Newcastle University, 19 May 2011 Creating location-basedmobile learning experiences Dr Elizabeth FitzGerald LSRI, University of Nottingham
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Our story today…• Beginning – Introduction to me and my research – Research into location-based learning• Middle – Tree Walk – Augmenting the visitor experience – Audio narratives in location• End – Ad hoc learning in location – User-generated content for anytime/anyplace learning
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Who am I?• An educational technology researcher• Biology graduate; ex-school teacher; PhD Computer Science; research fellow at LSRI• Investigating how we can use geospatial data and location to inform learning in mobile and informal scenarios• Particularly interested in the potential of mobile devices to deliver ad hoc learning
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Related researcht Nottingham: • PI project • Tree Walk • Answer Tree • Augmenting the visitor experienceathematics education (Tangney @ TCD, Jonker/Wijers @ Freudenthal Institute)eocaching (Clough @ OU)ormal and informal collaborative learning (Lyons @ University of Illinois at Chicago, USA)
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Tree Walk• Investigating how geospatial data can be used in innovative educational settings• “Tree Walk” pilot study carried out: a technology-assisted field guide• YouTube video available, for more details: http://tinyurl.com/cszun7 (starts around 0.55)
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Tree Walk (4) Issues relating to context: e.g. temporal; spatial; group or individual experience
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011From tree walks to hill walks• Collaboration with School of Geography to explore different kinds of location-based visualisations• Investigating how tourists can be provided with an augmented experience when they visit the Lake District• Work carried out with Geography students (3rd year UG/MSc) [Priestnall et al, 2009]
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011 Aims To assess a range of techniques forexploring the use of digital geographic information to augment real scenes in the field Create a student-led exercise to encourage critical evaluation of these techniques to support the field experience (and mobile tourist guides).
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Approach• Fieldwork – education in the field... mobile!• 3rd year Geography undergraduates + some MSc• ‘Mobile and Field GIS’ module, focus on appropriate use of Geographic Information in a landscape context• Student presentations• Videos + observation• Follow-up focus groups
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Summary of student findings• Computer-generated acetate: + Successful format/simple, ‘electronic acetates’ a vision for the future? - Difficult in windy conditions, predetermined viewpoints a drawback.• Custom PDA application: + Sketching, legend & audio popular (but relevance?) - Stability, incl. GPS connectivity. Screen visibility in bright sunlight.• Mediascape on a mobile phone + Easy authoring (control over media placement) - Screen size and visibility, graphical media less effective.• Google Earth on a tablet PC + Large screen and Google Earth’s data exploration environment popular - Screen visibility, battery life, pen-based interaction (GE designed for desktop)• Head-Mounted Display + Fun, engaging, good for heavily graphical information - Technical complexity, robustness, heavy, not waterproof!
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Reflections on exercise• Relating digital information to features in the real world – How can digital representations be mapped onto the real world by the user – Information doesnt always relate to neat trigger regions – How do we mimic the in-field expert pointing things out?• In-field evaluation – Asking students to develop their own evaluation schema – Video diaries a promising technique• The role of graphics – Seek alternatives to heavily graphical representations – More emphasis on design of audio for in-field use.• Ease of use – Even tech-savvy students didn’t have time for complex mapping apps – The demand for simplicity was in evidence across all interactions
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Implications and future work Beginning to exploit real-time Caistor Roman Town, handheld Augmented Reality, East Anglia, UK. Data from Will Bowden and review evaluation (Archaeology) framework Need to develop design rules for mobile field guides which mimic the field expert. Reduced emphasis on graphics, new challenges in making geographically relevant audio. Google Maps Simple but effective? – all new geospatial and Navigation for handheld augmented reality applications will Android 2.0need to strive to move from being novelty apps to becoming killer apps.
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Audio in location• Used extensively in mobile gaming, tourism, educational visits and theatrical events• Can be used for directional purposes, orientation or task-based activities/instruction• Provide information, tell a story or create ambient sounds such as birdsong or machinery
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Spoken audio experiencesWe have proposed 3 categories:• Audio vignettes• Movement-based guides• Mobile narratives [FitzGerald et al, 2010]
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Audio vignettes• Short pieces of audio triggered by movement from the user• No history of where the user has been• No adaptivity based on previous movement• Users engage with chunks of audio that are independent of each other and of their relative locations• E.g. Riot! 1831 – interactive play in Bristol [Reid et al, 2005]
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Movement-based guides• The aim is to adapt information to objects or surroundings• Interaction and adaptivity is based on user movement/ orientation/physical position• E.g. CAGE system [Rudman et al, 2008]
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Mobile narratives• An audio narrative based on the sequence of movements carried out by the user• Audio heard by a user will depend upon where the user goes to (and has come from)• Differs from a movement-based guide: – Stronger story-telling component – Level of dependency upon the previous audio segment• Can present different perspectives/characters• E.g. History Unwired [Epstein and Vergani, 2006]
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Case study: A Chaotic Encounter• Movement-based guide + mobile narrative• An entertaining audio story, based on Nottingham folktales, which adapts its content to reflect the listener’s movement patterns• Each segment of audio has a low, medium or high ‘chaos’ rating (low = few characters, mundane storyline; high = many characters, surreal storyline)• User’s movement (speed, direction) determines what chaos rating the next audio segment is• Automatic and manual modes
