Thank you Mr. Chair, we will talk about organic farming in Turkey. My presentation has seven main titles with several sub-titles and is composed of 42 slides. Before talking about current situation, I will say something about organic farming’s milestones in Turkey. Then, you are going to see some main figures in organic agriculture implemented in our country. Particularly, under the fifth title, I will give you information related to the legislation in the context of new EU Regulation . And finally, in the last part of my speech, I would like to share our advantages, goals for the future and of course, challenges in Turkish organic farming sector /sek’tır/ .
First N ational Regulation on production, processing and marketing of organic agricultural products was published on December 18,1994 and an amendment /Imendmınt/ to this Regulation was done on June 29,1995. The National Regulation of 1994 was based on EU regulation 2092/91. Since then, amendments to EU basic regulation have been followed and a new regulation was prepared and published on July 11, 2002 ,2005,2010. Later on, decision makers in M ARA considered that it would be pretty useful for the sector to establish a department concerning only affairs on organic farming. Subsequently, the Department of the Alternative Agricultural Production Techniques was established in July 2003, then on 3 Dec 2004 “ Law on Organic Farming” was issued. And then, the most recent “ Regulation on Principals and Application of Organic Farming” in line with new EU Regulation , put in force, on 2010
Regarding the organizational structure, the Department of Good Agricultural Production and Organic Farming under the General Directorate of Plant Production and Development at Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock is the competent /Kam’pitınt/ authority /Ithor’ıti/ in order to prepare and implement the legislation on organic agriculture, to give permission to control and certification bodies, to inspect these organizations and to coordinate all other activities in order to improve organic farming in Turkey. The competent authority responsible for comprehensive coordination of policies on organic production. It is organized in the form of a department consisting of three section directorates within the body of (DGAPD) which is one of the main service units reporting to the MARA. Said Department coordinates the activities related with organic agriculture at national and international levels. Furthermore, there is the Organic Farming Committee (OFC) reporting to the said Department. In addition to OFC, for the purpose to ascertain /asırteyn/ strategy and policy on organic farming, there is the Organic Farming National Steering Committee (OFN S C).
The ministry transferred some of its authority to the Authorized Institution. This includes the processes of controlling the stages of organic production/input from production to reaching the consumer and the certification.
Control and certification institution or certification institution is under obligation to provide the criteria required and the suitability of the principles of certification, in compliance with EN 45011 or ISO 65. Control and certification institution or certification institution prepares a quality handbook describing the quality system. As I stated in the previous slide, Certification institution receives all control information and reports from the control institution performing the control, concerning the enterprise to which a certificate will be issued. Control institution is under obligation to transfer this information to the certification institution. And finally, required certificates /sırtîf’ıkît/ are drawn /dron/ up given to the operators.
M FAL established a core group that consisted of the Department of Good Agricultural Practices and Organic Farming under the General Directorate of Plant Production for Agricultural Production and small provincial team from each of 81 Turkish provinces . The group is responsible developing the Turkish national strategy and action plan , enforcing the rules and regulation. In addition, under each provincial directorate Organic Farming Units are founded .It is aimed to transfer research results to producers via training and publications and to from more effective ordered auditing system. There are 1200 0rganic agriculture team in these provinces.
If we look at the improvements in organic farming applications in Turkey, we see that it has been based on traditional agriculture implemented in many regions especially in small size village holdings, mostly without or with very little chemicals. However, after 1984-85, the organic farming in the real meaning started but it had no legislation which regulated control, certification, labelling, storage, transportation and so on. In other words, organic farming in Turkey started in the mid 80’s with the demands of European importers. It can be said organic agriculture was initiated in Izmir which is located in the Aegean /Iciyın/ region, in 1985 with dried fruits. But today, organic agricultural production has expanded to all regions. The number of farmers in Turkey applying with organic agricultural methods is also increasing year by year. Turkish organic products which are produced in accordance with a by-law on organic farming increased into various categories, such as dried fruits, fresh or processed fruits and vegetables, pulses, edible nuts, cereals, spices and herbs, and industrial crops. Some of the processed organic products are frozen fruits and vegetables, and fruit juice concentrates. Most of them are exported.
İlk üç klik: ******* Certification is the documentation of the degree to which the holding, organic product, or input, as the result of the application of all control operations. Control and certification institution or certification institution issues organic farming entrepreneur certificate and product certificate. Certification is made by real or legal persons authorized by the Committee (that is OFC) for this purpose /pırpıs/ . Certification can also be made by the institution performing the control; however a separate permission and authorization must be obtained from the Committee for this purpose. A control and certification institution or certification institution authorized for certification can not transfer this authority to another institution . ******* KLİK*** As to certification procedure ; control and certification institution or certification institution prepares a certification system and submits /sıbmits/ it to the Committee. This system includes the tariff used by the control and certification institution or certification institution , certificate sample, and information concerning certificate types, test and examination method, analysis /ınäl’ısîs/ method and all techniques used, and documentation system. Control and certification institution or certification institution is under obligation to provide the criteria required and the suitability of the principles of certification, in compliance with EN 45011 or ISO 65. Control and certification institution or certification institution prepares a quality handbook describing the quality system. As I stated in the previous slide, Certification institution receives all control information and reports from the control institution performing the control, concerning the enterprise to which a certificate will be issued. C ontrol institution is under obligation to transfer this information to the certification institution . And finally, required certificates /sırtîf’ıkît/ are drawn /dron/ up given to the operators.
