P R T E S O L - G R A M
A publication of PRTESOL: An organization concerned with the
teaching of English to speakers of other languages.
A Quarterly Newsletter Volume 36, Issue 1 SPRING 2009
Post-Convention Highlights Professional Articles Americanʼt
Ámbar Annette Betancourt González
President’s Message Page 3 Structured Supports for English
Learners Page 8
Meet the New PRTESOL Board
Dr. Deborah Short
Page 13 Qualitative Research: An
Short Report on Brain Based Language Anxiety: What it is and Ethnographic Interview Study
Learning Activity in Ponce and the what can be done to lessen its effect. Dr. M. Caratini Soto
Northern Chapter Conference Dr. Sonia Pagan
36 Annual Convention Bringing English into the Students
Summer Institute Prof. Elizabeth Kohmetscher Page 19, 22-23
Page 22 Page 20
PRTESOL President Miguel
Camacho and members of the
Puerto Rico TESOL board of
directors promoted Puerto Rico
at the TESOL Convention in
Denver, Colorado. Read their
report 43rd Annual TESOL
Convention in Denver (p.18).
From left to right: Dr. Naomi
Vega, PRTESOL Treasurer;
Prof. Edna C. Ortiz, former
Board Member; Dr. Josue
Alejandro, Member at Large;
Nancy Lamberty, former Board
Member; Carmen D'Cruz,
PRTESOL member and
Prof. Miguel Camacho,
PRTESOL President (seated).
P R T E S O L - G R A M
Itʼs Time to Change!
The 35th Annual PRTESOL Convention has taken its rightful place in history. Teachers from all over
Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic met for two exciting days of training, learning, sharing, planning, and
having fun. What a joy it was to meet so many of our readers.
However, we are now deep into 2009. Puerto Rico and the world are experiencing great changes. The
teaching of English is experiencing changes also. Teaching English is a science (linguistics, phonology,
morphology, etc). Even the changes in technology affect what and how we teach. Iʼve had students bring in their
homework on an iPod, on ﬂash drives, even a PSP. One student would not take notes (at least the way weʼre
used to). He would wait until I had ﬁlled the white marker board with the lesson content, and then he would take
a digital picture to download to his laptop.
But TESOL is also an art. The art of communicating, of motivating reluctant students, of creating teaching
and assessment materials, designing digitalized and virtual lessons, even decorating the classrooms involves
applying new technologies to reach a new generation.
This yearʼs theme is “Winds of Change: Teaching for Tomorrow.” We look forward to 2009 with high
hopes of seeing PRTESOL grow in inﬂuence around Puerto Rico and the Caribbean helping teachers at all
levels in both the science and the art of teaching English.
Prof. Carmelo Arbona,
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TESOLGRAM is a periodical service to English language educators and
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Submissions must be typewritten, double -spaced, and no longer than
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Bibliographies should follow APA or TESOL Quarterly style.
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included. In other situations, written permission is required.
P R T E S O L - G R A M
The Winds of Change
I am delighted and honored to serve as the 2009 President. Our 2009 convention theme is: Winds of
Change: Teaching for Tomorrow. As we are all anticipating change on a national, economical and
educational level, we are excited about the changes that our organization is experiencing at this very
moment. One of these changes is having the support of Dr. Juan Rodríguez, the Undersecretary, and Dr.
Evelyn Veguillas, the English Program Director, both of the Puerto Rico Department of Education.
The only thing constant about the future is that it will continue to change. If there is one thing that we
cannot and should not do, it is to stay the same. We are moving towards a competitive, complex, and
diverse world. In the quot;Winds of Change,quot; we cannot always direct the wind, but we can adjust our sails
and make changes in our course.
How to improve and assess teaching performance is an issue of great importance to all educators. The
21st century will demand a new kind of teaching and learning. We must choose the right road and move
forward. We must take some bold new steps to make fundamental changes in our teaching to guarantee
the academic achievement of our students.
I encourage you to join our voyage, full of winds of change, to teach for tomorrow.
Prof. Miguel Camacho
President, PRTESOL 2009
Call for Nominations
Succeeds to the presidency upon completion of the
It is never too soon to consider running. Would you
current Presidentʼs term of ofﬁce.
like to be involved in a professional development
Assists the President in organizing the Annual
* Gives you a perspective on ESL at all levels of the
Chairs the Annual Convention Program.
Acts as liaison with regional chapters to coordinate the
* Helps you develop tremendous leadership skills
calendar of regional activities.
* Provides valuable networking opportunities with ESL
Serves as parliamentarian.
professionals throughout the island
* Enhances your resume
* Informs you of and involves you in sociopolitical issues
relevant to ESL and education and is fun at the same time? Represent the interests of the members in their
particular professional areas.
If your answer is yes, you may want to consider Promote and help organize activities and presentations
nominating yourself or a colleague for a position on the for members in their professional areas.
Board of Directors. Recruit possible new members for the Organization
The following positions are open this year: Vice- through the promotion of different campaign initiatives.
President, Secondary and Student Representative. Assist with the Annual Convention, the Summer
Nominees need to be a PRTESOL member. Institute, and any other professional activities related to
Please submit name, e-mail, and phone number of PRTESOL.
candidate to Prof. Audy Perez at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Make a difference by becoming involved in the
Board of Directors.
P R T E S O L - G R A M
Language Anxiety: What it is and what can be done to lessen its effects.
Dr. Sonia M. Pagán Cáceres
Sometimes you are at your wits end because you cannot understand why your college students are afraid or
anxious about speaking English in the classroom. You have tried everything under the sun and yet they still do
not want to participate orally. Although the students who are in college today are more exposed to English
through the media, globalization and advances in technology, the truth is that research conducted in Puerto Rico
during the past decade (Caratini,1997; Cortés, 2002; Meléndez, 1997; Pagán, 2007) continues to indicate that
students are still apprehensive about speaking in the English class. Language anxiety could be one reason for this
In the recent second language (L2) teaching context, one of the greatest challenges for ESL/EFL teachers is
to provide students with a learner-centered, low-anxiety, and comfortable classroom environment. In their efforts
to create such an environment, the issue of student anxiety and its consequent negative effects on L2 learning
and performance seems to pose an even greater challenge to all language teachers, as it can potentially hamper
the optimal learning and teaching from taking place in the classroom (Ohata, 2005). It becomes necessary then
for ESL/EFL teachers to recognize that the ﬁrst and foremost important task is to have a better understanding of
the nature of student anxiety in terms of when, where, how, and why students feel anxious, before addressing
effective ways of anxiety reduction (Spielmann & Radnofsky, 2001).
