Biomass to Steam - The Environmental Challenge


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Biomass to Steam - The Environmental Challenge

  1. 1. Biomass to Steam: TheEnvironmental Challenge Presented April 18th, 2012 BBI International Biomass Conference
  2. 2. Overview• Making Green Power Via Gasification• The Environmental Challenge• Technical Approach• Results / Lessons Learned
  3. 3. The Project Objective• Produce 360,000 lb/hr of 850 psig steam• 60 MW worth of Electricity• Over the Fence line Agreement with Chemical Plant to Take 90% of Energy Generated
  4. 4. Why Gasification?•Demand for low cost energy from alternative sourcesincreasing• Woody biomass• Agricultural byproducts• Refuse derived fuel• Spent tires• Carpet fibers• Automotive shredder residue•Reduced burden on landfills• Creating energy while reducing waste
  5. 5. The Environmental Challenge?– Projected Environmental Permitting in State of Michigan Required Emissions to Be Equivalent to a Similar Sized Natural Gas Facility– Challenge of Varied Fuel Needs Versus Absolute Requirements of Stack Emissions on TPY Basis
  6. 6. Multi-Pollutants• Alternative energy sources pose potential pollution problems – Particulate Matter – Acid Gas/Mist (HCl, H2SO4) – SOx – NOx – Mercury (Hg) – Metals
  7. 7. Particulate Matter• What is Particulate Matter? » Mixture of air-borne particles and liquid droplets composed of acids, water, organic chemicals, and metals » PM10, PM2.5
  8. 8. HCl• HCl gas produced from fuels that may contain Chloride: » Solid waste (MSW, RDF) » Plastics• Hydrochloric Acid formed in the presence of liquid water• Environmental / Health Hazards » Corrosive
  9. 9. SOX• Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) & Sulfur Trioxide (SO3) » SO3 Forms Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) aerosol with moisture• Generated as a result of combustion of fuels that contains Sulfur » Solid waste (MSW, RDF) O S O » Tires » Cardboard O » Plastics H H• Environmental / Health Hazards O » Acid Rain S S O O O O
  10. 10. NOX• Nitric Oxide (NO) & Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)• Produced during combustion at high temperatures » Nitrogen in air » Small amounts of nitrogen in biomass fuels• Environmental / Health Hazards » Forms acid rain » Creates smog » Depletes the ozone layer N O O O N
  11. 11. Mercury (Hg)• Mercury exists in different forms: » Elemental Mercury (Hg, Hg0, Hg2+) – vapor phase, reactive » Mercuric Oxide (HgO) – solid particulate » Mercuric Chloride (HgCl2) – vapor, water soluble• Generated from solid waste incineration• Environmental / Health Hazards » Toxic
  12. 12. Technology Alternatives Dry Fabric Dry Wet Scrubber Filter ESP Scrubber Acid Gas Acid Mist* Hg Moisture PM2.5 Metals *Acid mist refers to condensed aerosols (< 1micron) which include HCl and H2SO4.
  13. 13. Single System Approach
  14. 14. Dual Field Wet ESP Approach 1. Quench 2. Spray Tower 3. Downflow WESP 4. Acid Scrubber 5. Upflow WESP 6. Outlet
  15. 15. Basic WESP Operation
  16. 16. WESP-2F Technology• Inlet quench duct – High efficiency syngas saturation – Concurrent, full cone design – Large particulate scrubbed
  17. 17. WESP-2F Technology• Spray Tower Pre-Scrubber – Acid gas HCl, H2S adsorption – Counter-current spray design – Integrated mist elimination
  18. 18. WESP-2F Technology• Ultra-Fine Atomizing Spray System – Add sub-micron water droplets to syngas – Continuous WESP wash – Operator / maintenance access
  19. 19. WESP-2F Technology• WESP Field #1 – PM/PM10/PM2.5 and acid gas removal – Downflow design
  20. 20. WESP-2F Technology• Horizontal Acid Gas Scrubber – Horizontal flow design
  21. 21. WESP-2F Technology• WESP Field #2 – PM/PM10/PM2.5 and fine acid particle removal – Upflow demisting design
  22. 22. WESP-2F Technology• Control / Pump Skid – Dual pumps for uptime guarantee – Pre-pipe / pre-wired for easy install – Single interface for complete system control
  23. 23. Results• System Permitted for NOx Reduction Via Selective Catalytic Reduction Followed by WESP• Liquid Blowdown to Be Evaporated and Discharged as Solids with Gasifier Bottom Solids• Permit Approved by State of MI in late Dec, 2011. –WESP-2F Test Unit at Gasifier Location
  24. 24. ConclusionBradley L. GingerEngineering Product ManagerEISENMANN Corporationp: 815.356.2633e: