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                        Language Anxiety: What it is an...
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      Inocencia Nieves                           ...
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              Moje, E. B. (2006). Motivating texts, moti...
PRTESOL-Gram Spring 2009
PRTESOL-Gram Spring 2009
PRTESOL-Gram Spring 2009
PRTESOL-Gram Spring 2009
PRTESOL-Gram Spring 2009
PRTESOL-Gram Spring 2009
PRTESOL-Gram Spring 2009
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PRTESOL-Gram Spring 2009


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PRTESOL-Gram Spring 2009

  1. 1. P R T E S O L - G R A M PRTESOL-GRAM A publication of PRTESOL: An organization concerned with the teaching of English to speakers of other languages. A Quarterly Newsletter Volume 36, Issue 1 SPRING 2009 Post-Convention Highlights Professional Articles Americanʼt Ámbar Annette Betancourt González President’s Message Page 3 Structured Supports for English Learners Page 8 Meet the New PRTESOL Board Dr. Deborah Short Page 9-11 Page 13 Qualitative Research: An Short Report on Brain Based Language Anxiety: What it is and Ethnographic Interview Study Learning Activity in Ponce and the what can be done to lessen its effect. Dr. M. Caratini Soto Northern Chapter Conference Dr. Sonia Pagan Page 6 Page 4 Page 19 PRTESOL Activities 36 Annual Convention Bringing English into the Students Summer Institute Prof. Elizabeth Kohmetscher Page 19, 22-23 Page 22 Page 20 PRTESOL President Miguel Camacho and members of the Puerto Rico TESOL board of directors promoted Puerto Rico at the TESOL Convention in Denver, Colorado. Read their report 43rd Annual TESOL Convention in Denver (p.18). From left to right: Dr. Naomi Vega, PRTESOL Treasurer; Prof. Edna C. Ortiz, former Board Member; Dr. Josue Alejandro, Member at Large; Nancy Lamberty, former Board Member; Carmen D'Cruz, PRTESOL member and Prof. Miguel Camacho, PRTESOL President (seated). Visit www.puertoricotesol.org
  2. 2. P R T E S O L - G R A M Itʼs Time to Change! The 35th Annual PRTESOL Convention has taken its rightful place in history. Teachers from all over Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic met for two exciting days of training, learning, sharing, planning, and having fun. What a joy it was to meet so many of our readers. However, we are now deep into 2009. Puerto Rico and the world are experiencing great changes. The teaching of English is experiencing changes also. Teaching English is a science (linguistics, phonology, morphology, etc). Even the changes in technology affect what and how we teach. Iʼve had students bring in their homework on an iPod, on flash drives, even a PSP. One student would not take notes (at least the way weʼre used to). He would wait until I had filled the white marker board with the lesson content, and then he would take a digital picture to download to his laptop. But TESOL is also an art. The art of communicating, of motivating reluctant students, of creating teaching and assessment materials, designing digitalized and virtual lessons, even decorating the classrooms involves applying new technologies to reach a new generation. This yearʼs theme is “Winds of Change: Teaching for Tomorrow.” We look forward to 2009 with high hopes of seeing PRTESOL grow in influence around Puerto Rico and the Caribbean helping teachers at all levels in both the science and the art of teaching English. Prof. Carmelo Arbona, PRTESOL-Gram Editor tesolgrameditor@gmail.com TESOLGRAM Advertising Are you looking for the best audience for your ESL resources? You get maximum exposure for our advertising dollar by placing your ad with Puerto Rico TESOL. ESL teaching professionals, department heads, consultants, and school administrators in both the public and private sectors will see your ad. Circulation: 1,000. To receive a consecutive run discount, the discount must request it in advance and the total amount (price in parentheses) must be paid in advance. TESOLGRAM is a periodical service to English language educators and administrators published by Puerto Rico TESOL, P. O. Box 366828, FEES FULL PAGE HALF PAGE QUARTER San Juan, PR 00936 -6828. PAGE Newsletter Staff 1. Per issue / $275 $175 $95 Editor: Carmelo Arbona single run Assistant Editor: Dr. José R. Sellas Aponte 2. (Two $249.00 $159.00 $86.00 Contributions consecutive Articles on English language teaching, theory, and education in general, issues - 10% ($498.00) ($318.00) ($172.00) creative writing, book reviews, poems, and short stories are welcome. discount) Submissions must be typewritten, double -spaced, and no longer than five pages. They should be sent in a diskette or e-mailed along with a 3. (Three $223.00 $143.00 $76.00 letter authorizing its publication. If photos are sent along with the consecutive articles they should be properly identified on the back with the name of issues - 20% ($669.00) ($429.00) ($228.00 individuals appearing in the photos. Include school affiliation; return discount) address, e -mail address, and telephone number. Articles are subject to editing for style, space, and other considerations. If photo files are sent, 4. Cover (once please send them in .jpg, .gif, or .bmp formats. inside back- $300.00 black and Copy Deadline for 2009 white) *(three *$720.00 Articles and advertising copy must be submitted by: consecutive May 1 for the summer issue, issues - 20%) August 30 for the fall (pre-convention issue) November 15 (post-convention issue) for the winter issue. Copyright Notice Bibliographies should follow APA or TESOL Quarterly style. May reproduce articles for classroom use. Quotations up to twenty - five (25) words are permitted if credit to the author and the TESOLGRAM are included. In other situations, written permission is required. 2 Visit www.puertoricotesol.org
  3. 3. P R T E S O L - G R A M The Winds of Change I am delighted and honored to serve as the 2009 President. Our 2009 convention theme is: Winds of Change: Teaching for Tomorrow. As we are all anticipating change on a national, economical and educational level, we are excited about the changes that our organization is experiencing at this very moment. One of these changes is having the support of Dr. Juan Rodríguez, the Undersecretary, and Dr. Evelyn Veguillas, the English Program Director, both of the Puerto Rico Department of Education. The only thing constant about the future is that it will continue to change. If there is one thing that we cannot and should not do, it is to stay the same. We are moving towards a competitive, complex, and diverse world. In the quot;Winds of Change,quot; we cannot always direct the wind, but we can adjust our sails and make changes in our course. How to improve and assess teaching performance is an issue of great importance to all educators. The 21st century will demand a new kind of teaching and learning. We must choose the right road and move forward. We must take some bold new steps to make fundamental changes in our teaching to guarantee the academic achievement of our students. I encourage you to join our voyage, full of winds of change, to teach for tomorrow. Prof. Miguel Camacho President, PRTESOL 2009 Duties Call for Nominations Vice-President Succeeds to the presidency upon completion of the It is never too soon to consider running. Would you current Presidentʼs term of office. like to be involved in a professional development Assists the President in organizing the Annual experience that Convention. * Gives you a perspective on ESL at all levels of the Chairs the Annual Convention Program. educational system Acts as liaison with regional chapters to coordinate the * Helps you develop tremendous leadership skills calendar of regional activities. * Provides valuable networking opportunities with ESL Serves as parliamentarian. professionals throughout the island * Enhances your resume Representatives * Informs you of and involves you in sociopolitical issues relevant to ESL and education and is fun at the same time? Represent the interests of the members in their particular professional areas. If your answer is yes, you may want to consider Promote and help organize activities and presentations nominating yourself or a colleague for a position on the for members in their professional areas. Board of Directors. Recruit possible new members for the Organization The following positions are open this year: Vice- through the promotion of different campaign initiatives. President, Secondary and Student Representative. Assist with the Annual Convention, the Summer Nominees need to be a PRTESOL member. Institute, and any other professional activities related to Please submit name, e-mail, and phone number of PRTESOL. candidate to Prof. Audy Perez at audyper2007@yahoo.com. Make a difference by becoming involved in the Board of Directors. Visit www.puertoricotesol.org 3