That leads to the following question, what exactly is language anxiety? Anxiety is a common occurrence in the
study of foreign [or second] language and has detrimental effects on a studentʼs ability to learn a foreign language
(Horner, 2002). Anxiety is difﬁcult to deﬁne because it can range from “an amalgam of overt behavioral
characteristics that can be studied scientiﬁcally to introspecting feelings that are epistemologically
inaccessible” (Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2001 p.539).
It is the feeling of tension and apprehension speciﬁcally associated with second language contexts, including
speaking, listening and learning. It is a distinct complex of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors related
to classroom language learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process; and as a complex
concept, dependent upon not only oneʼs feelings of self-efﬁcacy but also appraisals concerning the potential and
perceived threats inherent in certain situations (Pappamihiel, 2002). It inhibits the capabilities of students learning
a foreign language for a variety of reasons including fear of negative evaluation, communication apprehension,
and low self-concept (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986). For Gardner and MacIntyre (1993), language anxiety is
the fear or apprehension learners sometimes feel when they are expected to perform in the target language in
which they are not proﬁcient.
It develops from the fear an individual feels about orally communicating. It is a specialized anxiety related to
language use in situations or language learning circumstances, rather than just a reﬂection of generalized anxiety
(Daly in Horwitz & Young, 1986; Gardner & MacIntyre, 1993; Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986; Horwitz & Young,
This apprehension, or anxiety, may intensify when participants communicate in the second language,
especially if they believe their level of second language (L2) competence to be very low (MacIntyre et al. 1997).
Studentsʼ previous language learning experiences, their motivations, and their self-concepts about language
learning (Saito, Garza, & Horwitz, 1999) may also inﬂuence this anxiety.
For many students, the English language class may be more anxiety-provoking than any other course they
take (Campbell, Christine, & Ortiz, 1991 in Horwitz et al., 1986; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989) and may interfere
with the acquisition, retention and production of the new language (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991). In the language
classroom, increased levels of anxiety can have a variety of negative effects ranging from physical to emotional
manifestations. Some students may sweat, tremble, suffer from heart palpitations, forget what they were going to
say, and even freeze on the stop. Additionally, anxious students are less likely to volunteer answers. They will
also tend to avoid difﬁcult linguistic structures that more relaxed students would be willing to attempt. Word
production of anxious students also tends to be less complex and interpretive. Such difﬁculties can lead some
ESL teachers to assume that anxious students are not capable communicators in the second language (MacIntyre
& Gardner, 1991).
(continued on next page)
P R T E S O L - G R A M
Those involved in teaching English in Puerto Rico need to recognize that language anxiety can hinder
studentsʼ oral performance. For this reason, it is necessary to understand this phenomenon in order to help
students alleviate feelings of anxiety so students are comfortable in class and are not afraid to speak English.
Teachers must concentrate not only on the cognitive processes of their students but also on the affective or
emotional areas as well because emotional well-being is a predictor of success in academic achievement
Following Walshʼs (1991) suggestion, “ teachers should explore the diverse and multiple realities of their
students, to understand the histories they bring with them and all the tensions these histories may imply. This will
“help teachers to comprehend students, guide instruction, and gain insights into how it is students come to
By studying language anxiety, teachers will be able to recognize the types of barriers that hinder effective
communication in the classroom and consider this when preparing curricula. I agree with Elaine Horwitz (in
Young, 1999) , who advises teachers to make “the sincere discussion of learnersʼ feelings about language
learning- their goals and their successes, as well as their fears- a fundamental part of the language classroom
Caratini, M.(1997). Learning English as a second language in Puerto Rico: The experiences of a small number of
college level adults. Doctoral Dissertation. New York University.
Casado, M. & Dereshiwsky, M.I. (2001). Foreign language anxiety of university students. College Student
Cortés, C.M. (2002). The relationship between attitude, motivation, anxiety, and proﬁciency in English as a
second language of ﬁrst year university students in Puerto Rico. Dissertation. Andrews University.
Gardner, R.C., & MacIntyre, P.D. (1993). On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning.
Language Learning, 3, 157-194.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Horner, L. (2002). Fear factor: Foreign language anxiety in the secondary Spanish Program. Wake Forest
Horwitz, E.K., Horwitz, M.B. & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language anxiety. Modern Language Journal 70,
Horwitz, E.K., & Young, D. J. (1991). Language anxiety: from theory and research to classroom implications.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
MacIntyre, P. & Gardner, S. (1989). Anxiety and second language learning: Toward theoretical clariﬁcation.
Language Learning, 39(1), 251-275.
MacIntyre, P. & Gardner, S. (1991). Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A
review of the
literature. Language Learning 41, 85-117.
MacIntyre, P., Noels, K.A. & Clement, R. (1997). Biases in self-relatings of second language proﬁciency: The
role of language anxiety. Language Learning, 47, 2, 265-287.
Meléndez, A. (1997). Language learner perceptions on the circumstances and factors that contribute to oral
English language anxiety in Puerto Rico Doctoral dissertation. New York University.
Ohata, K. (2004). Cultural as well as personal aspects of language learning anxiety: A case study of seven
Japanese individualʼs reﬂective accounts of language anxiety experiences in the United States.
Pagán, S. (2007). Puerto Rican College Studentsʼ Perceptions of Circumstances Inﬂuencing Language Anxiety in
the English Classroom. Doctoral Dissertation. Inter American University of Puerto Rico.
Pappamihiel, N. E. (2002). English as a second language students and English language anxiety: issues in the
mainstream classroom. Research in the Teaching of English ,36, 327- 355.
Saito, Y., Garza, T.J., & Horwitz, E. (1999). Foreign language reading anxiety. The Modern Language Journal,
Spielman, G. & Radnofsky, M.L. (2001). Learning language under tension: New directions from a qualitative
study. The Modern Language Journal, 85, 259-278
Young, D. (1999). Affect in foreign language and second language earning: A practical guide to creating a
low-anxiety classroom atmosphere. Boston: Mc Graw-Hill.
Walsh, C. (1991). The tension of voices past and present: Colonization, schooling and linguistic imposition
Pedagogy and the struggle for voice. New York: Bergin and Garvey.
P R T E S O L - G R A M
Qualitative Research: An Ethnographic Interview Study
Dr. M. Caratini Soto, 2009
Full Professor, Inter American University, Ponce Campus
The following article presents an overview of the methodology utilized in my ethnographic study for a doctoral
degree from New York University. This account describes data collection, data analysis and methods of
presentation of ﬁndings in this paradigm. The purpose of this article is to present the value of qualitative research
as an alternative to conduct research in other disciplines.
Ethnographic interviews seek to discover the meaning of the experiences of the people from whom we want to
learn (Bogden & Biklen, 2006; Ely, Anzul, Freidman, Gradner, & Steinmetz, 1994; Loftland & Loftland, 1984;
Merrian, 1988; Mishler, 1991; Spradley, 1979). I conducted ethnographic interviews with ﬁve adults in a small city
in the center of the island of Puerto Rico who returned to their local college and who were engaged again in basic
In ethnographic interview studies an initial interview screening process is customary to give students the
opportunity to know more about the study. I guaranteed students that their accounts would not be discussed with
other teachers. I explained that I would protect their anonymity by using pseudonyms in the research report. I
asked the participants to decide the best time and place for subsequent interviews. In addition, I asked each
participant for permission to tape record the interviews and they could listen and decide if they would like to
Ethnographic interviews seek the words of the people we are studying, the richer the better, so we can
understand their situations with increasing clarity (Ely, et al., 1994, Seidman, 2006.). This method was the major
data-collection strategy of the study. Ethnographic interviews were particularly appropriate for data collection
because by gathering descriptive data in the participantʼs own words, I as a searcher developed insights on how
to interpret a piece of their own world (Bogdan & Biklen, 2006). As Spradley (1979) mentions, you seek to
discover patterns of meaning. The interview sessions helped me to discover patterns of meaning and understand
the world from their point of view, what they knew, in the way they knew it, and inferred the meaning of their
experiences as I recursively collected and analyzed the data.
The ongoing recursive analyses in the ﬁeld log that was part of the cyclical process of doing-thinking-doing (Ely et
al., 1994) was the most important guide to further probing and developing questions.
Due to the importance the culture and the context play in naturalistic studies, I held the interviews in Spanish. In
this way, I was able to capture the essence of the participantʼs experiences because concepts are inherent in
language and they are the metaphors we live by (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980.) I transcribed the interviews and
translated the portions that were relevant to the study. These translations were checked with a professional
colleague. I kept them in a numbered ongoing computerized log form, and in the participantʼs exact words. I
reﬂected on the interviews, listened to them and analyzed them so I could plan the next one.
In naturalistic inquiry, all that goes on in the research process is of vital importance. Therefore, keeping a log of
observations, transcripts of interviews, analyses, and documents was essential. The log is “the home of the
substance that we use to tease out the meanings and reﬂect upon them as they evolve” (Ely et al., 1994 p. 69).
In the log, I coded my data along the margins and began to make connections between emerging categories and
patterns. I wrote analytic memos throughout the process for hunches and possible directions for future data
collection (Holliday, 2007;Loftland & Loftland, 1984). From these data, I built my analysis. All of this information
was stored in my computer and separately on drives to avoid accidental loss.
As is characteristic of naturalistic inquiry, data collection and data analyses are concurrent and cyclical (Ely et al.,
1994, Tesch, 1990). The interweaving of data collection, self-reﬂection, coding, and analysis directed me to the
meaning-making process (Strauss & Corbin, 2008). In order to paint a picture as true to my participantsʼview as
possible, so that the informants spoke for themselves, I created themes that reﬂected the meanings that were
most evident and/ or those that were emotionally charged. A theme can be described as a statement that
P R T E S O L - G R A M
captures the actual words of the participants, also known as “in vivo codes” to present themes, which were followed
by narratives and thematic discussions and analysis. I intended to capture my interpretations in a descriptive and
interpretative account of the data in light of existing concepts and theories (Tesch, 1990, Wolcott, 1990.) In order
to present these meaningful accounts, I devoted one chapter to proﬁles of the participants that illustrated the
implicit themes. Following that, I devoted a chapter to a thematic discussion that highlighted speciﬁc themes and
integrated material from each portrait speciﬁcally related to each particular theme.
Guba and Lincoln (1985) suggest prolonged engagement as one way to make oneʼs ﬁndings credible. Moreso, I
adopted my researcherʼs stance to maintain my “detached wonder.” I collected data for two semesters and an
additional year analyzing them to provide for a greater likelihood of credibility. I persisted until no new categories
emerged. Participant checking is an additional technique described by Guba and Lincoln (1985) as contributing to
trustworthiness. Throughout the process, I needed to verify my interpretations, reﬂect on the data, and develop an
organizing system (Tesch, 1990). I worked to present the data, ﬁndings, interpretations, and recommendations in a
coherent way. Triangulation contributed greatly to the internal validity of my study. I checked sources of data,
methods and consulted research to conﬁrm my emerging ﬁndings (Merriam, 1998). Lincoln and Gubaʼs criteria
helped me to monitor my presentation of ﬁndings and make the transferability judgments I needed to provide the
reader with a clear picture of the qualitative product. In the end, there were many methodological considerations
about ethnography that were challenging to discover intricacies and questions provoking excitement and passion
as the data was analyzed.
To conclude, ethnographic studies are a viable alternative to study the cultural context and collect data about the
social setting being investigated. It is a powerful tool to describe and reconstruct the participantʼs symbolic
meanings and patterns of a group of people (LeCompte & Presille, 1993; Merriam, 1998). Although this study was
in the area of English education, it can be extended to other disciplines interested in the “how” and nature of the
events to be understood in context.
Bogden, R. C. & Biklen, S. K. (2006). Qualitative research for education.: An introduction to theory and methods.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Ely, M., Anzul, M. Friedman, T., Gardner,D. & Steinmetz, A. (1994). Doing qualitative research: Circles within
circles. Philadelphia: Farmer Press.
Guba, E. & Lincoln. Y. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Holliday, A. (2007). Doing and Writing Qualitative Research. CA: Sage.
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Loﬂand, J. , & Loﬂand, L. (1984). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and Analysis (2nd
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Merriam, S.B., (1998). Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
Mishler, E. G. (1991). Research interviewing: Context and narrative. MA: Harvard University Press.
Seidman, I. Interviewing as qualitative research: a guide for researchers in Education and the Social Sciences NY:
Teachers College Press.
Spradley, J. (1979). The ethnographic interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (2008). Basics of Qualitative research:Techniques and Procedures for developing
grounded theory.CA: Sage.
Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools London: Falmer Press.
Wolcott, H. F. (1990). Writing up qualitative research. CA: Sage.
P R T E S O L - G R A M
(A short essay)
Written by: Ámbar Annette Betancourt González
Ms. Betancourt is a student of Dr. Evelyn Lugo, Eastern Chapter President
Nov. 4th, 2008
The United States of America, the land of the free the home of the brave. Where people from all over the
world come to pursue “The American Dream”; after all the struggle that this country has lived and seen from the
Civil War to world wars, from slavery to segregation; from John F. Kennedy to Dr. King and now from 12 years of
the Bush administration to the next 4 (or even 8) years of Barack Hussein Obama.
