functional specialists in 6 case study organizations
        • Secondary data was also analyzed
        • Self-completion questionnaires were developed taking account of the valuable contextual information
        • Result: 63 % average response for the survey
      Bryman & Bell (2007)
    • Quantitative facilitating qualitative research
      • Selection of people -e.g. Sampling process
      • Exploring new concepts -e.g. Surveys
      • Research applied I
        • Storey et al. (2002) studied flexible employment contract and product innovation
        • 2,700 self-completion questionnaires were sent to the industry
        • They identify their target population and approach the companies to conduct in-depth interviews
      • Research applied II
        • Hochschild (1983) study of ‘ emotional labour’ in Delta airlines
        • Self-completion questionnaires used as the initial conceptualization tool
      Bryman & Bell (2007)
    • Triangulation
      • Triangulation is an approach of mixed methodology were different data collection methods are used to examine different aspects of organizational reality (Zamanou & Glases, 1994)
      • Ghauri et al. (1995) defines triangulation as the combination of methodologies to improve the accuracy of judgments of results
      • Webb et al. (1994) suggest that the confidence in the findings of quantitative research can be enhanced by using more than way of measuring a concept
    • Triangulation
      • Three blind men were asked to describe a elephant by touching only one part of it
      • A single method will not be enough to get the whole picture!
      Ghauri et al. (1995)
    • Case study research
      • Case study methods are enjoying a vogue in business reseach (Brannick & Roche, 1997)
      • Bryman and Bell (2007) suggest that qualitative and quantitative business research methods combined represent a common pattern in case studies so as to enhance generalizability
      • Case studies represents an “intensive” study of selected examples in order to gaining insight of a phenomenon (Ghauri et al.,1995)
      • This method is suitable when researchers have little control over events and when the focus is on a current phenomenon in a “real-life” context (Yin, 1989)
    • Preparing for a case study
      • In many cases students first decide which method to use -e.g. Cases study or survey
        • and then they formulate their problem
        • Should we decide the method first, or the problem leading us to the method?
      • The problem and our objectives should lead us to the method
        • Explore/new theory
        • Generalize/retest
      Ghauri et al. (1995)
    • Criteria to select a case
      • Target population for the investigation
        • Firms
        • Individuals
        • Groups
      • Assess accessibility
      • Time and other constraints
        • Smaller -e.g. Little time available
        • Big organizations -e.g. Complex issue
      Ghauri et al. (1995)
    • How to conduct a case study
      • Case studies are frequently chosen because of the mistaken belief that they are easy to conduct (Brannick & Roche, 1997)
      • However, special skills and some caution are required for case study research
        • Data collection is very demanding (personally)
        • Exceptional communication skills
        • Good observer and listener
        • Special interpretation ability
          • Reading behind the lines
        • Avoiding bias for own interpretation
      Ghauri et al. (1995)
    • Types of case study design
      • Multiple-case study
          • Not related to revelatory or rare phenomena
          • Testing established theory
          • Comparative design
          • Generalization
          • Inductive approach
      • Single-case study
          • Unique case
          • Testing established theory
          • Pilot and exploratory study
          • Explanations
          • Causality (longitudinal)
          • Inductive approach
          • Deductive approach at the fist stage
      • The use of particular case studies methods depend on the problem, objective and also on the methodology employed
      Yin (1989)
    • Generalization & multiple-cases
      • Generalization in case studies is one of the most controversial issues
      • Statistical sampling may have some weaknesses
        • Sampling frame
        • Stratify
      • Theoretical sampling (Gummesson, 1991)
        • “ Mimicking” the generic logic of statistic sampling
        • 1 st qualitative selection
        • 2 nd apply the sampling principles iteratively
          • Representativeness
        • Generalization?
      Brannick & Roche (1997)
    • Analytic generalization
      • Robert Yin (1994) argues that multiple case designs are properly viewed as the logical equivalent of repeated experiments, “theoretical replication”
        • Each of the cases should be carefully chosen
          • Same phenomenon under study
          • Contracting results
        • Rather than statistical generalization “Analytic generalization” involves using previously developed theory to compare case studies
      Brannick & Roche (1997)
    • The famous “Aston” studies
      • Contingent features of organizational structure and power in organizations
        • 46 organizations sampled for reliable measures -i.e. metrics
        • Stratify them by product type and size
        • The unusual feature of the Aston research was to use:
          • statistical design principles and associated modes of generalization using small samples of organizations, and
          • using multiple data collection methods (triangulation)
        • However, the potential of this hybrid design remains to be explored
      Brannick & Roche (1997)
    • Generalization
      • The remaining question is weather statistical sampling and generalization can have any place in the logic of multiple case design
      • Gummesson and Yin suggest categorically that the answer is NO
        • Statistical analysis should just support the arguments of case research studies
      Brannick & Roche (1997)
    • A typical case research example
      • Kanter (1977) conduct a single case study at Indsco Supply Corporation
        • Postal surveys
        • Semi-structure interviews
        • Focus groups with employees
        • Participating in meetings and conversations with personnel
        • Secondary data (public documents, memoranda, etc.)
        • Although she did not claim generalization, she conducted interviews also in other corporations to conclude that Indsco was typical among other corporation
        • She finally suggest that Indsco’ story could be similar to other organizations
      Bryman & Bell (2007)
    • Some final considerations
      • Mixed methods, and mono-methods, should be competently designed and conduced
      • No matter how many collection methods are employed
        • “ More is not better”
      • Mixed methods should be aligned with the type of research question
      • Very time consuming and financial resources
      • Good combination of qualitative and quantitative skills
      • In a nut shell, mixed methods are not universally applicable
        • It may provide better understanding
        • It may enhance confidence of findings
        • It may improve chances of access
      • However, it is subject to similar constraints and considerations as research relying on a single method of research strategy
      Bryman & Bell (2007)
    • Key points
      • Mixed-methods
        • Counterbalancing their weaknesses
      • Triangulation mixed-method approach
      • Case study
        • Considerations for conducting case studies
        • Multiple-case studies
      • Generalization issues