Right now you are seeing blank two different certificates used in Turkey for organic production. As seen, these document s need to have a lot of information.
In this slide I will mention sanctions in organic production. The Law on Organic Farming has a few provisions regulating sanctions and penalties /penılt î z/ for infringements. The By-Law has also one comprehensive article about it. These provisions cover mostly fines as you see their limits in the slide. Fines applicable to entrepreneurs and authorized institutions which violate the law are applied by the competent authority. Authorized bodies have no authority to fine. The authority of penalties and their executions /eksıkyu’şıns/ only belong to the Ministry. Authorized bodies do not accept production as organic in nonconformity and doubtful cases.
Organic agriculture initiated in the Aegean region in 1985 , has expanded to all region. Aegean Region 12,1 % Marmara Region 1 ,5 % Southeast Anatolia Region 6,1 % Mediterranean Region 6,4 % East Anatolia Region 45,6 % Black Sea Region 12,9 % Central Anatolia Region 3,5 %
Number of operator s, quantity of production, production areas /er’iyıs/ and product diversity have increased by the years. Number of operator s was around 2000 in 1996, than it reached to almost 1 4 .000 in 200 5 , and it was 42 .000 in 20 10 The production area was approximately 7.000 ha in 1996, whereas over 203 .000 in 200 5 and around 501 .000 ha in 2010 The number of product variety was 26 in 1996 and 216 in 20 10 . Generally, there has been an increase in organic production sector /sek’tır/ .
Generally therehas been an increase in organic animal production sector. The number of bovine animal, ovine animal and poultry increasing year by year. Organic beekeeping has been shown changes year by year.
The production of hazelnut, walnut, pistachio, dried fig, dried apricot, dried grape, legume, medical aromatic plants, cotton, berries and fresh fruit and vegetable is carried out according to the methods of organic farming. The varieties /vırayıtiz/ of processed organic products have been increased significantly in years. As to Turkish organic products in agricultural Industry; fruit juice, frozen fruit, tomato paste and juice concentrated, pesto and other sauces, black tea and fruit tea, canned roasted pepper and eggplant, canned fruit, vegetable and beans, canned aromatic plants (eg. cappero), olive oil, rose oil, spices oil (cumin, mustard, rosemary), oregano oil and water, wine and liqueur and fruit cocktails, textile, organic fertilizer .
As for training in organic farming, there are two phases to train relevant staff and operators. Under the framework of training plans prepared annually, the trainers determined before from the related departments of universities, the Committee members, researchers working in the MARA Research Institutions, experts from NGO’s and private companies, organize one or two-week seminars and courses for the MARA staff after needs assessment, instructional plan and techniques to be used etc. These instructors train the technical staff who are working in “organic farming unit” at provincial offices of MARA, then this staff visit farms and villages to train operators who want to learn some production techniques, innovations and so on in organic farming. Surely, this training can focus sometimes on general issues but mostly is about pretty specific titles such as protection and diseases in organic strawberry production or animal welfare in organic sheep farming.
In European Action Plan for Organic Food and Farming, it is proposed that organic agricultural activities should be carried out in the sensitive area that is targeting organic farming as the preferred management option in environmentally sensitive areas (without restricting organic farming to these areas). In Turkey dam basins /bey’sın/ have been chosen as sensitive areas. A protocol was signed in December 30, 2003 with the General Directorate for State Hydraulic Works in order to carry out organic agricultural production in the dam basins which are for drinking and usage purposes. The studies in 1 8 dam basins and 1 8 provinces are still going on.
Regarding IT system in organic farming implemented in Turkey, a software program has been prepared in order to provide complete information exchange between Control and Certification Bodies and M FAL by setting the database into computer network of Ministry. Turkey has been also member of EISfOM since February 2004 in order to share data in organic farming with other member countries.
In this slide you are seeing data flow and its release for public. As to broadcast about organic farming, the Higher Board of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation shall take necessary measures /mej’ırs/ to ensure that national, regional and local radio and TV stations broadcasting in the territory of the Republic of Turkey give space to informative programs about organic farming for at least 30 minutes monthly.
The technical file which was prepared in order to take place in the third states was sent Brussels. The R egulation on the Principals and Application of Organic Agriculture regulation was based on EU Regulation (2092/91). Than The Regulation on the Principals and Application of Organic Agriculture regulation was based on new EU Regulation . I t will be possible for Turkey to be included in the list of the of the third countries which will be able to export to EU after is conformity to EU Legislation is ratified .