Who would have believed that what Bobby Kennedy said 40 years ago (“I know that in forty years America
will have an African-American President.”) would become reality exactly 40 years later (1968-2008). This is for all of
those, who like me, had lost faith in the American people and American values that unlike the people here in Puerto
Rico who are still needing a change instead of having a change. Well now Americans all over have had their voices
heard in a cry for change; in a cry for hope. It is a great day for our country and as Obamaʼs campaign slogan says:
“Yes We Can!”
Yes, we can make a difference, yes, we can ban hate, yes, we can ﬁght oppression, yes, we can love
without boundaries, and yes, we can unite as our forefathers intended us to. We can unite in this melting pot of a
country where as I wrote before to pursue our dreams and leave a mark in world history!
To all who said Americanʼt, today the people said American (yes, I know, cheesiest line ever, but cʼmon a
black man who came from nothing is our President! You cannot say that is cheesy). Finally someone who
understands what struggle and hard work is, who is humble and against all odds ran a marathon to make a
Finally… a change!
If you would not be forgotten,
as soon as you are rotten,
either write things worth reading
or do things worth the writing.
Benjamin Franklin (1706 - 1790)
No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a
Booker T. Washington (1856 - 1915)
Detail makes the difference between boring and terrific writing.
It’s the difference between a pencil sketch and a lush oil painting.
As a writer, words are your paint. Use all the colors.
Rhys Alexander, Writing Gooder, 12-09-05
True glory consists in doing what deserves to be written;
in writing what deserves to be read;
and in so living as to make the world happier for our living in it.
Pliny The Elder (23 AD - 79 AD)
There are three rules for writing the novel. Unfortunately, no one knows what they are.
The New York Times Book Review, September 30, 1984
P R T E S O L - G R A M
November at the Gran Meliá Resort in Río Grande. I
presented a study I conducted for an undergraduate
research seminar, which was titled quot;The Levels of Students'
Engagement and Participation in an EFL Classroom that
Promotes the Development of Critical Thinking Skills
Dr. Naomi Vega, PRTESOL Treasurer
Catedrática, Departamento de Educación; B.A., Brandeis
M.Ed., City College, N.Y.; Ed.D., Universidad de Puerto
I have been the TESL faculty member of the
Education Department at Universidad del Sagrado Corazón
since 1987. My primary role there has been developing and
directing professional development projects for English
teachers of the public and private schools of Puerto Rico. I
have given more than 250 presentations to educators and
educators, at professional conferences, universities, public
and privates schools in Puerto Rico, the United States, and
As a member of TESOL and PRTESOL for over 20
years, I have attended annual conventions almost every
year and have been a frequent presenter at PRTESOL and
MEET THE NEW PRTESOL BOARD FOR 2009
chapter conferences. Furthermore, I have served on the
PRTESOL Board for more than ten years and was
Miguel Camacho, PRTESOL President
PRTESOL president in 2002 and Metro Chapter president
I am an English educator for the Department of
in 2008. In 1992, I also served as president of PRABE
Education at Asunción Rodríguez de Sala High School in
(Puerto Rican Association for Bilingual Education). I have
Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, where at present I teach 12th
also written several articles for the TESOLGRAM
grade. I have taught all secondary levels for the past nine
(PRTESOL publication) and was the 2008 recipient of the
PRTESOL Marie Aloise Lifetime Achievement Award.
I became involved in the board of directors of
PRTESOL as the membership secretary during the years
2002 and 2003. In 2003, I received an award for the quot;Most
PRTESOL President Southern Chapter
Valuable Board Memberquot;. In 2006 and 2007, I was the
I am currently teaching in the English Department at
sponsorship chairperson, and in 2007 and 2008 I worked
the University of Puerto Rico – Ponce Campus. Iʼve just
as the Southern Chapter President.
recently retired from The Pontiﬁcal Catholic University of
Puerto Rico (PUCPR) where I had been a tenured full
Dr. Gladys Pérez,
professor. I taught at the College of Educations' Graduate
Program as well as Coordinated the Division of the Ofﬁce
I have been a member of PRTESOL and
of Proposal Development for the College.
International TESOL for more than 20 years. I have over 35
Iʼve been an ESL specialist for over 30 years. My
years experience teaching English at the secondary level of
doctoral degree is in Education with a specialty in the
the Puerto Rico public school system and private
Teaching of English as a Second Language from the
universities. I have held several positions within the Puerto
Interamerican University of Puerto Rico through a federally
Rico Department of Education, some of which have been
funded Bilingual Education Fellowship provided by the
Curriculum Technician, English Zone Supervisor, Director of
Department of Bilingual Education of the United States. My
the State Literacy Resource Center, Director of the
Master's Degree in Education, for which I received the Most
Bilingual Education Program, and Director of the English
Valuable Graduate Student in ESL Award in 1977, and my
Program. Currently, Iʼm an English professor and the
Bachelor's in Science in Secondary Education with a major
Associate Dean of the School of Social and Human
in English Literature and ESL. Both degrees are from the
Sciences at Universidad del Este, Carolina Campus. As a
Pontiﬁcal Catholic University of Puerto Rico.
member of PR TESOL, I have offered workshops at the
My latest endeavors have taken me to New York
Conventions. I chaired the PRTESOL Summer Institute in
University where I participated in a Faculty Resource
2007 and have been the 2008 Eastern Chapter President.
Network 2008 Summer Workshop on Visual Storytelling.
Iʼve also been certiﬁed as a trainer by the Jensen Learning
Lotty Ortiz Díaz,
Group, founded by the well known educator, trainer and
PRTESOL Executive Secretary:
author of The Brain and Learning, Eric Jensen. Iʼve taken
I am undergraduate student at Sagrado Corazón
all the workshops necessary for certiﬁcation and hope to
University. I will graduate in May 2009 with a bachelor's
complete all the requirements for graduation by next July
degree in Elementary Education in English as a Second
Language. Last year, I received the Pórtico Medal of
My passion for teaching and motivating both
Sagrado Corazón University for demonstrating outstanding
students and teachers has only been surpassed by my faith
academic achievement. Iʼm currently a student teacher at
in doing what the Lord wants and placing my life, family,
Luis Muñoz Rivera Elementary School in Santurce teaching
and ideals in His hands.
a ﬁfth-grade class. With the support and mentorship of Dr.
Naomi Vega Nieves, I was a co-presenter at the 35th
Annual PRTESOL Convention that took place last
P R T E S O L - G R A M
Inocencia Nieves Education of Puerto Rico within my district. I advocate for
PRTESOL Department of Education Representative the implementation of English immersion schools within the
I have a B.A. in English from the University of Department of Education of Puerto Rico.
Puerto Rico, and a Master of Arts in Education/Curriculum
and Instruction-English as a Second Language from the Elizabeth Jiménez Rodríguez,
University of Phoenix. Also, I have credits towards a PRTESOL Elementary School Representative
certiﬁcation as a Reading Specialist in English.