  4. 4. P R T E S O L - G R A M Language Anxiety: What it is and what can be done to lessen its effects. Dr. Sonia M. Pagán Cáceres UPR Bayamón Sometimes you are at your wits end because you cannot understand why your college students are afraid or anxious about speaking English in the classroom. You have tried everything under the sun and yet they still do not want to participate orally. Although the students who are in college today are more exposed to English through the media, globalization and advances in technology, the truth is that research conducted in Puerto Rico during the past decade (Caratini,1997; Cortés, 2002; Meléndez, 1997; Pagán, 2007) continues to indicate that students are still apprehensive about speaking in the English class. Language anxiety could be one reason for this apprehension. In the recent second language (L2) teaching context, one of the greatest challenges for ESL/EFL teachers is to provide students with a learner-centered, low-anxiety, and comfortable classroom environment. In their efforts to create such an environment, the issue of student anxiety and its consequent negative effects on L2 learning and performance seems to pose an even greater challenge to all language teachers, as it can potentially hamper the optimal learning and teaching from taking place in the classroom (Ohata, 2005). It becomes necessary then for ESL/EFL teachers to recognize that the first and foremost important task is to have a better understanding of the nature of student anxiety in terms of when, where, how, and why students feel anxious, before addressing effective ways of anxiety reduction (Spielmann & Radnofsky, 2001). That leads to the following question, what exactly is language anxiety? Anxiety is a common occurrence in the study of foreign [or second] language and has detrimental effects on a studentʼs ability to learn a foreign language (Horner, 2002). Anxiety is difficult to define because it can range from “an amalgam of overt behavioral characteristics that can be studied scientifically to introspecting feelings that are epistemologically inaccessible” (Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2001 p.539). It is the feeling of tension and apprehension specifically associated with second language contexts, including speaking, listening and learning. It is a distinct complex of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors related to classroom language learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process; and as a complex concept, dependent upon not only oneʼs feelings of self-efficacy but also appraisals concerning the potential and perceived threats inherent in certain situations (Pappamihiel, 2002). It inhibits the capabilities of students learning a foreign language for a variety of reasons including fear of negative evaluation, communication apprehension, and low self-concept (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986). For Gardner and MacIntyre (1993), language anxiety is the fear or apprehension learners sometimes feel when they are expected to perform in the target language in which they are not proficient. It develops from the fear an individual feels about orally communicating. It is a specialized anxiety related to language use in situations or language learning circumstances, rather than just a reflection of generalized anxiety (Daly in Horwitz & Young, 1986; Gardner & MacIntyre, 1993; Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986; Horwitz & Young, 1991). This apprehension, or anxiety, may intensify when participants communicate in the second language, especially if they believe their level of second language (L2) competence to be very low (MacIntyre et al. 1997). Studentsʼ previous language learning experiences, their motivations, and their self-concepts about language learning (Saito, Garza, & Horwitz, 1999) may also influence this anxiety. For many students, the English language class may be more anxiety-provoking than any other course they take (Campbell, Christine, & Ortiz, 1991 in Horwitz et al., 1986; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989) and may interfere with the acquisition, retention and production of the new language (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991). In the language classroom, increased levels of anxiety can have a variety of negative effects ranging from physical to emotional manifestations. Some students may sweat, tremble, suffer from heart palpitations, forget what they were going to say, and even freeze on the stop. Additionally, anxious students are less likely to volunteer answers. They will also tend to avoid difficult linguistic structures that more relaxed students would be willing to attempt. Word production of anxious students also tends to be less complex and interpretive. Such difficulties can lead some ESL teachers to assume that anxious students are not capable communicators in the second language (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991). (continued on next page) 4 Visit www.puertoricotesol.org
  5. 5. P R T E S O L - G R A M Those involved in teaching English in Puerto Rico need to recognize that language anxiety can hinder studentsʼ oral performance. For this reason, it is necessary to understand this phenomenon in order to help students alleviate feelings of anxiety so students are comfortable in class and are not afraid to speak English. Teachers must concentrate not only on the cognitive processes of their students but also on the affective or emotional areas as well because emotional well-being is a predictor of success in academic achievement (Goleman, 1995). Following Walshʼs (1991) suggestion, “ teachers should explore the diverse and multiple realities of their students, to understand the histories they bring with them and all the tensions these histories may imply. This will “help teachers to comprehend students, guide instruction, and gain insights into how it is students come to know” (p.1). By studying language anxiety, teachers will be able to recognize the types of barriers that hinder effective communication in the classroom and consider this when preparing curricula. I agree with Elaine Horwitz (in Young, 1999) , who advises teachers to make “the sincere discussion of learnersʼ feelings about language learning- their goals and their successes, as well as their fears- a fundamental part of the language classroom experience (p.xiii).” References Caratini, M.(1997). Learning English as a second language in Puerto Rico: The experiences of a small number of college level adults. Doctoral Dissertation. New York University. Casado, M. & Dereshiwsky, M.I. (2001). Foreign language anxiety of university students. College Student Journal, 35, 539-550. Cortés, C.M. (2002). The relationship between attitude, motivation, anxiety, and proficiency in English as a second language of first year university students in Puerto Rico. Dissertation. Andrews University. Gardner, R.C., & MacIntyre, P.D. (1993). On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning. Language Learning, 3, 157-194. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books. Horner, L. (2002). Fear factor: Foreign language anxiety in the secondary Spanish Program. Wake Forest University. Horwitz, E.K., Horwitz, M.B. & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language anxiety. Modern Language Journal 70, 125-132. Horwitz, E.K., & Young, D. J. (1991). Language anxiety: from theory and research to classroom implications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. MacIntyre, P. & Gardner, S. (1989). Anxiety and second language learning: Toward theoretical clarification. Language Learning, 39(1), 251-275. MacIntyre, P. & Gardner, S. (1991). Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning 41, 85-117. MacIntyre, P., Noels, K.A. & Clement, R. (1997). Biases in self-relatings of second language proficiency: The role of language anxiety. Language Learning, 47, 2, 265-287. Meléndez, A. (1997). Language learner perceptions on the circumstances and factors that contribute to oral English language anxiety in Puerto Rico Doctoral dissertation. New York University. Ohata, K. (2004). Cultural as well as personal aspects of language learning anxiety: A case study of seven Japanese individualʼs reflective accounts of language anxiety experiences in the United States. Pagán, S. (2007). Puerto Rican College Studentsʼ Perceptions of Circumstances Influencing Language Anxiety in the English Classroom. Doctoral Dissertation. Inter American University of Puerto Rico. Pappamihiel, N. E. (2002). English as a second language students and English language anxiety: issues in the mainstream classroom. Research in the Teaching of English ,36, 327- 355. Saito, Y., Garza, T.J., & Horwitz, E. (1999). Foreign language reading anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 83, 202-218. Spielman, G. & Radnofsky, M.L. (2001). Learning language under tension: New directions from a qualitative study. The Modern Language Journal, 85, 259-278 Young, D. (1999). Affect in foreign language and second language earning: A practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere. Boston: Mc Graw-Hill. Walsh, C. (1991). The tension of voices past and present: Colonization, schooling and linguistic imposition Pedagogy and the struggle for voice. New York: Bergin and Garvey. Visit www.puertoricotesol.org 5
