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paper presentation _ survey of wireless sensor netwrok


A survey of Wireless Sensor Network technologies: …

A survey of Wireless Sensor Network technologies:
research trends and middleware’s role

Published in Technology , Business
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  • 1. A survey of Wireless Sensor Network technologies: research trends and middleware’s role EunJoung Byun Eiko Yoneki, Jean Bacon
  • 2. Abstract
    • Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
      • provide a new paradigm for sensing and disseminating information
    • Smart WSN
      • number of sensors spread across a geographical area
      • each sensor has wireless communication capability
      • sufficient intelligence for signal processing networking of the data
    • MAIN Goal of the paper
      • report recent trends in wireless sensor network research
      • overview of the various categories of WSN
      • a survey of WSN technologies
      • discussion of existing research prototypes and industry applications.
  • 3. Contents Contents Introduction Ⅰ Ⅱ Wireless Sensor Network Ⅲ Middleware Technologies Ⅳ Conclusions
  • 4. I. Introduction
    • Common to many areas
      • structural engineering, agriculture and forestry, healthcare, logistics and transportation, and military applications.
    • Measure various physical phenomena
      • temperature, fluid levels, vibration, strain, humidity, acidity, pumps, generators to manufacturing lines, aviation.
    • Wired sensor networks
      • have long been used to support such environments recently.
    • Wireless sensors
      • have been used only when a wired infrastructure is infeasible, such as in remote and hostile locations.
      • dramatic reduction in the cost of this wireless sensor technology has made its widespread deployment feasible
    • WSN
      • is a collection of millimeter-scale, self-contained, micro-electro-mechanical devices.
      • Ttiny devices have sensors, computational processing ability (i.e.CPU power), wireless receiver and transmitter technology and a power supply.
      • Typical WSNs communicate directly with a centralized controller or a satellite, thus communication between the sensor and controllers is based on a single hop.
      • WSNs are intelligent compared with traditional sensors
    • WSNs
      • intelligent compared with traditional sensors
      • some WSNs are designed to use inetwork processing
        • sensed data can be gathered in situ and transformed
        • abstract and aggregated high-level data before transmission.
      • WSNs differ from MANETs in many fundamental ways
    • Potential Applications
      • Disaster/Crime Prevention and Military Applications
      • Environmental Applications
      • Health Applications
      • Smart Spaces
    • Design Aspects
      • Deployment, Mobility, Infrastructure
      • Network Topology, Density and Network Size, Connectivity
      • Lifetime, Node Addressability
      • Data Aggregation, Query Ability and Propagation, Data Dissemination
      • Real-Time, Reliability, Self Configuration
      • Security
    • Operational Paradigms
      • Single hop to Sink
      • Multi hop to Sink
      • On Demand Operation
      • Self Organization
      • Data Aggregation
      • Reacting Process
    • Aggregation, Filtering
    • and Correlation
      • Event correlation is
      • deployed sometimes
      • as a part of applications,
    • Cougar
      • Cougar [61,229, 32] is an architecture
        • treats a sensor network as a distributed database
        • large number of sensor nodes are connected through a multi-hop wireless network and each node keeps sensor data.
      • A query optimiser is located on the gateway node to generate distributed query processing plans after receiving queries from outside.
      • Expression in Cougar
        • it is proposed to divide the model of the sensor data into a user expression and an internal expression.
        • First, the user expression is a query, and an Abstract Data Type (ADT) is defined for the sensor, and it proposes the query language of the syntax similar to SQL. For instance, query processing for a monitor can be described as follows.
  • 11. 1 Data Driven Approach
    • SINA
      • SINA (Sensor Information Networking Architecture) [194, 209]
        • middleware architecture that abstracts the network of a sensor node as a distributed object for query
      • The following primitive operations aim to achieve effective information aggregation:
        • Self orchestrated operation: An intentional operation delay for the response implosion.
        • Diffused computation operation
  • 12. 1 Data Driven Approach
      • SINA aims to achieve scalability and low power consumption in sensor networks.
      • SINA consists of the following function components.