I have a B.A. in Secondary Education specializing in
As an active PRTESOL member since my university English teaching and a minor in Literature from the Inter
years, I have been secretary, vice-president, and president American University, Aguadilla Campus. I also possess a
of Metro Chapter for several years; and various positions Masters Degree in English Education from UPR, Mayaguez
on the PRTESOL Board including the 33rd President of Campus. I have taken 10 courses with the Scholastic Red
PRTESOL in 2006. At present I hold the Department of Program in order to qualify as an English Reading
Education Representative position. Specialist.
I have been working with the Dept. of Education for
I have been an active member of PRTESOL for the
the past 36 years teaching English at all levels. At present I past 14 years as part of the directorʼs board for the Western
am the Advanced English teacher at Luz America Calderón TESOL Chapter.
High School in Carolina, and I have also taught at the
At present, I work at the Superintendentʼs ofﬁce as
university level in various universities in Puerto Rico. the Districtʼs English Program Facilitator. I am convinced
that through this position, I will be able to help all 80
Auda I. Pérez Vázquez English teachers in the 23 schools in my district succeed in
Nominations Chair English teaching.
I am a professor at Secundaria Amalia Marín in Rio
The teaching of English in Puerto Rico has always
Piedra Heights and at UNE Carolina Campus. I hold a BA been my priority throughout the years, but my main and
in Secondary Teaching with a major in English as a Second most important priority in life has been my family. I have
Language and an MA in Curriculum and Teaching in TESL been happily married for the past 20 years and I have three
from Pontiﬁcal Catholic University, Ponce Campus. I was beautiful daughters, Karla Natalia, Katiria Nicole, and Kiara
President of PRTESOL 2007. Liz. They are the ones that inspire and motivate me to
continue working hard towards the goal of making this
Carla Rodríguez world a better one by providing the best education possible.
PRTESOL President - Northern Chapter
Undergraduate Student at Inter American University, Evelyn Lugo Morales, PRTESOL President - Eastern
I was born in 1979 in Everett, Washington. I have
Evelyn Lugo Morales has a doctoral degree in
traveled all over the states studying in different schools, Education in Teaching English as a Second Language from
making Derry, New Hampshire the place that most the University of Puerto Rico. She has 30 years of teaching
inﬂuenced my learning experience. I graduated from high and administrative experience and has been an educational
school in Puerto Rico in 1997 and went to college to UPR consultant for the past 10 years. As an educator, she has
Mayaguez, but took a break after two years to raise a taught in both primary and secondary levels in public and
family. I later on moved to Hatillo, where I currently reside. I private schools. At the present time, Dr. Lugo teaches
am studying at the Interamericana University in Arecibo undergraduate and graduate courses at the Universidad del
ﬁnishing my bachelors degree in Teaching English as a Este in Carolina.
Second Language at the secondary level. I am doing my
Dr. Evelyn Lugo is currently working in various
student practice this semester and graduating in May God projects as President of Delta Kappa Gamma International
willing. I have been involved with PRTESOL for the last for Women Educators which is an organization that support
two years and hope to make it for 20 more. the effort of women educators in their quest for excellence
Nancy González Montalvo
PRTESOL Private School Representative Denise Ferrer, PRTESOL President - Caguas Chapter
With six years experience teaching the English
Greetings to all and a happy new year. My name is
language in elementary school, Iʼm a true believer in Prof. Denise M. Ferrer Lizardi and I have been teaching
professional development. I have been participating in ESL for the past 21 years from elementary to secondary
multiple seminars and special trainings, continuously. I level. I have a Masters Degree In ESL and currently teach
have a bachelor degree in Telecommunications and three at Diego Vazquez Elementary School. I have been a
yearsʼ studies completing the needed credits for Teacher TESOL member for 16 years since 1992, and been a direct
Certiﬁcation. Iʼm also a full time mother of two girls and a part of TESOL Caguas Chapter occupying different
loving wife. Member of PRTESOL since 2003. positions (1992 secretary, 1993 president, 1994 president,
I will motivate English teachers in PR to participate 1998 treasurer, 2002 president, 2008 vice-president). This
in the PRTESOL seminars and help introduce new and year I am honored once again to serve this organization as
innovative teaching techniques in the classroom. president of TESOL Caguas Chapter. God bless you.
Prof. Enrique Chaparro, PRTESOL Western Chapter David García,
I worked as the 2008 PRTESOL Treasurer, and Iʼve PRTESOL Publisher Liaison
worked in the ESL ﬁeld for 12 years. Iʼve served as
David García is publisher liaison with Puerto Rico
academic advisor for schools in the private sector, which TESOL. He began his service to PR TESOL in 2008. David
have English-based instruction, and also collaborated in the is the ESL Specialist in Puerto Rico for Cambridge
implementation of an English Program in the Department of University Press, and also teaches conversational English
P R T E S O L - G R A M
courses at Caribbean University and at MBTI Business treasurerʼs position in 1992. I had the privilege of attending
Training Institute. He holds a BA in education and teacher the ﬁrst week long PRTESOL Summer Institute back in
certiﬁcation, and has also taught 5th grade math and 1982. This year I am on the Metro Chapter Board. I have
science in English, as well as music. given several presentations at the PRTESOL and TESOL
David is also a published author, and sells and Conventions over the last 8 years and written several
distributes his own publication 'Fairy Tales of Puerto articles for the TESOLGRAM. In the 1980ʼs, I also gave a
Rico' (Taino Press, 2005) to bookstores throughout Puerto workshop as part of the ﬁrst PRTESOL Dominican Republic
Rico and the U.S. mainland. It's Spanish translation, outreach activity.
'Cuentos Favoritos de Puerto Rico', was recognized by
As a PRTESOL Board member, I will give my best
Criticas Magazine in August 2007 as one of the 'Top Picks to support and give publicity to the organization in all
for Hispanic Heritage Month'. In his spare time, he plays forums and fulﬁll all the responsibilities of this position. I
music with the 'Conjunto PR TESOL'. ﬁrmly believe in lifelong professional development and hold
to the vision and mission of being the best teachers of
Dr. José R. Sellas Aponte, PRTESOL Immediate Past English here and everywhere we go. We are blessed with
President the most noble and rewarding career: that of molding the
I have been in the ESL teaching profession for over minds and inﬂuencing the future citizens and leaders in our
25 years. I have a B.A. in TESL Secondary Education from society.