  6. 6. P R T E S O L - G R A M Qualitative Research: An Ethnographic Interview Study Dr. M. Caratini Soto, 2009 Full Professor, Inter American University, Ponce Campus Abstract The following article presents an overview of the methodology utilized in my ethnographic study for a doctoral degree from New York University. This account describes data collection, data analysis and methods of presentation of findings in this paradigm. The purpose of this article is to present the value of qualitative research as an alternative to conduct research in other disciplines. Introduction Ethnographic interviews seek to discover the meaning of the experiences of the people from whom we want to learn (Bogden & Biklen, 2006; Ely, Anzul, Freidman, Gradner, & Steinmetz, 1994; Loftland & Loftland, 1984; Merrian, 1988; Mishler, 1991; Spradley, 1979). I conducted ethnographic interviews with five adults in a small city in the center of the island of Puerto Rico who returned to their local college and who were engaged again in basic English courses. Methodology In ethnographic interview studies an initial interview screening process is customary to give students the opportunity to know more about the study. I guaranteed students that their accounts would not be discussed with other teachers. I explained that I would protect their anonymity by using pseudonyms in the research report. I asked the participants to decide the best time and place for subsequent interviews. In addition, I asked each participant for permission to tape record the interviews and they could listen and decide if they would like to continue. Ethnographic interviews seek the words of the people we are studying, the richer the better, so we can understand their situations with increasing clarity (Ely, et al., 1994, Seidman, 2006.). This method was the major data-collection strategy of the study. Ethnographic interviews were particularly appropriate for data collection because by gathering descriptive data in the participantʼs own words, I as a searcher developed insights on how to interpret a piece of their own world (Bogdan & Biklen, 2006). As Spradley (1979) mentions, you seek to discover patterns of meaning. The interview sessions helped me to discover patterns of meaning and understand the world from their point of view, what they knew, in the way they knew it, and inferred the meaning of their experiences as I recursively collected and analyzed the data. The ongoing recursive analyses in the field log that was part of the cyclical process of doing-thinking-doing (Ely et al., 1994) was the most important guide to further probing and developing questions. Due to the importance the culture and the context play in naturalistic studies, I held the interviews in Spanish. In this way, I was able to capture the essence of the participantʼs experiences because concepts are inherent in language and they are the metaphors we live by (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980.) I transcribed the interviews and translated the portions that were relevant to the study. These translations were checked with a professional colleague. I kept them in a numbered ongoing computerized log form, and in the participantʼs exact words. I reflected on the interviews, listened to them and analyzed them so I could plan the next one. In naturalistic inquiry, all that goes on in the research process is of vital importance. Therefore, keeping a log of observations, transcripts of interviews, analyses, and documents was essential. The log is “the home of the substance that we use to tease out the meanings and reflect upon them as they evolve” (Ely et al., 1994 p. 69). In the log, I coded my data along the margins and began to make connections between emerging categories and patterns. I wrote analytic memos throughout the process for hunches and possible directions for future data collection (Holliday, 2007;Loftland & Loftland, 1984). From these data, I built my analysis. All of this information was stored in my computer and separately on drives to avoid accidental loss. Data Analysis As is characteristic of naturalistic inquiry, data collection and data analyses are concurrent and cyclical (Ely et al., 1994, Tesch, 1990). The interweaving of data collection, self-reflection, coding, and analysis directed me to the meaning-making process (Strauss & Corbin, 2008). In order to paint a picture as true to my participantsʼview as possible, so that the informants spoke for themselves, I created themes that reflected the meanings that were most evident and/ or those that were emotionally charged. A theme can be described as a statement that 6 Visit www.puertoricotesol.org
  7. 7. P R T E S O L - G R A M captures the actual words of the participants, also known as “in vivo codes” to present themes, which were followed by narratives and thematic discussions and analysis. I intended to capture my interpretations in a descriptive and interpretative account of the data in light of existing concepts and theories (Tesch, 1990, Wolcott, 1990.) In order to present these meaningful accounts, I devoted one chapter to profiles of the participants that illustrated the implicit themes. Following that, I devoted a chapter to a thematic discussion that highlighted specific themes and integrated material from each portrait specifically related to each particular theme. Trustworthiness Guba and Lincoln (1985) suggest prolonged engagement as one way to make oneʼs findings credible. Moreso, I adopted my researcherʼs stance to maintain my “detached wonder.” I collected data for two semesters and an additional year analyzing them to provide for a greater likelihood of credibility. I persisted until no new categories emerged. Participant checking is an additional technique described by Guba and Lincoln (1985) as contributing to trustworthiness. Throughout the process, I needed to verify my interpretations, reflect on the data, and develop an organizing system (Tesch, 1990). I worked to present the data, findings, interpretations, and recommendations in a coherent way. Triangulation contributed greatly to the internal validity of my study. I checked sources of data, methods and consulted research to confirm my emerging findings (Merriam, 1998). Lincoln and Gubaʼs criteria helped me to monitor my presentation of findings and make the transferability judgments I needed to provide the reader with a clear picture of the qualitative product. In the end, there were many methodological considerations about ethnography that were challenging to discover intricacies and questions provoking excitement and passion as the data was analyzed. Conclusion To conclude, ethnographic studies are a viable alternative to study the cultural context and collect data about the social setting being investigated. It is a powerful tool to describe and reconstruct the participantʼs symbolic meanings and patterns of a group of people (LeCompte & Presille, 1993; Merriam, 1998). Although this study was in the area of English education, it can be extended to other disciplines interested in the “how” and nature of the events to be understood in context. References Bogden, R. C. & Biklen, S. K. (2006). Qualitative research for education.: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston: Allyn & Bacon Ely, M., Anzul, M. Friedman, T., Gardner,D. & Steinmetz, A. (1994). Doing qualitative research: Circles within circles. Philadelphia: Farmer Press. Guba, E. & Lincoln. Y. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Holliday, A. (2007). Doing and Writing Qualitative Research. CA: Sage. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lofland, J. , & Lofland, L. (1984). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and Analysis (2nd Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Merriam, S.B., (1998). Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Mishler, E. G. (1991). Research interviewing: Context and narrative. MA: Harvard University Press. Seidman, I. Interviewing as qualitative research: a guide for researchers in Education and the Social Sciences NY: Teachers College Press. Spradley, J. (1979). The ethnographic interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (2008). Basics of Qualitative research:Techniques and Procedures for developing grounded theory.CA: Sage. Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools London: Falmer Press. Wolcott, H. F. (1990). Writing up qualitative research. CA: Sage. Visit www.puertoricotesol.org 7
