E-learning Identification of ions and gases

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Transcript

  • 1. 1. Introducing Chemical Analysis• Qualitative analysis is used to identify chemical species (elements, compounds and ions) present in an unknown substance.• Quantitative/Volumetric analysis is used to determine the amount or concentration of these chemical species (elements, compounds and ions) present.
  • 2. 2. Use of Physical Tests to Identify Substances• Additional tests are needed to identify a substance: – Colour – Smell – Solubility in water – pHCalcium compounds Solid copper(II) Aqueous iron(III) ions areare white. sulfate is blue. yellow-orange.
  • 3. 3. Identification of IonsTesting for Cations• Cations are positively-charged ions.• Aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia can be used to identify cations in salts.• Cations can be identified: – From the colour of the precipitate, and A precipitate of zinc – If the precipitate dissolves in excess hydroxide alkali. Identifying an ammonium compound.
  • 4. Test for ammonium ions, NH4+http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b28pw1q2qdo&feature=relatedTest for calcium ions, Ca2+http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AvnLlWVOa44&feature=relatedTest for lead(II) ions, Pb2+http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPnG4OKxgEQ&feature=relatedTest for zinc ions, Zn2+http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JjPNDnoxYN4&feature=relatedTest for aluminium ions, Al3+http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3s-_0xUS-k&feature=relatedTest for copper(II) ions, Cu2+http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KLGRf4AdKQM&feature=relatedTest for iron(II) ions, Fe2+http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bivr2CzlTF4&feature=relatedTest for iron(III) ions, Fe3+http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gj7ju9wRtdY&feature=related
  • 5. Using aqueous sodium hydroxide to distinguish:sodium, potassium and ammonium ionshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kAnEzELqfjQ&feature=youtu.becalcium, aluminium, lead and zinc ionshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxOjcN_G4zg&feature=youtu.beiron(II), iron(III) and copper(II) ionshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iKQ-uPqx4n4&feature=youtu.beUsing aqueous ammonia to distinguish:sodium, potassium and calcium ionshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0lYQH4OVqA&feature=youtu.bealuminium, lead(II) and zinc ionshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UjLBaKZZ_2k&feature=youtu.beiron(II), iron(III) and copper(II) ionshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xaRPwuAOqpc&feature=youtu.be
  • 6. 3. Identification of IonsTesting for Cations
  • 7. 3. Identification of Ions Testing for Cations• Cations can be identified with aqueous sodium hydroxide.
  • 8. 3. Identification of IonsTesting for Cations• Cations can be identified with ammonia solution.
  • 9. 3. Identification of IonsTesting for Anions• Anions are negatively-charged ions.• Tests for carbonate, chloride, iodide and sulfate often involves precipitation reactions.
  • 10. 3. Identification of IonsTesting for Anions Testing for two anions: (a) carbonate and (b) iodide
  • 11. Test for carbonate ions, CO32−http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=197iyKaRhtA&feature=relatedTest for sulfate ions, SO42−http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oEXYjqSUg4g&feature=relatedTest for chloride ions, Cl−http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcQXdeL-juM&feature=relatedTest for iodide ions, I−http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lw5VUL4-O8M&feature=relatedTest for nitrate ions, NO3−http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyB5XfbSwSo&feature=channel
  • 12. Test for halides (Cl−, I−) using dilute nitric acid andaqueous silver nitratehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C2Lh48zAyqk&feature=youtu.beTest for halides (Cl−, I− ) using dilute nitric acid andaqueous lead(II) nitratehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xAsHDFfCR14&feature=youtu.be
  • 13. 4. Testing for Gases and Water Testing for Gases sulfite +acid mixture Testing for sulfur dioxide gas
  • 14. 4. Testing for Gases and WaterTesting for Water• Test liquid with a piece of blue anhydrous cobalt(II) chloride paper.• Water turns blue anhydrous cobalt(II) chloride paper pink. Test for water