Inter American University of Puerto Rico, San Germán
Campus, May 1985. I have an M.A. in Applied Linguistics in Dr. John H. Steele, PRTESOL Higher Education
TESL form Inter American University, San Germán Representative
Campus, May 1988. I have a Doctoral Degree in
Dr. John Steele is 60 years old and has lived in
Curriculum Development in TESL, University of Puerto Puerto Rico since 1971. He has been married for almost 40
Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, May 2000. I am certiﬁed as an years to a now retired elementary English teacher. He has
ESL Teacher at both the Elementary and Secondary levels three daughters and six grandchildren. He and his wife
by the Department of Education, Puerto Rico. I also have a have been living in Moca since 1973.
license as an English Zone Supervisor. I am a tenured
Dr. Steele graduated from IAU-Ramey with a BA in
Associate Professor at Inter American University of Puerto Secondary Education/TESOL in 1975 and obtained his
Rico, San Germán Campus. MAE in TESL from IAU-San Germán in 1977. He has post
I have been a member of PRTESOL for over ﬁfteen MA studies at both IAU and UPR-Mayaguez. He graduated
years. I have been part of the PRTESOL Board of Directors from Indiana University of Pennsylvania with a Ph.D. in
for four years. I have held the following positions on the English (Rhetoric and Linguistics) in 2002.
PRTESOL Board of Directors; President 2008, Vice-
Dr. Steele has over 30 years experience in teaching
President 2007, and Western Chapter President 2006. This ESL, most (30+) at the UPR-Aguadilla and 5 years at IAU-
year 2009, I am serving as Immediate Past President. Ramey and IAU-Aguadilla. He currently teaches
I have been part of the Western PRTESOL Board Introduction to Linguistic Theory, Teaching Writing, and
for eight years. I have held the following positions at the courses in instructional technology for the Bachelor of Arts
Regional level; President 2006, Vice President 2005, and in Education with a Major in English with Multimedia
Member-At-Large 2004. Technology offered at UPR-Aguadilla. He has been a
I have been an active member of the Global TESOL member of PR-TESOL for 25 years and president of the
Organization for six years. I have attended four Global Western chapter on three different occasions.
TESOL Conventions in the United States. I am extremely
proud of being an ESL Professional that is committed to Eric Otero,
Excellence in Language Teaching for our Island. PRTESOL Webmaster
Eric Otero possesses a PhD in Language, Literacy
Manuel Echevarría and Learning from Fordham University. Currently, Dr. Otero
PRTESOL Student Representative is a full time professor of English as a Second Language
I am a Jr. high school English teacher in San Juan, (ESL) at the Bayamon Campus of Inter American
Puerto Rico. I have also worked at high school and University. He has 30 years experience in both the public
elementary levels. Iʼm also implementing a reading and private sectors of Puerto Rico. He has served as a
intervention program of the Department of Education of teacher, teacher trainer, researcher, grant writer, and
Puerto Rico, with students of seventh and eighth grade. administrator, among other endeavors. His interests and
The teacher has 11 years of experience in a private and commitment in the ﬁeld of educational technology have led
different public schools in his home town. him to create many computerized instructional models to
I did my Bachelor degree at Universidad de Puerto strengthen instruction. He has also designed and
Rico in Río Piedras. Also, Iʼve participated in many implemented a host of online courses at the university
professional development activities regarding my ﬁeld. level. At PRTESOL, Dr. Eric Otero has designed and
Currently, Iʼm engaged soing a Masters degree at the edited the PRTESOL website as the Webmaster for the
Universidad del Este in Carolina. past seven years.
PRTESOL Member at large
I have been a member of PRTESOL for the past 28
years with 35 years experience teaching English at all
levels in the Puerto Rico public school system and public
and private universities. Currently, I am a full professor at
the University of Puerto Rico -Rio Piedras Campus. I was a
member of the PR TESOL Board for 6 years and held the
P R T E S O L - G R A M
For all the Convention information contact any of the following persons or visit our website
Call for Presentations
Submit by May 29, 2009 to Dr. Gladys Perez at
Call for Nominations
Submit to Prof. Audy Perez at email@example.com
Early Bird Registration
Postmark by September 1, 2009
Hilton Ponce Golf and Casino
tel. 787-259-7676 X 5201
Download Convention forms at: www.puertoricotesol.org
Awards and Scholarships for PRTESOL Members http://www.puertoricotesol.org/
P R T E S O L - G R A M
Deborah J. Short, Ph. D., will be our keynote speaker at this yearʼs
Dr. Short directs Academic Language Research & Training, a professional
consulting company, and works with schools, districts, and states, providing
professional development on sheltered instruction and academic literacy to
teachers around the U.S. and abroad. She is also a senior research
associate at the Center for Applied Linguistics where she co-developed the
SIOP Model and has directed research on English language learners for the
Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Education, among
others. She is currently studying newcomer programs and the SIOP Model in middle school science classrooms.
She chaired an expert panel on adolescent ELL literacy and co-authored the policy report, Double the Work.
Publications include research articles in professional journals, such as TESOL Quarterly, Journal of Educational
Research, Educational Leadership, Education and Urban Society and Journal of Research in Education; books on
the SIOP Model; and four ESL series for K-12 students. Previously, she taught ESL and EFL in New York,
California, Virginia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Structured Supports for English Learners
by Dr. Deborah J. Short
For educators of students who are English learners (ELs), the goal is twofold: to accelerate their development
of academic English and to strengthen their content knowledge. Research has shown that ELs both improve their
academic English skills and learn more of the content of school subjects through this integrated instructional
approach (Echevarria, Short, & Powers, 2006; Lindholm-Leary & Borsato, 2006). When EL students participate in
a program of systematic instruction and assessment that provides them with access to solid, research-based
curricula and that also advances their academic language and literacy skills, they can succeed in school and
Understanding English Learners in Middle School
Most English learners in middle school are already on the path to academic literacy. They are not stalled; rather,
they are making steady progress. Second-language acquisition, however, takes time—and requires understanding
of what EL students bring to our classrooms. Some English learners arrive in the United States without literacy in
their native language. Yet often they are placed in the classrooms of teachers who lack training in how to teach
basic literacy skills to adolescents (Rueda & García, 2001). These newcomers need a developmental program of
language and literacy with direct instruction in vocabulary, grammar and the fundamentals of reading and writing.
Other ELs have grown up in the U.S., but for reasons such as family mobility, sporadic school attendance, or
limited access to ELD, ESL, or bilingual instruction, they have not developed the degree of academic literacy
required for reading and understanding middle school texts or for interacting productively in instruction with
teachers and classmates. Some of these students may need a targeted intervention. Still other ELs enter middle
school with strong native-language literacy skills. These students have a strong foundation that can facilitate their
academic English growth as their prior knowledge and aspects of their literacy abilities can transfer from the native
language to the new one.
What, then, do ELs from all these different backgrounds need as they move through the middle school years?
