Middle Ages Christian Church Banned A.D. 313 – Accepted Religion – Roman Empire Why? Emperor Constantine In 380 - Christianity became a Official Religion
Middle Ages Thousand year of germination and growth School System Cathedral Schools In year 1200 – First University
Middle Ages In1000 years – People believed that Christianity was true. “Was there a contradiction between the Bible and reason or were the belief and knowledge compatible?”
Middle Ages St. Augustine of Hippo 354 to 430 Was born in the little town of Thagaste in North Africa He went to Carthage to study He was a Manichean He was influenced by Stoic Philosophy
Middle Ages “Absence of God is Evil” Evil comes from man’s disobedience St. Augustine divides people into two groups in his work City of God. A struggle between the Kingdom of God and Kingdom of the World They struggle for mastery inside every single person
Middle Ages St. Thomas Aquinas 1225 to 1274 From the little town of Aquino Worked as a teacher at the University of Paris Used Aristotelian Philosophy combined with theological principles Man’s need should be satisfied by the state Man’s self sufficiency and satisfaction can be acquired at the end of his life Responsibilities of the State are only subordinates of the responsibilities of the church
Middle Ages St.Thomas of Aquinas made the Summa Theologica. Complete scientific exposition of theology and the summary of Christian philosophy.
Renaissance Humanism – new view of mankind Throughout the whole medieval period, the point of departure had always been God. Characterized as individualism We are unique individuals Renaissance man – a man of universal genius.
Renaissance Man did not exist purely for God’s sake. Man could therefore delight in life here and now. Reawakened
Renaissance Economics Transitionfrom subsistence economy to monetary economy Lively commerce and goods Banking Cities grew and prospered during the Renaissance and rulers learned to tax the people.
Renaissance Figures Francis Bacon Used empirical method The view that experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge. “Knowledge is power” allknowledge of matters of fact derives from experience and that the mind is not furnished with a set of concepts in advance of experience
Renaissance Figures Galileo Galilei – One of the greatest natural philosophers/ scientist in the history of empirical and mathematical science First concepted the law of inertia A body will preserve its velocity and direction so long as no force in its motions direction acts on it. Inertia: an object in a state of motion possesses an ``inertia that causes it to remain in that state of motion
Renaissance Figures Galileo Galilee invented the thermometer he was the first to use the telescope to study the heavens systematically He also promulgated the theory that Earth and other planets in our solar system revolve around the Sun.
Renaissance Figures Isaac Newton Provided the final description of the solar system and planetary orbits. Formulated the Law of Universal Gravitation Thereis a gravitational force acting between any two objects in the universe. There is a gravitational force between you and Earth
Renaissance Figures Isaac Newton Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem.
Renaissance Figures Leonardo Da Vinci archetype of the "Renaissance man", a man whose seemingly infinite curiosity was equaled only by his powers of invention. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.
Renaissance Figures Leonardo Da Vinci He conceptualized helicopter tank concentrated solar power calculator double hull
Renaissance Figures Leonardo Da Vinci’s Paintings/Works The Last Supper Vitruvian Man Mona Lisa
Reformation The Renaissance resulted in a new religiosity. The individual’s personal relationship to God was now more important than his relationship to the church as an organization. Reformation – Changing or protesting the structure of the Roman Catholic Church
Reformation Martin Luther – Led the reformation Made the 95 theses “People did not need the intercession of the church or its priest in order to receive God’s forgiveness” The scripture alone Translated the bible into German
Reformation Reasons on why it happened? Black Plague Printing Press Western Schism Fall of the Eastern Roman Empire