Mitochondrial genetics and managementPresentation Transcript
Mitochondria Using an ancient genome to derive theevolutionary relatedness among species.
What are they? The powerhouses of the cellAlso involved in intracellular signalling, cell differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth
Inheritance of MitochondriaIn most multicellular organisms, mtDNA is inherited from themother (maternally inherited).Mechanisms for this include: simple dilution (an egg contains 100,000 to 1,000,000 mtDNA molecules, whereas a sperm contains only 100 to 1000); degradation of sperm mtDNA in the fertilized egg; and failure of sperm mtDNA to enter the egg.
Evidence of an ancient origin?Exceptions to the universal genetic code (UGC) in mitochondria Organism Codon Standard Mitochondria Mammals AGA, AGG Arginine Stop codonInvertebrates AGA, AGG Arginine Serine Fungi CUA Leucine Threonine All of the AUA Isoleucine Methionine above UGA Stop codon Tryptophan