Explicit Instruction in English Vocabulary and Structures
We know that the connections between language, literacy, and academic achievement grow
stronger as students progress through the grades (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004; Kamil, 2003), and that the
development of proﬁciency in academic English is a complex process for adolescent ELs. Middle school ELs must
develop literacy skills for each content area in their second language as they simultaneously try to comprehend
and apply content area concepts through that second language (García & Godina, 2004; Genesee, Lindholm-
Leary, Saunders, & Christian, 2006). Therefore,
P R T E S O L - G R A M
even while we focus on developing literacy and bolstering content area knowledge, we must provide explicit
instruction in English semantics, syntax, phonology, pragmatics, and discourse levels of the language as they are
applied in school. (Bailey, 2007; Dutro & Moran, 2003; Schleppegrell, 2004).
Personal Connections to Learning
The complexity of second language acquisition is not the only variable in becoming literate in English. Identity,
engagement, motivation, and life outside school are other important factors. (Moje,
2006; Moje et al., 2004; Tatum, 2005, 2007).
“Second-language acquisition takes time—
and requires understanding of what EL students bring to our classrooms.”
Structured Supports for English Learners
Adolescents tend to engage more with text that they have chosen themselves, and they will read material above
their reading level if it is of interest. Engagement and motivation increase when students can see themselves in
the characters, events, and settings of the materials that they read.
Self-perceptions as a strong vs. weak reader and personal goals also inﬂuence motivation. Out-of-school
experiences and literacies also play an important role. Stressors outside of school—hectic home lives, work, lack
of study space, peer pressures—may diminish studentsʼ interest in and ability to develop English literacy. On the
other hand, positive out-of-school interactions with English literacy
(through text messaging, the Internet, music, work) may strengthen their engagement with literacy practices in the
classroom. The opportunity to participate in collaborative literacy activities with their classmates often heightens
motivation as well.
Promoting English Literacy Development: What Research Tells Us
A number of recent research reports have examined more than two decades of rigorous studies of English second
language development (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesee et al., 2006; Short & Fitzsimmons, 2007; Slavin
& Cheung, 2003). These reports provide a great deal of valuable information about adolescent ELs and about the
curricular content and instructional practices that work best to promote their academic language and literacy skills.
The following are among the reportsʼ key ﬁndings:
1. Transfer of Skills Certain native-language skills transfer to English literacy, including phonemic awareness,
comprehension and language-learning strategies, and native- and second-language oral knowledge. If students
have opportunities to learn and maintain literacy in their native language, they may more quickly acquire
English. Content that students learn through their native language is learned knowledge. They may require
assistance to articulate this knowledge in English, but they do not have to relearn it. The process of transfer of
knowledge from one language to another, however, is not automatic (Gersten, Brengelman, & Jiménez, 1994). It
requires teachers to make explicit links to studentsʼ prior knowledge and to prompt students to make
connections, using the cognitive resources they have.
2. Native Language Literacy Academic literacy in the native language facilitates the development of academic
literacy in English. For example, once they have enough proﬁciency (e.g., vocabulary, sense of sentence
structure, etc.) to engage with text, students who have learned reading comprehension strategies (e.g., ﬁnding
the main idea, making inferences) in their native language have the cognitive background to use those
strategies in their new language.
3. Academic English Teaching the ﬁve essential components of proﬁcient reading—phonemic awareness, phonics,
vocabulary, ﬂuency, and comprehension (National Reading Panel, 2000)—to English learners is necessary but
not sufﬁcient for developing their academic literacy. ELs need to develop oral language proﬁciency and
academic discourse patterns as well. These are the vocabulary and language structures that make up academic
English—the language used in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Academic English allows students to
participate in classroom talk, such as supporting a historical perspective or providing evidence for a scientiﬁc
claim. As a corollary to this point, students beneﬁt from the integration of all language domains—reading,
writing, listening, and speaking. As they develop knowledge in one domain, they reinforce their learning in other
4. Instructional Accommodations High-quality instruction for EL students is similar to high-quality instruction for
native English-speaking students. However, beginning- and intermediate-level ELs need instructional
accommodations and support. The National Literacy Panel (August & Shanahan, 2006) found that the impact of
instructional interventions is weaker for English learners than it is for English speakers. This suggests that for
ELs, interventions must include added supports or accommodations (Goldenberg, 2006).
5. Enhanced Explicit Vocabulary Development English learners need enhanced, direct vocabulary development.
P R T E S O L - G R A M
Direct teaching of speciﬁc words can facilitate vocabulary growth and lead to increased reading comprehension
for native English speakers (Beck, Perfetti, & McKeown, 1982) and for English language learners (Carlo et al.,
2004). However, many middle school ELs need to learn many more vocabulary words than teachers have time to
teach. As a result, speciﬁc-word instruction must be supplemented with explicit instruction in strategies for word
learning, such as contextual and morphemic (word part) analysis. For some ELs, these strategies should include
ways for them to identify and use native-language cognates to ﬁgure out English words. Helping ELs develop
knowledge of words, word parts, and word relationships is crucial if they are to understand topics in the content
areas well enough to increase both their academic knowledge and reading comprehension (Graves, 2006).
Designing Appropriate Curriculum for ELs
Comprehensive literacy instruction programs for English learners must incorporate the following elements:
o lesson objectives that are based on state content and language standards
o explicit attention to academic, cross-curricular vocabulary and subject-speciﬁc terminology
o strategic, developmental reading instruction tied to a wide range of expository and narrative texts
o explicit writing instruction
o listening and speaking/discourse instruction
o grammar instruction
o teaching practices that both tap studentsʼ prior knowledge and build background for learning about new
o explicit instruction in learning strategies
o instruction in common content area tasks
o comprehension checks and opportunities for review
In effective programs, we see teachers using speciﬁc techniques, such as those in the SIOP Model for sheltered
instruction (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008), to make the presentation of new content comprehensible for English
learners. For example:
o Teachers make the standards-based, lesson objectives explicit to the students, utilizing realia, pictures, and
video clips to help students visualize the content.
o Before moving into a reading or a writing activity, teachers activate studentsʼ prior knowledge and link to past
learning, tapping studentsʼ current abilities in their native language. They preteach vocabulary, and build
background appropriate to the content and task at hand.
o Knowing that typical lecture practices are not effective with ELs, teachers organize the presentation of
information into chunks suited to studentsʼ proﬁciency levels, offer demonstrations, promote student-student
interaction, teach note-taking skills with speciﬁc organizers, and include time for reﬂection.
o To build competence and the ability to work independently, any new subject matter task or classroom routine is
scaffolded for students by using sentence and paragraph frames graduated to studentsʼ proﬁciency levels.
o Thus, teachers lead students, even those at differing levels of proﬁciency, to higher levels of understanding and
o Language skills are sequenced and taught explicitly as well as integrated into lessons on other skills so that
students have every opportunity to grow their academic English. Language skills taught in one lesson are
reinforced in later ones.
o To ensure that learning is taking place and students are making expected progress, teachers check ELsʼ
comprehension frequently during instruction. They also use multiple measures to monitor progress on a more
formal basis, using assessments that accommodate the studentsʼ developing language skills and lead to timely
Applying the Research: Inside Language, Literacy, and Content
Inside Language, Literacy, and Content provides all of these elements of successful instruction for ELs. The
program uses state standards for language, literacy, and content as the foundation for the lesson objectives. At
Levels C–E , the standards also inform the guiding questions that address topical issues like What happens when
cultures cross paths? and What makes the environment so valuable?
