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paper presentation _ survey of wireless sensor netwrok


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A survey of Wireless Sensor Network technologies: …

A survey of Wireless Sensor Network technologies:
research trends and middleware’s role

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    • 1. A survey of Wireless Sensor Network technologies: research trends and middleware’s role EunJoung Byun Eiko Yoneki, Jean Bacon
    • 2. Abstract
      • Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
        • provide a new paradigm for sensing and disseminating information
      • Smart WSN
        • number of sensors spread across a geographical area
        • each sensor has wireless communication capability
        • sufficient intelligence for signal processing networking of the data
      • MAIN Goal of the paper
        • report recent trends in wireless sensor network research
        • overview of the various categories of WSN
        • a survey of WSN technologies
        • discussion of existing research prototypes and industry applications.
    • 3. Contents Contents Introduction Ⅰ Ⅱ Wireless Sensor Network Ⅲ Middleware Technologies Ⅳ Conclusions
    • 4. I. Introduction
      • Common to many areas
        • structural engineering, agriculture and forestry, healthcare, logistics and transportation, and military applications.
      • Measure various physical phenomena
        • temperature, fluid levels, vibration, strain, humidity, acidity, pumps, generators to manufacturing lines, aviation.
      • Wired sensor networks
        • have long been used to support such environments recently.
      • Wireless sensors
        • have been used only when a wired infrastructure is infeasible, such as in remote and hostile locations.
        • dramatic reduction in the cost of this wireless sensor technology has made its widespread deployment feasible
      • WSN
        • is a collection of millimeter-scale, self-contained, micro-electro-mechanical devices.
        • Ttiny devices have sensors, computational processing ability (i.e.CPU power), wireless receiver and transmitter technology and a power supply.
        • Typical WSNs communicate directly with a centralized controller or a satellite, thus communication between the sensor and controllers is based on a single hop.
        • WSNs are intelligent compared with traditional sensors
      • WSNs
        • intelligent compared with traditional sensors
        • some WSNs are designed to use inetwork processing
          • sensed data can be gathered in situ and transformed
          • abstract and aggregated high-level data before transmission.
        • WSNs differ from MANETs in many fundamental ways
      • Potential Applications
        • Disaster/Crime Prevention and Military Applications
        • Environmental Applications
        • Health Applications
        • Smart Spaces
      • Design Aspects
        • Deployment, Mobility, Infrastructure
        • Network Topology, Density and Network Size, Connectivity
        • Lifetime, Node Addressability
        • Data Aggregation, Query Ability and Propagation, Data Dissemination
        • Real-Time, Reliability, Self Configuration
        • Security
      • Operational Paradigms
        • Single hop to Sink
        • Multi hop to Sink
        • On Demand Operation
        • Self Organization
        • Data Aggregation
        • Reacting Process
      • Aggregation, Filtering
      • and Correlation
        • Event correlation is
        • deployed sometimes
        • as a part of applications,
      • Cougar
        • Cougar [61,229, 32] is an architecture
          • treats a sensor network as a distributed database
          • large number of sensor nodes are connected through a multi-hop wireless network and each node keeps sensor data.
        • A query optimiser is located on the gateway node to generate distributed query processing plans after receiving queries from outside.
        • Expression in Cougar
          • it is proposed to divide the model of the sensor data into a user expression and an internal expression.
          • First, the user expression is a query, and an Abstract Data Type (ADT) is defined for the sensor, and it proposes the query language of the syntax similar to SQL. For instance, query processing for a monitor can be described as follows.
    • 11. 1 Data Driven Approach
      • SINA
        • SINA (Sensor Information Networking Architecture) [194, 209]
          • middleware architecture that abstracts the network of a sensor node as a distributed object for query
        • The following primitive operations aim to achieve effective information aggregation:
          • Self orchestrated operation: An intentional operation delay for the response implosion.
          • Diffused computation operation
    • 12. 1 Data Driven Approach
        • SINA aims to achieve scalability and low power consumption in sensor networks.
        • SINA consists of the following function components.
