Writing for the Web Howard Hudson, Editor European Journalism Centre
Image: Inju (Flickr) Reading used to be relaxing...
Print Newspapers / magazines consumed more slowly -> read at breakfast, on trains or planes -> more passive and relaxed: you get what you're given -> articles need to stand alone: they need to include background -> supposedly neutral, but often tailored to certain groups (education level, political orientation, etc.) e.g. in UK, Sun / Daily Mail, Telegraph / Guardian
Web Web articles are often read after Googling, via RSS feeds or in between other tasks -> more active and rushed > 'user-driven' -> articles can be shorter because they need less context > can link to archived material -> if readers don't know a word or concept, they can check online...
How little do we read on the web? <ul><li>Between 20-30% of text on an average page </li></ul><ul><li>Higher literacy = higher scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Assume 200-250 words by minute </li></ul><ul><li>Around 4 words per second </li></ul>Data: Jakob Nielson, www.useit.com
Web: pros and cons <ul><li>Web = a linking medium = more distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Readers filter information and 'cherry-pick' sources </li></ul><ul><li>-> WEB EDITORS = FILTERS = STILL IN DEMAND! </li></ul>
Web: pros and cons Web 2.0 has one BIG advantage: “You remember 10% of what you read, 50% of what you read AND hear, and 90% of what you read, hear AND interact with.” (Niels Thøgersen, DG Communication, European Commission)
Image: BuddhaMunx (Flickr) Make the most of multimedia. Create podcasts, mash-ups or just add comments
Major questions Questions for new media outlets: -> how do we build up our credibility? -> how do we make our product stand out from the media tsunami? -> how do we find our niche in the market?
How to win credibility? <ul><li>Know and serve your audience in terms of style, perspective and desired content </li></ul><ul><li>Find a unique angle and voice </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent: Create or adopt a style guide (BBC, AP); use either US or UK English </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid exaggeration and marketing: obscures facts and loses you trust </li></ul><ul><li>Use concise and objective text, esp. in headlines and summaries </li></ul>
Headlines Headlines need to be short, but make sense on their own: -> on average 5 words, 35 characters -> concise yet rich in information -> people often arrive via lists or feeds, with small and uniform text -> people often skip summaries -> headlines are 'shop-fronts' for articles: people ignore unattractive/untrusted until recommended
Headlines Front-load! -> first few words are key: for hooking readers and improving Search Engine Optimization ( SEO ) -> open with main names or concepts from article -> old, precise words are best for SEO: people search conservatively -> use the passive voice if it helps you front-load -> drop a 's and the 's : saves space, ensures better alphabetical listings
Headlines and summaries <ul><li>avoid 'clever' or novel words, unusual abbreviations, politically correct phrases </li></ul><ul><li>-> confuses people and search engines </li></ul><ul><li>don't repeat headline words early in summaries </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
Keeping attention: Layout... Use bullets or numbered lists -> Add sub-headings for chunks of text: descriptive better than catchy (esp. for international audience) -> Format headings with bold or italics -> Use graphics and galleries Use decimals (12 not twelve) -> use 3 million rather than 3,000,000 -> spell out non-factual numbers (thousands of cows, not 1000s of cows) -> use exact numbers to add credibility -> ok at start of sentences
Keeping attention: Content -> one idea per paragraph -> post updates, e.g. statistics (see Reuters) -> link to other sites: shows you've done your research -> 'Front-load' article: begin with main position or conclusion, add key info, then essential context... aka the 'Inverted Triangle'
Long or short articles? “ A mixed diet that combines brief overviews and comprehensive coverage is often best” Jakob Nielson -> Write short blogs (eg 800 words), with links to longer articles or research papers (eg 2000+ words) -> Serves everyone: those who want a quick, light read and those who want more detailed info -> Use links to longer articles rather than repeating the same background. Don't add to the 'media tsunami'...
Finding your voice... 'Three guides to writing: Structure, struggle and alcohol' -> Write about what you care about -> Don't ramble or play with words -> Don't be pretentious -> Pity your reader: keep things simple and clear -> Click here for the full article. (Kurt Vonnegut)
Finding your voice... Freewriting -> Begin with speed writing (e.g. 30 minutes) -> Then stop and do nothing but revise for the same length of time -> Writing and revising use different parts of brain (Peter Elbow)
Thank you for listening! Email: [email_address] Web: www.eu4journalists.eu www.ejc.net
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