These guiding questions engage and motivate students to read and ﬁnd answers. Moreover, students share ideas
about the questions over the course of three major selections in each unit, which offers them opportunities to build
language in context over time and to respond more thoughtfully as they gain new perspectives, information, and, in
some cases, data.
Lesson plans are built around techniques that are appropriate for English learners. For example, reading lessons
begin with building background using pictures and videos from the National Geographic Digital Library.
To promote growth in vocabulary, the program teaches both key content-related words from the reading selections
P R T E S O L - G R A M
and important academic words and concepts, such as debate, sequence, and organize, that students can apply
across content areas. It also includes a wide range of vocabulary building activities for ELs, giving them multiple
opportunities to practice new words in various contexts. In addition, instructional routines for daily vocabulary
practice help students use independent word-learning strategies.
Academic Language Frames are used to further support ELsʼ development of language. These frames provide
structure for using language to carry out academic tasks. Because the frames are graduated in language
complexity, they help students of all proﬁciencies to participate fully in class discussions and activities.
Each level includes daily lessons in English grammar and sentence structure so that students receive systematic,
comprehensive language instruction.
With each selection, the program targets a speciﬁc language function, such as Ask for and Give Information or
Describe. Students hear multiple language models to help them see the language function in action and participate
in songs, chants and other audio lessons to try out the language function in a risk-free way. In the selection
lessons, students use this language function again and again.
Instructional strategies are speciﬁcally designed for English learners. For example, lessons promote interaction and
the use of oral language, often in cooperative learning activities. The lessons offer Multi-Level Strategies to give
students at different levels of language proﬁciency access to the text or to support their participation in the task at
Effective instruction for English learners requires both high expectations and specialized strategies to ensure
success. The standards base of Inside Language, Literacy, and Content along with its structured supports, Multi-
Level Strategies, and other instructional techniques designed especially for English learners allows students to
accelerate their growth in language and literacy.
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: A report of the
National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Bailey, A. (Ed.) (2007). The language demands of school: Putting academic English to the test. New Haven, CT:
Yale University Press.
Beck, I. L., Perfetti, C., & McKeown, M. G. (1982). Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and
reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 506–521.
Biancarosa, G., & Snow, C. (2004). Reading next: A vision for action and research in middle and high school
literacy. Report to the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Carlo, M. S., August, D., McLaughlin, B., Snow, C. E., Dressler, C., Lippman, D., Lively, T., & White, C. (2004).
Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English language learners in bilingual and mainstream
classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(2), 188–215.
Dutro, S., & Moran, C. (2003). Rethinking English language instruction: An architectural approach. In G. G.
García (Ed.), English learners (pp. 227–258). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Echevarria, J., Short, D., & Powers, K. (2006). School reform and standards-based education: An instructional
model for English language learners. Journal of Educational Research, 99(4), 195–211.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. E., & Short, D. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP®
model (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
García, G. E., & Godina, H. (2004). Addressing the literacy needs of adolescent English language learners. In T.
Jetton & J. Dole (Eds.), Adolescent literacy: Research and practice (pp. 304–320). New York: The Guilford
Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2006). Educating English language learners:
A synthesis of research evidence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gersten, R., Brengelman, S., & Jiménez, R. (1994). Effective instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse
students: A reconceptualization. Focus on Exceptional Children, 27, 1–16.
Goldenberg, C. (2006). Improving achievement for English learners: What research tells us. Education Week, July
Graves, M. (2006). The vocabulary book: Learning & instruction. New York: Teachers College Press.
Kamil, M. (2003). Adolescents and literacy: Reading for the 21st century. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent
Lindholm-Leary, K., & Borsato, G. (2006). Academic achievement. In F. Genesee, K. Lindholm-Leary, W. Saunders,
& D. Christian (Eds.), Educating English language learners: A synthesis of research evidence (pp. 176–222).
New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Moje, E. B. (2006). Motivating texts, motivating contexts, motivating adolescents: An examination of the role of
motivation in adolescent literacy practices and development. Perspectives, 32(3), 10–14.
Moje, E. B., McIntosh Ciechanowski, K., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., & Collazo, T. (2004). Working toward third
space in content area literacy: An Examination of everyday funds of knowledge and discourse. Reading
Research Quarterly, 39(1), 38–71.
National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientiﬁc
research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups.
Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health.
Rueda, R., & García, G. (2001). How do I teach reading to ELLs? Teaching every child to read. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan, Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement.
Schleppegrell, M. (2004). The language of schooling: A functional linguistic perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Short, D., & Fitzsimmons, S. (2007). Double the work: Challenges and solutions to acquiring language and
academic literacy for adolescent English language learners. Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Slavin, R. E., & Cheung, A. (2003). Effective programs for English language learners: A best-evidence synthesis.
Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, CRESPAR.
Tatum, A. W. (2007). Building the textual lineages of African American adolescent males. In K. Beers, R. Probst, &
L. Reif (Eds.), Adolescent literacy: Turning promise into practice. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Tatum, A. W. (2005). Teaching reading to black adolescent males: Closing the achievement gap. Portland, ME:
OUT AND TOUCH NEW OR RENEWED MEMBERS FOR PRTESOL
Get your free membership for another year!
Recruit ten (10) or more new or renewed members and you will receive your membership free for another year!
Win a free registration for one day at the convention!
Recruit twenty (20) or more new or renewed members for the opportunity to participate in a drawing to win a free
registration for the 2009 Convention. The drawing will be held at the Metro conference at Inter, Bayamón on
October 3, 2009.
Guidelines for recruitment:
1. Your membership must be up-to-date to be eligible.
2. Write the recruiterʼs name where it says: “referred by....”
3. Each new or renewed memberʼs form must be received with payment at the address provided below.
4. Board members are not eligible to participate.
Here are some websites for TESOL. Linguistics-
Bookmark them and check them frequently to http://www.ielanguages.com/linguist.html
stay up-to-date on all the PRTESOL events. Writing-
Librarians Internet Index-
A few suggested websites on various topics.