          • Hierarchical clustering: The sensor nodes contain the function to build the hierarchical cluster structure dynamically.
          • Attribute based Name management: The sensor node is managed by the name based on the attribute but note ID. For instance, [type = temperature, location = NE, temperature = 103] means all the sensors indicating 103 degrees in the northeast division.
          • Position management: The position of the sensor node is measured, and managed by GPS etc.
    • 13. 1 Data Driven Approach
      • TinyDB
        • TinyDB [145, 94, 223, 73, 146]
          • enquiry processing system for sensor networks that operates on TinyOS.
          • concept of query processing (acquisitional query processing(ACQP)) is introduced.
          • In ACQP of TinyDB, the SQL is enhanced for query processing
          • this query is converted to internal code, and executed for data retrieval and aggregation. For instance, the description that looks like the following SQL is used.
    • 14. 1 Data Driven Approach
      • DFuse: A Framework for Distributed Data Fusion
        • Framework for data fusion application development on decentralized distributed sensor networks.
        • Fusion API
          • The fusion API offers programming ease for a complex sensor fusion application.
        • A distributed algorithm for fusion function placement and dynamic relocation
          • combinatorial large number of options for placing the fusion
          • finding an optimal placement that minimizes communication is difficult.
    • 15. 1 Data Driven Approach
      • TinyLIME
        • Linda: Linda enables two or more systems to share a tuple space using reading (rd), writing (out) and deleting (in).
        • LIME: A coordinated tuple space is formed from the partitioned tuple spaces that each distributed system maintains.
    • 16. 2 Event Based Approach
      • Event Based Approach
        • Time triggered approach is expensive in the case where the expected rate of primitive event occurrence is low.
        • Event-driven communication is an asynchronous paradigm that decouples senders and receivers.
        • The publish/subscribe paradigm has become popular,
          • asynchronous and multipoint communication is well suited for constructing reactive distributed computing applications.
    • 17. 2 Event Based Approach
      • DSWare
        • Data Service Middleware (DSWare) [136]
          • middleware which takes a data-centric approach by defining the common data service and group based service parts of various applications.
          • DSWare performs routing in real-time taking power consumption into account. DSWare consists of six function components
    • 18. 6.2 Event Based Approach
      • DSWare: six function components
        • DataStorage
          • DSWare aims to distribute on specific sensor nodes or aggregated the data for load balancing and to improve reliability.
        • Data Caching
          • The Data Caching Service provides multiple copies of the data most requested.
        • Group Management
          • The Group Management component uses cooperation between group members to achieve reliability of sensor information and detection and exclusion of abnormal sensor nodes.
        • Event Detection
          • An observation is the low level output of a sensing device during a sensing interval. It is a measurement of the environment.
        • Data Subscription: As a type of data dissemination
          • service, Data Subscription queries are very common in sensor networks.
        • Scheduling
          • The Scheduling component schedules other components.
    • 19. 2 Event Based Approach
      • Impala
        • Impala [141, 140]
          • has been built as part of the ZebraNet,
          • sensing nodes are placed on free ranging wildlife to perform long-term migration studies on a collection of animals in an ecosystem.
    • 20. 2 Event Based Approach
      • EnviroTrack
        • EnviroTrack [1]
          • the first programming support for sensor networks that explicitly supports tracking mobile objects.
          • EnviroTrack is a middleware layer that exports a new address space in the sensor network
    • 21. 4 Internet Oriented Approach
      • Web based query management
        • A WSN is assumed with a 3-level regional hierarchy and the entire network employs 3-level hierarchy
          • areas, clusters, and sensor nodes.
    • 22. V. Conclusion
      • Middleware has been a key technology in supporting distributed systems by providing common communication mechanisms.
        • The algorithms and protocols must be designed to provide a robust and energy efficient communication mechanism.
        • application/middleware layer
          • processes aim to create effective new capabilities for efficient extraction, manipulation, transport
      • Their applications and potential benefits
        • are wide-ranging and could ultimately break the barrier between the physical and digital worlds.
    • 23. Thank You !