  8. 8. P R T E S O L - G R A M Americanʼt (A short essay) Written by: Ámbar Annette Betancourt González Ms. Betancourt is a student of Dr. Evelyn Lugo, Eastern Chapter President Nov. 4th, 2008 The United States of America, the land of the free the home of the brave. Where people from all over the world come to pursue “The American Dream”; after all the struggle that this country has lived and seen from the Civil War to world wars, from slavery to segregation; from John F. Kennedy to Dr. King and now from 12 years of the Bush administration to the next 4 (or even 8) years of Barack Hussein Obama. Who would have believed that what Bobby Kennedy said 40 years ago (“I know that in forty years America will have an African-American President.”) would become reality exactly 40 years later (1968-2008). This is for all of those, who like me, had lost faith in the American people and American values that unlike the people here in Puerto Rico who are still needing a change instead of having a change. Well now Americans all over have had their voices heard in a cry for change; in a cry for hope. It is a great day for our country and as Obamaʼs campaign slogan says: “Yes We Can!” Yes, we can make a difference, yes, we can ban hate, yes, we can fight oppression, yes, we can love without boundaries, and yes, we can unite as our forefathers intended us to. We can unite in this melting pot of a country where as I wrote before to pursue our dreams and leave a mark in world history! To all who said Americanʼt, today the people said American (yes, I know, cheesiest line ever, but cʼmon a black man who came from nothing is our President! You cannot say that is cheesy). Finally someone who understands what struggle and hard work is, who is humble and against all odds ran a marathon to make a change… Finally… a change! Writing quotations If you would not be forgotten, as soon as you are rotten, either write things worth reading or do things worth the writing. Benjamin Franklin (1706 - 1790) No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem. Booker T. Washington (1856 - 1915) Detail makes the difference between boring and terrific writing. It’s the difference between a pencil sketch and a lush oil painting. As a writer, words are your paint. Use all the colors. Rhys Alexander, Writing Gooder, 12-09-05 True glory consists in doing what deserves to be written; in writing what deserves to be read; and in so living as to make the world happier for our living in it. Pliny The Elder (23 AD - 79 AD) There are three rules for writing the novel. Unfortunately, no one knows what they are. Somerset Maugham, The New York Times Book Review, September 30, 1984 8 Visit www.puertoricotesol.org
  9. 9. P R T E S O L - G R A M November at the Gran Meliá Resort in Río Grande. I presented a study I conducted for an undergraduate research seminar, which was titled quot;The Levels of Students' Engagement and Participation in an EFL Classroom that Promotes the Development of Critical Thinking Skills Dr. Naomi Vega, PRTESOL Treasurer Catedrática, Departamento de Educación; B.A., Brandeis University; M.Ed., City College, N.Y.; Ed.D., Universidad de Puerto Rico I have been the TESL faculty member of the Education Department at Universidad del Sagrado Corazón since 1987. My primary role there has been developing and directing professional development projects for English teachers of the public and private schools of Puerto Rico. I have given more than 250 presentations to educators and educators, at professional conferences, universities, public and privates schools in Puerto Rico, the United States, and Latin America. As a member of TESOL and PRTESOL for over 20 years, I have attended annual conventions almost every year and have been a frequent presenter at PRTESOL and MEET THE NEW PRTESOL BOARD FOR 2009 chapter conferences. Furthermore, I have served on the PRTESOL Board for more than ten years and was Miguel Camacho, PRTESOL President PRTESOL president in 2002 and Metro Chapter president I am an English educator for the Department of in 2008. In 1992, I also served as president of PRABE Education at Asunción Rodríguez de Sala High School in (Puerto Rican Association for Bilingual Education). I have Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, where at present I teach 12th also written several articles for the TESOLGRAM grade. I have taught all secondary levels for the past nine (PRTESOL publication) and was the 2008 recipient of the years. PRTESOL Marie Aloise Lifetime Achievement Award. I became involved in the board of directors of PRTESOL as the membership secretary during the years Celeste Morales 2002 and 2003. In 2003, I received an award for the quot;Most PRTESOL President Southern Chapter Valuable Board Memberquot;. In 2006 and 2007, I was the I am currently teaching in the English Department at sponsorship chairperson, and in 2007 and 2008 I worked the University of Puerto Rico – Ponce Campus. Iʼve just as the Southern Chapter President. recently retired from The Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico (PUCPR) where I had been a tenured full Dr. Gladys Pérez, professor. I taught at the College of Educations' Graduate PRTESOL Vice-President Program as well as Coordinated the Division of the Office I have been a member of PRTESOL and of Proposal Development for the College. International TESOL for more than 20 years. I have over 35 Iʼve been an ESL specialist for over 30 years. My years experience teaching English at the secondary level of doctoral degree is in Education with a specialty in the the Puerto Rico public school system and private Teaching of English as a Second Language from the universities. I have held several positions within the Puerto Interamerican University of Puerto Rico through a federally Rico Department of Education, some of which have been funded Bilingual Education Fellowship provided by the Curriculum Technician, English Zone Supervisor, Director of Department of Bilingual Education of the United States. My the State Literacy Resource Center, Director of the Master's Degree in Education, for which I received the Most Bilingual Education Program, and Director of the English Valuable Graduate Student in ESL Award in 1977, and my Program. Currently, Iʼm an English professor and the Bachelor's in Science in Secondary Education with a major Associate Dean of the School of Social and Human in English Literature and ESL. Both degrees are from the Sciences at Universidad del Este, Carolina Campus. As a Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico. member of PR TESOL, I have offered workshops at the My latest endeavors have taken me to New York Conventions. I chaired the PRTESOL Summer Institute in University where I participated in a Faculty Resource 2007 and have been the 2008 Eastern Chapter President. Network 2008 Summer Workshop on Visual Storytelling. Iʼve also been certified as a trainer by the Jensen Learning Lotty Ortiz Díaz, Group, founded by the well known educator, trainer and PRTESOL Executive Secretary: author of The Brain and Learning, Eric Jensen. Iʼve taken I am undergraduate student at Sagrado Corazón all the workshops necessary for certification and hope to University. I will graduate in May 2009 with a bachelor's complete all the requirements for graduation by next July degree in Elementary Education in English as a Second 2009. Language. Last year, I received the Pórtico Medal of My passion for teaching and motivating both Sagrado Corazón University for demonstrating outstanding students and teachers has only been surpassed by my faith academic achievement. Iʼm currently a student teacher at in doing what the Lord wants and placing my life, family, Luis Muñoz Rivera Elementary School in Santurce teaching and ideals in His hands. a fifth-grade class. With the support and mentorship of Dr. Naomi Vega Nieves, I was a co-presenter at the 35th Annual PRTESOL Convention that took place last Visit www.puertoricotesol.org 9
