TALKING POINTS:46 States and the District of Columbia have adopted the Common Core State StandardsMost states are committed to implementing the standards by the 2014-2015 school year
TALKING POINTSGraphic depiction of the assessment system. The system includes a suite of assessments and tools that, taken together, provide a more complete picture of student mastery of standards and progress throughout the year than is currently available on state assessments.Considerations Leading to 2 optional assessments: The cost of the assessmentsFlexibility on when to administer the optional assessmentsThe amount of testing time needed to administer the assessmentsPossible disruption to school schedules caused by through-course assessment preparation and administrationConstraints the distributed design might have on the flexibility of state and local educators to sequence instruction of the CCSS and to implement their own benchmark and formative assessment initiativesThe PARCC assessment system will:Reflect the sophisticated knowledge and skills found in the English and math Common Core State StandardsInclude a mix of item types (e.g., short answer, richer multiple choice, longer open response, performance-based)Make significant use of technologyInclude testing at key points throughout the year to give teachers, parents and students better information about whether students are on track or need additional support in particular areasTaken together, the PARCC assessment components comprise a comprehensive system of assessments that will provide timely information to teachers throughout the year, and provide students with meaningful information about their progress toward college and career readiness
This can be illustrated by exploring the spiral.
Handouts: Sample Assessment Items
Handouts: Tracking a Standard in Reading and Writing
Handouts: Tracking a Standard in Reading and Writing
The tools for measuring text complexity are at once useful and imperfect. Each of the qualitative and quantitativetools described above has its limitations, and none is completely accurate.
Handout: Douglass Text
Handout: Text/Task Analysis
CCSS Overview For Teacher Educators
Common Core State Standards An Occasion for Change Eileen Murphy Buckley May 10, 2012
What do you know or want to know about CCSS?Use post-its to complete a K-W-Now What? Stick them on the chart papers.I know, I know, but it is kind of helpful for me to get a sense of the room
Today’s Key QuestionsWhat are the expectations of the Common CoreState Standards in English Language Arts &Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, andTechnical Subjects? (The Standards andAssessments)How can we begin an exploration of thestandards in schools? (Exploring Strategies)What might the application of standards look likein practice, particularly in text and taskselection? (Strategies for Supporting theCommon Core Adoption in Teacher Education
Why New Standards?Students are not reading at levels sufficientfor college and career readiness in contentareas.Only slightly more than half(53%) of the members of the 47%2009 high school graduating Notclass were ready for college-Readylevel and workplace training–level reading.
What is “College Readiness?”The level of preparation a studentneeds to be ready to enroll andsucceed without remediation in anentry-level, credit bearing course(in each content area) at a two-yearor four-year institution, tradeschool, or technical school.
Who Should be Worried about “College Readiness?” College readiness IS for EVERY ONE!
What We Know So Far New StandardsNew Assessments
Common Core State Standards DevelopmThe Common Core State Standards Initiative is astate-led effort coordinated by the NationalGovernors Association Center for Best Practices(NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State SchoolOfficers (CCSSO).The standards were developed in collaboration withteachers, school administrators, and experts toprovide a clear and consistent framework to prepareour children for college and the workforce.
46 States + DC Have Adopted the Common Core State Standards*Minnesota adopted the CCSS in ELA/literacy only
PARCCPartnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers An alliance of made up of states representing half of the country working to develop a common set of K–12 assessments in English and Math (Beginning in 2014) PARCC Assessment System will include: Multiple-choice, short answer, open response, and performance based items
PARCC Assessment Design English Language Arts/Literacy and Mathematics, Grades 3-11 Optional Assessments/Flexible Administration Diagnostic Assessment Mid-Year Assessment • Performance-based Performance-Based End-of-Year• Early indicator of student knowledge and • Emphasis on hard-to- Assessment (PBA) Assessment skills to inform measure standards • Extended tasks • Innovative, computer- instruction, supports, an • Potentially summative • Applications of concepts based items d PD and skills ELA - Speaking And Listening Assessment • Locally scored Summative, • Non-summative, required Interim, optional Required assessment assessment
PARCC Assessment SystemPARCC’s computer-based assessments will: Produce real-time snapshots of students’ knowledge. Give parents, students and teachers the ability to adjust accordingly rather than waiting until the end of theschool year when it’s too late to make changes.PARCC assessments will be scored: By a combination of artificial intelligence (AI) andhuman scoring. States will individually determine the extent to whichteachers will be involved in scoring.
Leading the Discussion: Strengths of CCSSAligned with college and work expectations. Include rigorous content and application of knowledge through higher order skills.Build upon strengths and lessons of currentstate standards. Informed by top-performing countries, so that all students are prepared to succeed in our global economy and society; and,Evidence and/or researched-based.
Key Advances:ELA and Literacy in Content AreasReading: Balance of literature and informational texts + Text complexityWriting: Emphasis on argument and informative/explanatory writing + Writing about SourcesSpeaking and Listening: Inclusion of formal and informal talkLanguage: Stress on general academic and domain specific vocabularyStandards for reading and writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects: Complement rather than replace content standards*Mathematical Practices Standards also include Argument SHIFTS RESPONSIBILITY for TEACHING with TEXT to ALL TEACHERS
Anchor Standards: Clear Simple TargetsAnchor standards for Reading and Writing acrossgenres and subject areas allow students to developmutually reinforcing skills, required across a range oftexts and classroomsReading and Writing standards are closely tied tothe standards for listening and speaking.21st Century skills in research and technology,particularly regarding the interpretation andproduction of multi-media texts are also featured.
