Republic - A republic is a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people.Remember, Germany was faced with accepting the blame of WWI and had to pay out reparations. This left Germany in a state of financial strain. This, along with global inflation, added to rising tensions among the population.
Pan Germanism – the belief that all ethnic Germans should be united into one German Nation. With the new borders established after WWI, Hitler believed more than ever that Germany and its people needed to be united.Anti-Semitism – the discrimination, prejudice, or hostility toward the Jews.
Racial Purity – Ubermensch, a term borrowed from Friedrich Nietzsche, was used by the Nazis to refer to a superhuman or ultimate human. This belief stated that there was one supreme form of man and all other forms were therefore liable to be enslaved or annihilated by the master race. Note: Nietzsche saw this as an abomination of his philosophy which was never meant to be viewed in racial terms. Aryan Race: a master race of people of Northern European descent. To achieve this the Nazis would practise euthanasia, sterilization, anti-miscegenation (interracial marriage), and eventually the Holocaust.Living Space – this would be achieved through the reclaiming of German territory and the occupation and takeover of other lands. In order for the German people to gain land, Hitler believed that war was necessary.Fuhrer Principle – the leader’s word is above the law and governmental policies, decisions, and offices ought to work toward the realization of this end.
Hitler now the head of state, commander of the armed forces, and political head of government. In effect Hitler was the supreme ruler of Germany.
Fascism – a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.
The Laws for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour (September 15, 1935) Moved by the understanding that the purity of German blood is essential to the further existence of the German people, and inspired by the uncompromising determination to safeguard the future of the German nation, the Reichstag has unanimously resolved upon the following law, which is promulgated herewith:Section 1 Marriages between Jews and citizens (German: Staatsangehörige) of German or kindred blood are forbidden. Marriages concluded in defiance of this law are void, even if, for the purpose of evading this law, they were concluded abroad. Proceedings for annulment may be initiated only by the Public Prosecutor. Section 2 Extramarital sexual intercourse between Jews and subjects of the state of Germany or related blood is forbidden. (Supplementary decrees set Nazi definitions of racial Germans, Jews, and half-breeds or Mischlinge --- see the latter entry for details and citations and Mischling Test for how such decrees were applied. Jews could not vote or hold public office under the parallel "citizenship" law.)Section 3 Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens under the age of 45, of German or kindred blood, as domestic workers. Section 4 Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colours. On the other hand they are permitted to display the Jewish colours. The exercise of this right is protected by the State. Section 5 A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 1 will be punished with hard labour. A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 2 will be punished with imprisonment or with hard labour. A person who acts contrary to the provisions of Sections 3 or 4 will be punished with imprisonment up to a year and with a fine, or with one of these penalties. Section 6 The Reich Minister of the Interior in agreement with the Deputy Führer and the Reich Minister of Justice will issue the legal and administrative regulations required for the enforcement and supplementing of this law. Section 7 The law will become effective on the day after its promulgation; Section 3, however, not until 1 January 1936.
The rise of hitler
The Weimer Republic and Trouble in Germany • After WWI, the Hohenzollern Dynasty which had led Germany in the placed was replaced with a republican government called the Weimer Republic. • However, throughout the 1920s no one government was able to receive more than 50% of the vote to rule as a majority, so little was done to meet Germany’s needs.
Hitler’s Vision • While living in Vienna shortly before WWI, Hitler developed two ideas that would guide his political vision: 1. Pan-Germanism 2. Anti-Semitism • These ideas, combined with the fears of the German people, led to an increase in the membership of Hitler’s political party – the German Worker’s Party.
Mein Kampf •In 1923, after the Beer Hall Putsch, Hitler was imprisoned for insubordination after a failed c’oup against the Bavarian government. •During his time in prison he write his ideas into a political testament: Mein Kampf (My Struggle). In his book he outline the basic tenets of his political beliefs: •Anti-Semitism and Racial Purity •Living space for Germans •Fuhrer Principle
Hitler Comes to Power • Jan. 30th 1933 – Hitler named chancellor by President Hindenburg. • When Hindenberg dies, Hitler consolidates chancellor and presidential powers.
Hitler as Dictator/Fascist• March 1933- Enabling Act passed which gave Hitler the power to make his own laws.• May 1933- independent unions are forced to join the Nazi-controlled German Labour Front.• July 1933 – law passed that banned all political parties save the Nazis.• All other aspects of life are brought under German control: Propaganda ministry controls the media and membership in the Hitler Youth made compulsory.
Anti-Semitism in Germany • 1933- Jews are excluded from government jobs. • 1933 – Jews lose rights as German citizens and marriages between Jews and non-Jews prohibited. • 1936 – The Nuremburg Laws govern Jewish life in Germany. • 1938 – Jewish children excluded from German schools.Jews are our misfortune
Kristallnacht – the Night of Broken Glass November 9-10, 1938