Cleaning up Gasification Producer Gas for Use in an IC Engine

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  • Gasification: Reacting the raw material, such as house waste, or compost at high temperatures with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam. The resulting gas mixture is called synthesis gas or syngas and is itself a fuel. Gasification is a method for extracting energy from many different types of organic materials. The advantage of gasification is that using the syngas is potentially more efficient than direct combustion of the original fuel because it can be combusted at higher temperatures or even in fuel cells, so that the thermodynamic upper limit to the efficiency defined by Carnot's rule is higher or not applicable.
  • Cleaning up Gasification Producer Gas for Use in an IC Engine

    1. 1. Cleaning Up Gasification ProducerGas for Use in an IC Engine Presented April 25th, 2012 NAWTEC 20
    2. 2. Overview• Gasification / IC Engines• The Conditioning Challenge• Technical Approach• Results / Lessons Learned
    3. 3. Gasification• Power via Gasification – Drivers • Closing landfills • Increased difficulty obtaining new landfill permits • Tipping Fees increasing • Green Power – Convert opportunity fuel sources to energy (e.g. MSW,RDF) • Reduces material to a landfill by 90% volume
    4. 4. Internal Combustion (IC) Engines• Compact Power and Heat Generation• Relatively Fast Fabrication Cycle• Easy to Monetize Under a Lease Option
    5. 5. The Challenge?• IC Engines Need a Conditioned Gas Source (representative numbers, based on 10 kW-hr of power generated) – Particulate Matter (PM) <50 mg (under 3 microns) – Acid Gas / Halogens <20 mg – Oxides of Sulfur <200 mg – Tar Dewpoint: 5 C below inlet gas temperature – Minimal Heavy Metal Carryover
    6. 6. Particulate Matter PM2.5 Human Hair <2.5 micron 70 micron PM10 <10 micronFine Beach Sand 90 micron
    7. 7. Acid Gases / Halogens• HCl and traces of HF produced in the combustion of biomass fuels that may contain Chlorine: – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) – Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) – plastics, pvc, etc.• HCl is water soluble and can be wet scrubbed• Hydrochloric Acid formed in the presence of moisture
    8. 8. Sulfur– Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) • formed from sulfur compounds found in MSW, and RDF • vapor phase in the syngas • relatively high solubility in water, can be scrubbed • will oxidize into SO2 in the presence of oxygen, temperature– Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) • formed from sulfur compounds found in MSW, and RDF • vapor phase in the syngas • not very soluble in water • undesirable properties-can spontaneously combust
    9. 9. Tar Dewpoint• Syngas is rich in trace long chain hydrocarbons• Small temperature reductions = Tar Precipitation
    10. 10. Technical Approach• Tar Removal Scrubber• Dual Field WESP• Gas Conditioning Exchanger
    11. 11. Tar Removal Scrubber• Condenses Tars Using Vegetable Oil• Tars are Separated from Oil Inventory• Key is Preventing Foaming, Oil Degradation
    12. 12. Dual Field Wet ESP Approach 1. Quench 2. Spray Tower 3. Downflow WESP 4. Acid Scrubber 5. Upflow WESP 6. Outlet
    13. 13. Basic WESP Operation
    14. 14. WESP-2F Technology• Inlet quench duct – High efficiency syngas saturation – Concurrent, full cone design – Large particulate scrubbed
    15. 15. WESP-2F Technology• Spray Tower Pre-Scrubber – Acid gas HCl, H2S adsorption – Counter-current spray design – Integrated mist elimination
    16. 16. WESP-2F Technology• Ultra-Fine Atomizing Spray System – Add sub-micron water droplets to syngas – Continuous WESP wash – Operator / maintenance access
    17. 17. WESP-2F Technology• WESP Field #1 – PM/PM10/PM2.5 and acid gas removal – Downflow design
    18. 18. WESP-2F Technology• Horizontal Acid Gas Scrubber – Horizontal flow design
    19. 19. WESP-2F Technology• WESP Field #2 – PM/PM10/PM2.5 and fine acid particle removal – Upflow demisting design
    20. 20. WESP-2F Technology• Control / Pump Skid – Dual pumps for uptime guarantee – Pre-pipe / pre-wired for easy install – Single interface for complete system control
    21. 21. Results• WESP-2F Test Unit » 1600 Nm3/hr delivered at 30 C• PM <30-40 mg per 10kW-hr• Halogens <2 mg per 10 kW-hr• Sulfur <200 mg per 10 kW-hr excluding COS• Tar Dewpoint 20 C• Gas Value 0.85 to 1.0 kW-hr per Nm3/hr• Ongoing engineering tests with commercial gasifier –WESP-2F Test Unit at Gasifier Location
    22. 22. Lessons Learned• Separation of Tar from Scrubbing Solution• Foaming• COS is Challenging• Calorific Energy in Treated Gas Marginal for IC Engine• Bio-Based Chemicals?
    23. 23. ConclusionBradley L. GingerEngineering Product ManagerEISENMANN Corporationp: 815.356.2633e: bradley.ginger@eisenmann.com

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