        • Hierarchical clustering: The sensor nodes contain the function to build the hierarchical cluster structure dynamically.
        • Attribute based Name management: The sensor node is managed by the name based on the attribute but note ID. For instance, [type = temperature, location = NE, temperature = 103] means all the sensors indicating 103 degrees in the northeast division.
        • Position management: The position of the sensor node is measured, and managed by GPS etc.
  • 13. 1 Data Driven Approach
    • TinyDB
      • TinyDB [145, 94, 223, 73, 146]
        • enquiry processing system for sensor networks that operates on TinyOS.
        • concept of query processing (acquisitional query processing(ACQP)) is introduced.
        • In ACQP of TinyDB, the SQL is enhanced for query processing
        • this query is converted to internal code, and executed for data retrieval and aggregation. For instance, the description that looks like the following SQL is used.
  • 14. 1 Data Driven Approach
    • DFuse: A Framework for Distributed Data Fusion
      • Framework for data fusion application development on decentralized distributed sensor networks.
      • Fusion API
        • The fusion API offers programming ease for a complex sensor fusion application.
      • A distributed algorithm for fusion function placement and dynamic relocation
        • combinatorial large number of options for placing the fusion
        • finding an optimal placement that minimizes communication is difficult.
  • 15. 1 Data Driven Approach
    • TinyLIME
      • Linda: Linda enables two or more systems to share a tuple space using reading (rd), writing (out) and deleting (in).
      • LIME: A coordinated tuple space is formed from the partitioned tuple spaces that each distributed system maintains.
  • 16. 2 Event Based Approach
    • Event Based Approach
      • Time triggered approach is expensive in the case where the expected rate of primitive event occurrence is low.
      • Event-driven communication is an asynchronous paradigm that decouples senders and receivers.
      • The publish/subscribe paradigm has become popular,
        • asynchronous and multipoint communication is well suited for constructing reactive distributed computing applications.
  • 17. 2 Event Based Approach
    • DSWare
      • Data Service Middleware (DSWare) [136]
        • middleware which takes a data-centric approach by defining the common data service and group based service parts of various applications.
        • DSWare performs routing in real-time taking power consumption into account. DSWare consists of six function components
  • 18. 6.2 Event Based Approach
    • DSWare: six function components
      • DataStorage
        • DSWare aims to distribute on specific sensor nodes or aggregated the data for load balancing and to improve reliability.
      • Data Caching
        • The Data Caching Service provides multiple copies of the data most requested.
      • Group Management
        • The Group Management component uses cooperation between group members to achieve reliability of sensor information and detection and exclusion of abnormal sensor nodes.
      • Event Detection
        • An observation is the low level output of a sensing device during a sensing interval. It is a measurement of the environment.
      • Data Subscription: As a type of data dissemination
        • service, Data Subscription queries are very common in sensor networks.
      • Scheduling
        • The Scheduling component schedules other components.
  • 19. 2 Event Based Approach
    • Impala
      • Impala [141, 140]
        • has been built as part of the ZebraNet,
        • sensing nodes are placed on free ranging wildlife to perform long-term migration studies on a collection of animals in an ecosystem.
  • 20. 2 Event Based Approach
    • EnviroTrack
      • EnviroTrack [1]
        • the first programming support for sensor networks that explicitly supports tracking mobile objects.
        • EnviroTrack is a middleware layer that exports a new address space in the sensor network
  • 21. 4 Internet Oriented Approach
    • Web based query management
      • A WSN is assumed with a 3-level regional hierarchy and the entire network employs 3-level hierarchy
        • areas, clusters, and sensor nodes.
  • 22. V. Conclusion
    • Middleware has been a key technology in supporting distributed systems by providing common communication mechanisms.
      • The algorithms and protocols must be designed to provide a robust and energy efficient communication mechanism.
      • application/middleware layer
        • processes aim to create effective new capabilities for efficient extraction, manipulation, transport
    • Their applications and potential benefits
      • are wide-ranging and could ultimately break the barrier between the physical and digital worlds.
  • 23. Thank You !