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Findings from case study• All enjoyed the audio experiences – very immersive• Some confusion from users when in automatic mode – unsure of what to do• But manual mode less enjoyable due to the interruptions by users having to interact with the system• Some inaccuracies reported with GPS• Additional work being done with conversational narrative for audio guides
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Ad hoc learning in location• Anyone can be a field guide, through creation and delivery of user-generated geolocated content• Enables learning in location through serendipitous discovery of media placement• In-field authoring and editing of content• Enables reflection by user, either at the time or later on
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011 A framework for authoring Use of language/media Type of Knowledge level Interaction –Landscape domain related to the Contextual aspects communication of content try to include: landscape•form of •suggestion •describe shape, •Domain-specific: Temporal: •authenticitylandscape •hint or colour, size • beginner •is this info related to •relevance to•common warning •use emotions or the time of year or the everyday life • intermediateknowledge •conversation personal response seasons? •element of fun where appropriate • advanced•science •is this info related to •practical task •anything unusual •use simple English • specialist time of day?•history •reminiscence (short, commonly- •age-related? or unexpected•contemporary used words) where •short textual (children might not •visibility of theuse possible •opportunity for description have the same landscape and its•myth reflection by the •exhortation •avoid jargon but knowledge or level features/landmarks user•symbol do use appropriate of understanding (e.g. ‘look language as an adult) •respect for•art carefully’) Available resources: •Needs prior others and for •be culturally •other people the environment sensitive knowledge? •experts •the story behind •be clear and •leaflets the visible (e.g. concise photosynthesis in •orient the visitor •notices/signs a leaf) appropriately
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Analysis of existing content• Analysed 3 systems that contained user-created content: – OOKL – Peoples’ Collection Wales – WildMap Number of items (out of 217) Media type: Percentage (%) that contained that media type: … text 204 94.0 … audio 12 5.5 … video 2 0.9 … 1 photo 166 76.5 … 2 or more photos 33 15.2 … web link (URL) 13 6.0
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Findings – 1• Landscape domain: – Science: in 36.9% of items; – Art 30%, contemporary use 29%, history 26%, symbol 23%, common knowledge 18%.• Type of communication – Short textual description (88%); – Reminiscence (9%); suggestion or exhortation (7%); practical task (5%); introduction (4%); hint or warning (2%) and conversation (1%).
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Findings – 2• Use of language/media related to the landscape – 30% written in simple English; clear and concise (21%); and without unnecessary jargon (15%) – 68% of items contained more detailed descriptions (of shape/form/colour – as both text and images) – Emotions or personal responses apparent in 10% of the items – Visitor orientation mentioned in 6% of items
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Findings – 3• Knowledge level of content – Age-related/domain-specific content present in a very small number of items (2% and 1%) – Need for prior knowledge in only 5% of items• Contextual aspects – Temporal issues in only 7% of media items – Most commonly-mentioned resource was actual item or artefact (found in 14% of the items) – Other available resources were not well-used (e.g. other people; models/physical representations; notices and signs; experts and leaflets)
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Findings – 4• Interaction (try to include) – Most prevalent aspect was that of ‘the story behind the visible’ = 25% of items – Something unusual or unexpected: 13% – Relevance to everyday life: 13% – Authenticity: 12% – Opportunity for reflection by the user: 11% – Respect for others and for the environment: 6%
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Impact of this work• Content analysis can guide creation of social media/provide framework for authoring and aid metacognition• Help curation of social media + tagging/filtering; potential for personalisation• Media created should be of higher quality• Use the framework to structure learning aims and outcomes
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Summary• Whistle-stop tour of location-based mobile learning• Selection of case studies – Overview of related research – Tree walk, augmenting the visitor experience, audio guides• Ad hoc learning in location
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011References• Carlson, A. (2001). "Education for Appreciation: What is the Correct Curriculum for Landscape?" Journal of Aesthetic Education 35(4): pp97-112.• Epstein, M. and Vergani, S. (2006). History Unwired: Mobile Narrative in Historic Cities. Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI ’06), Venezia, Italy, pp. 302-305.• FitzGerald, E., Sharples, M., Jones, R. and G. Priestnall (2010) Guidelines for the design of location-based audio for mobile learning. Proceedings of the mLearn 2010 Conference, Valletta, Malta, pp 24-31• Priestnall, G., Brown, E., Sharples, M. and Polmear, G. (2009). A student-led comparison of techniques for augmenting the field experience. Proceedings of mLearn 2009, Orlando, Florida, pp. 195-198.• Reid, J., Hull, R., Cater, K. and Clayton, B. (2005). Riot! 1831: The design of a location based audio drama. Proceedings of the 3rd UK-UbiNet Workshop, Bath, UK, pp. 1-2.• Rudman, P. D., Sharples, M., Vavoula, G. N., Lonsdale, P. and Meek, J. (2008) Cross-context learning. In L. Tallon and K. Walker (eds.) Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media. Lanham, MD: Alta Mira Press, pp. 147-166.
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011Thanks for listening… firstname.lastname@example.org http://lsri.nottingham.ac.uk/ejb Acknowledgements: Gary Priestnall, Mike Sharples, Rob Jones, Brian Elliston, James Goulding, Adam Moore, Tim Brailsford and students from the School of Geography
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011My PhD: overview“The use of learning styles in adaptive hypermedia”• I wanted to find out if these user models were beneficial, from a quantitative perspective• Two case studies: – WHURLE • a revision guide, used with undergraduates • visual/verbal learning style preference – DEUS • a web-based e-learning system, used with primary school children • global/sequential learning style preference
Newcastle University, 19 May 2011My PhD: outcomes• 2 key contributions to the field: – Learning styles used in this way do not seem to be effective at “improving learning” – The issue of objective user evaluation, from a quantitative perspective, that address the limitations/controversies of the study• Encouraged debate amongst researchers and practitioners in relation to appropriate modelling of user characteristics• Statistical analysis, sample size and effect size