  10. 10. P R T E S O L - G R A M Inocencia Nieves Education of Puerto Rico within my district. I advocate for PRTESOL Department of Education Representative the implementation of English immersion schools within the I have a B.A. in English from the University of Department of Education of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico, and a Master of Arts in Education/Curriculum and Instruction-English as a Second Language from the Elizabeth Jiménez Rodríguez, University of Phoenix. Also, I have credits towards a PRTESOL Elementary School Representative certification as a Reading Specialist in English. I have a B.A. in Secondary Education specializing in As an active PRTESOL member since my university English teaching and a minor in Literature from the Inter years, I have been secretary, vice-president, and president American University, Aguadilla Campus. I also possess a of Metro Chapter for several years; and various positions Masters Degree in English Education from UPR, Mayaguez on the PRTESOL Board including the 33rd President of Campus. I have taken 10 courses with the Scholastic Red PRTESOL in 2006. At present I hold the Department of Program in order to qualify as an English Reading Education Representative position. Specialist. I have been working with the Dept. of Education for I have been an active member of PRTESOL for the the past 36 years teaching English at all levels. At present I past 14 years as part of the directorʼs board for the Western am the Advanced English teacher at Luz America Calderón TESOL Chapter. High School in Carolina, and I have also taught at the At present, I work at the Superintendentʼs office as university level in various universities in Puerto Rico. the Districtʼs English Program Facilitator. I am convinced that through this position, I will be able to help all 80 Auda I. Pérez Vázquez English teachers in the 23 schools in my district succeed in Nominations Chair English teaching. I am a professor at Secundaria Amalia Marín in Rio The teaching of English in Puerto Rico has always Piedra Heights and at UNE Carolina Campus. I hold a BA been my priority throughout the years, but my main and in Secondary Teaching with a major in English as a Second most important priority in life has been my family. I have Language and an MA in Curriculum and Teaching in TESL been happily married for the past 20 years and I have three from Pontifical Catholic University, Ponce Campus. I was beautiful daughters, Karla Natalia, Katiria Nicole, and Kiara President of PRTESOL 2007. Liz. They are the ones that inspire and motivate me to continue working hard towards the goal of making this Carla Rodríguez world a better one by providing the best education possible. PRTESOL President - Northern Chapter Undergraduate Student at Inter American University, Evelyn Lugo Morales, PRTESOL President - Eastern Arecibo Chapter I was born in 1979 in Everett, Washington. I have Evelyn Lugo Morales has a doctoral degree in traveled all over the states studying in different schools, Education in Teaching English as a Second Language from making Derry, New Hampshire the place that most the University of Puerto Rico. She has 30 years of teaching influenced my learning experience. I graduated from high and administrative experience and has been an educational school in Puerto Rico in 1997 and went to college to UPR consultant for the past 10 years. As an educator, she has Mayaguez, but took a break after two years to raise a taught in both primary and secondary levels in public and family. I later on moved to Hatillo, where I currently reside. I private schools. At the present time, Dr. Lugo teaches am studying at the Interamericana University in Arecibo undergraduate and graduate courses at the Universidad del finishing my bachelors degree in Teaching English as a Este in Carolina. Second Language at the secondary level. I am doing my Dr. Evelyn Lugo is currently working in various student practice this semester and graduating in May God projects as President of Delta Kappa Gamma International willing. I have been involved with PRTESOL for the last for Women Educators which is an organization that support two years and hope to make it for 20 more. the effort of women educators in their quest for excellence in education. Nancy González Montalvo PRTESOL Private School Representative Denise Ferrer, PRTESOL President - Caguas Chapter With six years experience teaching the English Greetings to all and a happy new year. My name is language in elementary school, Iʼm a true believer in Prof. Denise M. Ferrer Lizardi and I have been teaching professional development. I have been participating in ESL for the past 21 years from elementary to secondary multiple seminars and special trainings, continuously. I level. I have a Masters Degree In ESL and currently teach have a bachelor degree in Telecommunications and three at Diego Vazquez Elementary School. I have been a yearsʼ studies completing the needed credits for Teacher TESOL member for 16 years since 1992, and been a direct Certification. Iʼm also a full time mother of two girls and a part of TESOL Caguas Chapter occupying different loving wife. Member of PRTESOL since 2003. positions (1992 secretary, 1993 president, 1994 president, I will motivate English teachers in PR to participate 1998 treasurer, 2002 president, 2008 vice-president). This in the PRTESOL seminars and help introduce new and year I am honored once again to serve this organization as innovative teaching techniques in the classroom. president of TESOL Caguas Chapter. God bless you. Prof. Enrique Chaparro, PRTESOL Western Chapter David García, I worked as the 2008 PRTESOL Treasurer, and Iʼve PRTESOL Publisher Liaison worked in the ESL field for 12 years. Iʼve served as David García is publisher liaison with Puerto Rico academic advisor for schools in the private sector, which TESOL. He began his service to PR TESOL in 2008. David have English-based instruction, and also collaborated in the is the ESL Specialist in Puerto Rico for Cambridge implementation of an English Program in the Department of University Press, and also teaches conversational English 10 Visit www.puertoricotesol.org
  11. 11. P R T E S O L - G R A M courses at Caribbean University and at MBTI Business treasurerʼs position in 1992. I had the privilege of attending Training Institute. He holds a BA in education and teacher the first week long PRTESOL Summer Institute back in certification, and has also taught 5th grade math and 1982. This year I am on the Metro Chapter Board. I have science in English, as well as music. given several presentations at the PRTESOL and TESOL David is also a published author, and sells and Conventions over the last 8 years and written several distributes his own publication 'Fairy Tales of Puerto articles for the TESOLGRAM. In the 1980ʼs, I also gave a Rico' (Taino Press, 2005) to bookstores throughout Puerto workshop as part of the first PRTESOL Dominican Republic Rico and the U.S. mainland. It's Spanish translation, outreach activity. 'Cuentos Favoritos de Puerto Rico', was recognized by As a PRTESOL Board member, I will give my best Criticas Magazine in August 2007 as one of the 'Top Picks to support and give publicity to the organization in all for Hispanic Heritage Month'. In his spare time, he plays forums and fulfill all the responsibilities of this position. I music with the 'Conjunto PR TESOL'. firmly believe in lifelong professional development and hold to the vision and mission of being the best teachers of Dr. José R. Sellas Aponte, PRTESOL Immediate Past English here and everywhere we go. We are blessed with President the most noble and rewarding career: that of molding the I have been in the ESL teaching profession for over minds and influencing the future citizens and leaders in our 25 years. I have a B.A. in TESL Secondary Education from society. Inter American University of Puerto Rico, San Germán Campus, May 1985. I have an M.A. in Applied Linguistics in Dr. John H. Steele, PRTESOL Higher Education TESL form Inter American University, San Germán Representative Campus, May 1988. I have a Doctoral Degree in Dr. John Steele is 60 years old and has lived in Curriculum Development in TESL, University of Puerto Puerto Rico since 1971. He has been married for almost 40 Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, May 2000. I am certified as an years to a now retired elementary English teacher. He has ESL Teacher at both the Elementary and Secondary levels three daughters and six grandchildren. He and his wife by the Department of Education, Puerto Rico. I also have a have been living in Moca since 1973. license as an English Zone Supervisor. I am a tenured Dr. Steele graduated from IAU-Ramey with a BA in Associate