Key Grade Band Features K-5 Foundational Skills (Print Concepts, Phonological Awareness, Phonics and Word Recognition, and Fluency) 6-12 Literacy in History/SocialStudies, Science, and Technical Subjects
How Can This Make More Kids CollegeReady?: Sample Assessment TasksExplore the sample assessment items.What claims can we make about the differences between current assessments and CCSS? Talk with your partner first Talk with your group
Grade-Specific Standards: A Spiraling StaircaseWhat students should master by theend of each grade.Students are expected to retain andfurther develop skills andunderstandings mastered inpreceding grades.
Leading the Discussion: Spiraling Standards in Reading and WritingCCR Anchor Standard 8 for Reading:―Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.‖CCR Anchor Standard 1 for Writing:―Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.‖
Tracking a Spiraling Standard Complete Tracking Activity (20-30 minutes) What variables are used to increase rigor?
Tracking a Spiraling Standard Reflection: What aspects of literacy seems to bevalued most throughout these standards?
The Staircase of Text Complexity Reader & Task
Quantitative Text ComplexityStandards recommend that multiple quantitativemeasures be used whenever possible and thattheir results be confirmed or overruled by aqualitative analysis of the text in question.Certain texts such as Poetry, Drama and K-1texts cannot accurately be measuredquantitatively .
Partner Activity: Examine Changes in LexilesText Complexity Old Lexile Ranges Lexile RangesGrade Band in the Aligned to CCRStandards ExpectationsK-1 N/A N/A2-3 450-725 450-7904-5 645-845 770-9806-8 860-1010 955-11559-10 960-1115 1080-130511-CCR 1070-1220 1215-1355
Leading the Discussion:Qualitative Text Complexity Reader & Task
Lower or Higher End of Grade Band? Examine the Text Using the Protocol for Analyzing the Qualitative Dimensions of Text ComplexityWould you place this on the lower or higher end of the 6-8 grade band?Reflection: How can you as an instructional leader facilitate these kinds of reflective discussions?
Leading the Discussion: Task &Text Complexity Reader & Task
Task Analysis Douglass’s Narrative Which of the Grade 8, ELA Standards would you practice while completing this task? Which of the6-8 Literacy Standardswould you practicewhile completing thistask?
The Special Place of Argumentation(1) Other nations pay equal attention to what students read and how they read. Explicit expectations for the range, quality, and complexity of what students read along with more conventional standards describing how well students must be able to read.(2) Students are required to write in response to sources. In several international assessment programs, students are confronted with a text or texts and asked to gather evidence, analyze readings, and synthesize content. The Standards likewise require students to ―draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research‖ (Writing CCR standard 9).(3) Writing arguments and writing informational/explanatory texts are priorities. The Standards follow international models by making writing arguments and writing informational/explanatory texts the dominant modes of writing in high school to demonstrate readiness for college
WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONSFOR TEACHER PREPARATION AND PD?
Leading the Discussion:Reader and Task &Text Complexity Reader & Task
Teachers and The Reader VariableHow Can Teachers Influence These Variables? Background Knowledge Motivation Experience
It’s Still about the Text/Task Tier I Teaching to the Match Frontload Background KnowledgeSchool Life/Real Life—The Argumentation Connection TEXT TASK
It’s Still about the Text/Task Tier I Teaching to the Match Frontload Background Knowledge School Life/Real Life!TASK TEXT
Implications for InstructionShift focus from literacy instruction tocenter on careful examination of text.Text selection: complexity, genre, andqualityTask selection: rigorous tasksSource: CARRIE HEATH PHILLIPS, COUNCIL OF CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS (CCSSO)CARRIEH@CCSSO.ORG
More Non-fiction Grades 3-5 50% Literature 50% Informational. Grades 6-12 45% Literature 55% Informational (More literary non-fiction, particularly texts build on informational text structures rather than literary non- fiction that are structured as stories such as memoirs or biographies.) Texts must be worthy of close reading.Source: CARRIE HEATH PHILLIPS, COUNCIL OF CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS (CCSSO)CARRIEH@CCSSO.ORG
Literature versus Informational TextsThink about grade and subjects levels,not ELA classes and reading blocksSlight shift toward more literarynon-fiction in ELA classesBig shift toward moretext school-wide
Scaffold Complexity-Don’t Avoid ItLots of opportunities for close reading of shorttexts at or beyond the grade level.Access to lots of accessible texts and time tochoose and read them—Increasing # of pages isessential to increasing reading ability.Productive struggle with independent reading.Challenge students to make claims and supportwith evidence from the text.
Application: Instructional Leadership in the Common Core EraCollaborate with teacher candidates and teachers to examinethreads of the common core standards as it develops overgrade levelsCollaborate with teacher candidates and teachers to examinetexts through the common core qualitative lens and use moretext in instructionCollaborate with teacher candidates and teachers toincorporate elements of argument and other rigorous activitiesinto the selection of texts and tasks#1 Common Assessment Recommendation: Collaboratively
CCSS Implementation at Your School Reflection:How might this change the focus or methodsin your teacher preparation courses or professional development? CCSS