Affect / Weight Management
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Affect / Weight Management

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How affective responses to exercise may affect exercise adoption and adherence which in turn affects weight management.

How affective responses to exercise may affect exercise adoption and adherence which in turn affects weight management.

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Affect / Weight Management Presentation Transcript

  • 1. WEIGHT MANAGEMENT PRESCRIPTION VS. PREFERENCE Richard Andrade, March 2010
  • 2. Public recommendations (ACSM, 2005)
    • For healthy purposes (ACSM-AHA)
    • Aerobic physical activity
      • Moderate intensity 30 min 5 days/week
      • High intensity 20 min 3 days/week
      • To prevent weight gain (IOM)
      • Aerobic physical activity
      • Moderate intensity 60 min/day
      • To prevent weight regain (IASO)
      • Aerobic physical activity
      • Moderate intensity 60-90 min/day
  • 3. Public recommendations (ACSM, 2010)
    • Moderate intensity
      • Brisk walking
      • 40% to <60% VO2R
      • High intensity
      • ≥60% VO2R
  • 4. Practical Implication
    • Exercise prescription for weight loss
    • ↓↓↓↓
    • ↑ Energy expenditure
    • ↓↓↓↓
    • Exercise adherence????
    • Have other factors been considered?
  • 5. Exercise Adherence
    • Musculoskeletal considerations
    • Psychological considerations
      • Motivation
      • Affect
      • Self-efficacy
      • Social physique anxiety
  • 6. Affect
    • Circumplex Model of Affect (Lox et al., 2003)
    • Valence dimension (pleasure-displeasure)
    • Activation dimension (low vs. high)
    FAS FS
  • 7. Affect / Imposed vs. Self-selected
    • Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-selected and imposed intensity on affect and exertion. (Ekkekakis & Lind, 2006)
    • Self-selected intensity
    • Intensity ↓ aerobic-anaerobic threshold for both groups
    • No differences between groups in pleasure-displeasure
    • Imposed intensity
    • Intensity ↑ gas exchange threshold
    • Overweight group ↓ pleasure gradually
    • ↑ perception of exertion
  • 8. Affect / Imposed vs. Self-selected
    • Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-selected and imposed intensity on affect and exertion. (Ekkekakis & Lind, 2006)
    • Why was there a decrease in pleasure?
    • A cognitive reason?
    • ↓ self-efficacy
    • ↑ social physique anxiety
    • ↓ motivation (self-determination theory)
    • ↓ attitude (theory of planned behavior)
  • 9. Affect / increasing levels of exercise intensity
    • Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women. (Ekkekakis et al., 2009)
    • Normal weight and overweight
    • ↓ Pleasure ratings once the VT was exceeded
    • Obese
    • ↓ Pleasure ratings during all the incremental protocol
    • Correlations of ratings of pleasure
    • Negative correlation with social physique anxiety at moderate intensity
    • No correlation with self-efficacy
    • Negative correlation with BMI at moderate intensity
  • 10. Affect / increasing levels of exercise intensity
    • The results support the Dual-Mode Theory
    • “ Cognitive appraisals may be become important determinants of affective responses when the intensity presents a challenge but is not yet overwhelming”
    • At moderate intensity is where most of the variance occurs in terms of affect
    • Low intensity – cognitive determinants
    • High intensity – interoceptive cues
  • 11. New perspective (Holmes et al., 2009)
    • Are physical activity and
    • diet the only two factors
    • to be considered for
    • combating obesity????
    • PA -> ↑ EE -> ↓body weight
    • PA -> ↓ stress -> ↓body weight
    • PA
    • MS Stress
  • 12. References
    • American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription , 7 th edn. Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2005, pp. 1-366.
    • American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription , 8 th edn. Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2010, pp. 1-380.
    • Ekkekakis P, Lind E. Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-selected and imposed intensity on affect and exertion. International Journal of Obesity 2006;30: 652-660.
    • Ekkekakis P, Lind E, Vazou S. Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women. Obesity 2009;18: 79-85.
    • Holmes ME, Ekkekakis P, Eisenmann JC. The physical activity, stress and metabolic syndrome triangle: a guide to unfamiliar territory for the obesity researcher. Obesity Reviews 2009; 1-16.
    • Lox CL, Martin KA, Petruzzello SJ. The Psychology of Exercise: Integrating Theory and Practice . Holcomb Hathaway: Scottsdale, Arizona, 2003, pp 1-354.