Professor at Inter American University of Puerto Secondary Education/TESOL in 1975 and obtained his Rico, San Germán Campus. MAE in TESL from IAU-San Germán in 1977. He has post I have been a member of PRTESOL for over fifteen MA studies at both IAU and UPR-Mayaguez. He graduated years. I have been part of the PRTESOL Board of Directors from Indiana University of Pennsylvania with a Ph.D. in for four years. I have held the following positions on the English (Rhetoric and Linguistics) in 2002. PRTESOL Board of Directors; President 2008, Vice- Dr. Steele has over 30 years experience in teaching President 2007, and Western Chapter President 2006. This ESL, most (30+) at the UPR-Aguadilla and 5 years at IAU- year 2009, I am serving as Immediate Past President. Ramey and IAU-Aguadilla. He currently teaches I have been part of the Western PRTESOL Board Introduction to Linguistic Theory, Teaching Writing, and for eight years. I have held the following positions at the courses in instructional technology for the Bachelor of Arts Regional level; President 2006, Vice President 2005, and in Education with a Major in English with Multimedia Member-At-Large 2004. Technology offered at UPR-Aguadilla. He has been a I have been an active member of the Global TESOL member of PR-TESOL for 25 years and president of the Organization for six years. I have attended four Global Western chapter on three different occasions. TESOL Conventions in the United States. I am extremely proud of being an ESL Professional that is committed to Eric Otero, Excellence in Language Teaching for our Island. PRTESOL Webmaster Eric Otero possesses a PhD in Language, Literacy Manuel Echevarría and Learning from Fordham University. Currently, Dr. Otero PRTESOL Student Representative is a full time professor of English as a Second Language I am a Jr. high school English teacher in San Juan, (ESL) at the Bayamon Campus of Inter American Puerto Rico. I have also worked at high school and University. He has 30 years experience in both the public elementary levels. Iʼm also implementing a reading and private sectors of Puerto Rico. He has served as a intervention program of the Department of Education of teacher, teacher trainer, researcher, grant writer, and Puerto Rico, with students of seventh and eighth grade. administrator, among other endeavors. His interests and The teacher has 11 years of experience in a private and commitment in the field of educational technology have led different public schools in his home town. him to create many computerized instructional models to I did my Bachelor degree at Universidad de Puerto strengthen instruction. He has also designed and Rico in Río Piedras. Also, Iʼve participated in many implemented a host of online courses at the university professional development activities regarding my field. level. At PRTESOL, Dr. Eric Otero has designed and Currently, Iʼm engaged soing a Masters degree at the edited the PRTESOL website as the Webmaster for the Universidad del Este in Carolina. past seven years. Josué Alejandro PRTESOL Member at large I have been a member of PRTESOL for the past 28 years with 35 years experience teaching English at all levels in the Puerto Rico public school system and public and private universities. Currently, I am a full professor at the University of Puerto Rico -Rio Piedras Campus. I was a member of the PR TESOL Board for 6 years and held the Visit www.puertoricotesol.org 11
  12. 12. P R T E S O L - G R A M For all the Convention information contact any of the following persons or visit our website www.puertoricotesol.org Membership Yanitsie eistynaj2002@yahoo.com Exhibitors Naomi nvega@sagrado.edu Registration Naomi nvega@sagrado.edu Information Lottie lotty.ortiz@gmail.com Call for Presentations Submit by May 29, 2009 to Dr. Gladys Perez at gperez16@gmail.com Call for Nominations Submit to Prof. Audy Perez at audyper2007@yahoo.com Early Bird Registration Postmark by September 1, 2009 Hotel Reservation Hilton Ponce Golf and Casino http://www.hilton.com/en/hi/groups/personalized/PNCHIHH- PRTA09-20091119/index.jhtml tel. 787-259-7676 X 5201 Download Convention forms at: www.puertoricotesol.org Awards and Scholarships for PRTESOL Members http://www.puertoricotesol.org/ membership/Awards2009.pdf 12 Visit www.puertoricotesol.org
  13. 13. P R T E S O L - G R A M Keynote Speaker: Deborah J. Short, Ph. D., will be our keynote speaker at this yearʼs PRTESOL convention. Dr. Short directs Academic Language Research & Training, a professional consulting company, and works with schools, districts, and states, providing professional development on sheltered instruction and academic literacy to teachers around the U.S. and abroad. She is also a senior research associate at the Center for Applied Linguistics where she co-developed the SIOP Model and has directed research on English language learners for the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Education, among others. She is currently studying newcomer programs and the SIOP Model in middle school science classrooms. She chaired an expert panel on adolescent ELL literacy and co-authored the policy report, Double the Work. Publications include research articles in professional journals, such as TESOL Quarterly, Journal of Educational Research, Educational Leadership, Education and Urban Society and Journal of Research in Education; books on the SIOP Model; and four ESL series for K-12 students. Previously, she taught ESL and EFL in New York, California, Virginia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Structured Supports for English Learners by Dr. Deborah J. Short For educators of students who are English learners (ELs), the goal is twofold: to accelerate their development of academic English and to strengthen their content knowledge. Research has shown that ELs both improve their academic English skills and learn more of the content of school subjects through this integrated instructional approach (Echevarria, Short, & Powers, 2006; Lindholm-Leary & Borsato, 2006). When EL students participate in a program of systematic instruction and assessment that provides them with access to solid, research-based curricula and that also advances their academic language and literacy skills, they can succeed in school and beyond. Understanding English Learners in Middle School Most English learners in middle school are already on the path to academic literacy. They are not stalled; rather, they are making steady progress. Second-language acquisition, however, takes time—and requires understanding of what EL students bring to our classrooms. Some English learners arrive in the United States without literacy in their native language. Yet often they are placed in the classrooms of teachers who lack training in how to teach basic literacy skills to adolescents (Rueda & García, 2001). These newcomers need a developmental program of language and literacy with direct instruction in vocabulary, grammar and the fundamentals of reading and writing. Other ELs have grown up in the U.S., but for reasons such as family mobility, sporadic school attendance, or limited access to ELD, ESL, or bilingual instruction, they have not developed the degree of academic literacy required for reading and understanding middle school texts or for interacting productively in instruction with teachers and classmates. Some of these students may need a targeted intervention. Still other ELs enter middle school with strong native-language literacy skills. These students have a strong foundation that can facilitate their academic English growth as their prior knowledge and aspects of their literacy abilities can transfer from the native language to the new one. What, then, do ELs from all these different backgrounds need as they move through the middle school years? Explicit Instruction in English Vocabulary and Structures We know that the connections between language, literacy, and academic achievement grow stronger as students progress through the grades (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004; Kamil, 2003), and that the development of proficiency in academic English is a complex process for adolescent ELs. Middle school ELs must develop literacy skills for each content area in their second language as they simultaneously try to comprehend and apply content area concepts through that second language (García & Godina, 2004; Genesee, Lindholm- Leary, Saunders, & Christian, 2006). Therefore, Visit www.puertoricotesol.org 13
  14. 14. P R T E S O L - G R A M even while we focus on developing literacy and bolstering content area knowledge, we must provide explicit instruction in English semantics, syntax, phonology, pragmatics, and discourse levels of the language as they are applied in school. (Bailey, 2007; Dutro & Moran, 2003; Schleppegrell, 2004). Personal Connections to Learning The complexity of second language acquisition is not the only variable in becoming literate in English. Identity, engagement, motivation, and life outside school are other important factors. (Moje, 2006; Moje et al., 2004; Tatum, 2005, 2007). “Second-language acquisition takes time— and requires understanding of what EL students bring to our classrooms.” Structured Supports for English Learners Adolescents tend to engage more with text that they have chosen themselves, and they will read material above their reading level if it is of interest. Engagement and motivation increase when students can see themselves in the characters, events, and settings of the materials that they read. Self-perceptions as a strong vs. weak reader and personal goals also influence motivation. Out-of-school experiences and literacies also play an important role. Stressors outside of school—hectic home lives, work, lack of study space, peer pressures—may diminish studentsʼ interest in and ability to develop English literacy. On the other hand, positive out-of-school interactions with English literacy (through text messaging, the Internet, music, work) may strengthen their engagement with literacy practices in the classroom. The opportunity to participate in collaborative literacy activities with their classmates often heightens motivation as well. Promoting English Literacy Development: What Research Tells Us A number of recent research reports have examined more than two decades of rigorous studies of English second language development (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesee et al., 2006; Short & Fitzsimmons, 2007; Slavin & Cheung, 2003). These reports provide a great deal of valuable information about adolescent ELs and about the curricular content and instructional practices that work best to promote their academic language and literacy skills. The following are among the reportsʼ key findings: 1. Transfer of Skills Certain native-language skills transfer to English literacy, including phonemic awareness, comprehension and language-learning strategies, and native- and second-language oral knowledge. If students have opportunities to learn and maintain literacy in their native language, they may more quickly acquire English. Content that students learn through their native language is learned knowledge. They may require assistance to articulate this knowledge in English, but they do not have to relearn it. The process of transfer of knowledge from one language to another, however, is not automatic (Gersten, Brengelman, & Jiménez, 1994). It requires teachers to make explicit links to studentsʼ prior knowledge and to prompt students to make connections, using the cognitive resources they have. 2. Native Language Literacy Academic literacy in the native language facilitates the development of academic literacy in English. For example, once they have enough proficiency (e.g., vocabulary, sense of sentence structure, etc.) to engage with text, students who have learned reading comprehension strategies (e.g., finding the main idea, making inferences) in their native language have the cognitive background to use those strategies in their new language. 3. Academic English Teaching the five essential components of proficient reading—phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension (National Reading Panel, 2000)—to English learners is necessary but not sufficient for developing their academic literacy. ELs need to develop oral language proficiency and academic discourse patterns as well. These are the vocabulary and language structures that make up academic English—the language used in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Academic English allows students to participate in classroom talk, such as supporting a historical perspective or providing evidence for a scientific claim. As a corollary to this point, students benefit from the integration of all language domains—reading, writing, listening, and speaking. As they develop knowledge in one domain, they reinforce their learning in other domains. 4. Instructional Accommodations High-quality instruction for EL students is similar to high-quality instruction for native English-speaking students. However, beginning- and intermediate-level ELs need instructional accommodations and support. The National Literacy Panel (August & Shanahan, 2006) found that the impact of instructional interventions is weaker for English learners than it is for English speakers. This suggests that for ELs, interventions must include added supports or accommodations (Goldenberg, 2006). 5. Enhanced Explicit Vocabulary Development English learners need enhanced, direct vocabulary development. 14 visit www.puertoricotesol.org
  15. 15. P R T E S O L - G R A M Direct teaching of specific words can facilitate vocabulary growth and lead to increased reading comprehension for native English speakers (Beck, Perfetti, & McKeown, 1982) and for English language learners (Carlo et al., 2004). However, many middle school ELs need to learn many more vocabulary words than teachers have time to teach. As a result, specific-word instruction must be supplemented with explicit instruction in strategies for word learning, such as contextual and morphemic (word part) analysis. For some ELs, these strategies should include ways for them to identify and use native-language cognates to figure out English words. Helping ELs develop knowledge of words, word parts, and word relationships is crucial if they are to understand topics in the content areas well enough to increase both their academic knowledge and reading comprehension (Graves, 2006). Designing Appropriate Curriculum for ELs Comprehensive literacy instruction programs for English learners must incorporate the following elements: o lesson objectives that are based on state content and language standards o explicit attention to academic, cross-curricular vocabulary and subject-specific terminology o strategic, developmental reading instruction tied to a wide range of expository and narrative texts o explicit writing instruction o listening and speaking/discourse instruction o grammar instruction o teaching practices that both tap studentsʼ prior knowledge and build background for learning about new topics o explicit instruction in learning strategies o instruction in common content area tasks o comprehension checks and opportunities for review In effective programs, we see teachers using specific techniques, such as those in the SIOP Model for sheltered instruction (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008), to make the presentation of new content comprehensible for English learners. For example: o Teachers make the standards-based, lesson objectives explicit to the students, utilizing realia, pictures, and video clips to help students visualize the content. o Before moving into a reading or a writing activity, teachers activate studentsʼ prior knowledge and link to past learning, tapping studentsʼ current abilities in their native language. They preteach vocabulary, and build background appropriate to the content and task at hand. o Knowing that typical lecture practices are not effective with ELs, teachers organize the presentation of information into chunks suited to studentsʼ proficiency levels, offer demonstrations, promote student-student interaction, teach note-taking skills with specific organizers, and include time for reflection. o To build competence and the ability to work independently, any new subject matter task or classroom routine is scaffolded for students by using sentence and paragraph frames graduated to studentsʼ proficiency levels. o Thus, teachers lead students, even those at differing levels of proficiency, to higher levels of understanding and independent practice. o Language skills are sequenced and taught explicitly as well as integrated into lessons on other skills so that students have every opportunity to grow their academic English. Language skills taught in one lesson are reinforced in later ones. o To ensure that learning is taking place and students are making expected progress, teachers check ELsʼ comprehension frequently during instruction. They also use multiple measures to monitor progress on a more formal basis, using assessments that accommodate the studentsʼ developing language skills and lead to timely reteaching. Applying the Research: Inside Language, Literacy, and Content Inside Language, Literacy, and Content provides all of these elements of successful instruction for ELs. The program uses state standards for language, literacy, and content as the foundation for the lesson objectives. At Levels C–E , the standards also inform the guiding questions that address topical issues like What happens when cultures cross paths? and What makes the environment so valuable? These guiding questions engage and motivate students to read and find answers. Moreover, students share ideas about the questions over the course of three major selections in each unit, which offers them opportunities to build language in context over time and to respond more thoughtfully as they gain new perspectives, information, and, in some cases, data. Lesson plans are built around techniques that are appropriate for English learners. For example, reading lessons begin with building background using pictures and videos from the National Geographic Digital Library. To promote growth in vocabulary, the program teaches both key content-related words from the reading selections Visit www.puertoricotesol.org 15
  16. 16. P R T E S O L - G R A M and important academic words and concepts, such as debate, sequence, and organize, that students can apply across content areas. It also includes a wide range of vocabulary building activities for ELs, giving them multiple opportunities to practice new words in various contexts. In addition, instructional routines for daily vocabulary practice help students use independent word-learning strategies. Academic Language Frames are used to further support ELsʼ development of language. These frames provide structure for using language to carry out academic tasks. Because the frames are graduated in language complexity, they help students of all proficiencies to participate fully in class discussions and activities. Each level includes daily lessons in English grammar and sentence structure so that students receive systematic, comprehensive language instruction. With each selection, the program targets a specific language function, such as Ask for and Give Information or Describe. Students hear multiple language models to help them see the language function in action and participate in songs, chants and other audio lessons to try out the language function in a risk-free way. In the selection lessons, students use this language function again and again. Instructional strategies are specifically designed for English learners. For example, lessons promote interaction and the use of oral language, often in cooperative learning activities. The lessons offer Multi-Level Strategies to give students at different levels of language proficiency access to the text or to support their participation in the task at hand. Conclusion Effective instruction for English learners requires both high expectations and specialized strategies to ensure success. The standards base of Inside Language, Literacy, and Content along with its structured supports, Multi- Level Strategies, and other instructional techniques designed especially for English learners allows students to accelerate their growth in language and literacy. Bibliography August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: A report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bailey, A. (Ed.) (2007). The language demands of school: Putting academic English to the test. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Beck, I. L., Perfetti, C., & McKeown, M. G. (1982). Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 506–521. Biancarosa, G., & Snow, C. (2004). Reading next: A vision for action and research in middle and high school literacy. Report to the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. Carlo, M. S., August, D., McLaughlin, B., Snow, C. E., Dressler, C., Lippman, D., Lively, T., & White, C. (2004). Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(2), 188–215. Dutro, S., & Moran, C. (2003). Rethinking English language instruction: An architectural approach. In G. G. García (Ed.), English learners (pp. 227–258). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Echevarria, J., Short, D., & Powers, K. (2006). School reform and standards-based education: An instructional model for English language learners. Journal of Educational Research, 99(4), 195–211. Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. E., & Short, D. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP® model (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. García, G. E., & Godina, H. (2004). Addressing the literacy needs of adolescent English language learners. In T. Jetton & J. Dole (Eds.), Adolescent literacy: Research and practice (pp. 304–320). New York: The Guilford Press. Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2006). Educating English language learners: A synthesis of research evidence. New York: Cambridge University Press. Gersten, R., Brengelman, S., & Jiménez, R. (1994). Effective instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse students: A reconceptualization. Focus on Exceptional Children, 27, 1–16. Goldenberg, C. (2006). Improving achievement for English learners: What research tells us. Education Week, July 26, 2006. Graves, M. (2006). The vocabulary book: Learning & instruction. New York: Teachers College Press. Kamil, M. (2003). Adolescents and literacy: Reading for the 21st century. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. Lindholm-Leary, K., & Borsato, G. (2006). Academic achievement. In F. Genesee, K. Lindholm-Leary, W. Saunders, & D. Christian (Eds.), Educating English language learners: A synthesis of research evidence (pp. 176–222). New York: Cambridge University Press. 16 Visir www.puertoricotesol.org
  17. 17. P R T E S O L - G R A M Moje, E. B. (2006). Motivating texts, motivating contexts, motivating adolescents: An examination of the role of motivation in adolescent literacy practices and development. Perspectives, 32(3), 10–14. Moje, E. B., McIntosh Ciechanowski, K., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., & Collazo, T. (2004). Working toward third space in content area literacy: An Examination of everyday funds of knowledge and discourse. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(1), 38–71. National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. Rueda, R., & García, G. (2001). How do I teach reading to ELLs? Teaching every child to read. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. Schleppegrell, M. (2004). The language of schooling: A functional linguistic perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Short, D., & Fitzsimmons, S. (2007). Double the work: Challenges and solutions to acquiring language and academic literacy for adolescent English language learners. Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. Slavin, R. E., & Cheung, A. (2003). Effective programs for English language learners: A best-evidence synthesis. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, CRESPAR. Tatum, A. W. (2007). Building the textual lineages of African American adolescent males. In K. Beers, R. Probst, & L. Reif (Eds.), Adolescent literacy: Turning promise into practice. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Tatum, A. W. (2005). Teaching reading to black adolescent males: Closing the achievement gap. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. OUT AND TOUCH NEW OR RENEWED MEMBERS FOR PRTESOL 
REACH Get your free membership for another year! Recruit ten (10) or more new or renewed members and you will receive your membership free for another year! Win a free registration for one day at the convention! Recruit twenty (20) or more new or renewed members for the opportunity to participate in a drawing to win a free registration for the 2009 Convention. The drawing will be held at the Metro conference at Inter, Bayamón on October 3, 2009. Guidelines for recruitment: 1. Your membership must be up-to-date to be eligible. 2. Write the recruiterʼs name where it says: “referred by....” 3. Each new or renewed memberʼs form must be received with payment at the address provided below. 4. Board members are not eligible to participate. Websites Here are some websites for TESOL. Linguistics- Bookmark them and check them frequently to http://www.ielanguages.com/linguist.html stay up-to-date on all the PRTESOL events. Writing- http://puertoricotesol.org/index.html http://www.dartmouth.edu/~writing/materials/ faculty/toc.shtml http://metro.prtesol.angelfire.com/ Librarians Internet Index- http://easterntesolpr.webnode.com/ http://www.lii.org/ http://www.westernprtesol.org Short Stories- A few suggested websites on various topics. http://www.eastoftheweb.com/short-stories/ Teaching- indexframe.html http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/index.htm Visit www.puertoricotesol.org 17