Through Cabinet Decision dated, 28 February 2004; maximum three-year timed investment credit and one year timed business credit with a discount of 60 % from current interest rate were provided for entrepreneurs that produce organic agricultural products and inputs. These supports will continue in 2005, too. With the above mentioned decision the opportunity to use investment credit for 1,5 year and business credit for 5 years are provided ,
There were 29 importer countries in 2004 and the export value was 33.076.319 USA Dollars. Member States of EU are our main export markets Same of them are Germany, England, Holland, Switzerland and France. Also Thailand, USA, India, Japan and Canada other importer countries
In our country organic farming is progressing more and more. In this context policy markeers in MARA do beleive that the belowgoals are pretty important and they need to be put into practise these are:
In Turkey: Wide range of crop variety in terms of agricultural production Suitable climatic condition Highly experience in farming practices Rich bio-diversity The high rate of labor force population which is needed or required by organic agriculture, The less pollution of Turkey’s geography are the important opportunities for organic agriculture. MARA recommends for Co n tractual Farming Model in organic agriculture.
Organic Farming in Turkey
Republic of Turkey Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock General Directorate of Plant Production ORGANIC FARMING IN TURKEY By Vildan KARAARSLAN Head of Department Agronomist and Food Science Expert e-mail:email@example.com
<ul><li> CONTENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of O rganic F arming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control and Certification Bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training and Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bas i c Figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Milestones </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Association for Ecologic Farming Organization , 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish National Regulation issued, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Department of the Alternative Agricultural Production Techniques , 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Organic Farming , 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>“ By-Law on Princip les and Application of Organic Farming” in line with EU Regulation 2092/91, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation on Princip les and Application of Organic Farming ” 2010 based on EU Regulation 834/2007, 889/2008, 710/2010 , </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Good Agricultural Practices and Organic Farming , 2011 </li></ul>
Control and Certification Institutions <ul><li>Organic agricultural production is carried out under the control of Control and Certification Institutions as follows: </li></ul>
OF Authorized Body Authorized Body Authorized Body ETKO Ekolojik Tarım Kontrol Org. Ltd. Şti. BCS ÖKO-GARANTIE Organik Tarım Sertifikalandırma Hizmetleri Ltd. Şti. ECOCERT Denetim ve Belgelendirme Ltd .Şti. IMO Control ve Sertifikasyon Ticaret Limited Şirketi TURKGAP Tarım Uygulamaları Kontrol ve Sertifikasyon Hizmetleri Ticaret Ltd. Şti. ICEA İNSTİTULO PER LA CERTİFİCAZİONE ETİCA E AMBİENTALE Türkiye İzmir Şubesi NİSSERT Uluslararası Sertifikasyon ve Denetim Hizmetleri Ltd. Şti. CERES CERTIFICATION OF ENVIROMENTAL STANDARTS GmbH Türkiye İzmir Şubesi EKOTAR Ekolojik Tarım Ürünleri Üretim, Kontrol, Sertifika, Sanayi ve Ticaret Ltd. Şti. IMC Ltd. Şti. CU Sertifikasyon Ltd. Şti. ANKA GLOBAL Kontrol ve Sertifikasyon A.Ş. ORSER Organik Ürünler Kontrol ve Sertifikasyon Ltd. Şti. BİO İNSPECTA Kontrol ve Sertifikasyon Limited Şirketi ANADOLU Ekolojik Ürünler Kontrol ve Sertifikasyon Ltd. Şti. İsmail DEMİRCAN NOPcert Organik Tarım Uygulamaları Organik Girdiler ve Organik Ürünler Sertifikasyon Hizmetleri KALİTEST Belgelendirme ve Eğitim Hizmetleri Ltd. Şti. EGETAR Kontrol ve Sertifikasyon Hizmetleri Ltd. Şti.
Organic Agriculture Committees <ul><li>Two official committees for organic agriculture in Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock in Turkey: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Agriculture Committee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Steering Committee for Organic Agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Farming Units </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Development of organic farming ( ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not regulated by a legislation (1984-85) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>today </li></ul></ul>OF OF OF <ul><li>Legislation since 1994 …2010 </li></ul><ul><li>42.097 producers </li></ul><ul><li>501.033 ha area or so </li></ul>
Certification System Organic Farming Committee , MFAL , DGAPD
Entrepreneur Certificate for Organic Farming Name of Control and Certification Institution : Code No : Address : Certificate No : Name/Address of Entrepreneur : Name of Product and Its Characteristics : Certification Status : Contract No : Type of Operation : Determination Date of Certificate: Ratification Date and Place of Certificate : Product Certificate Name of Control and Certification Institution : Code No : Address : Certificate No : Name of Product and Its Characteristics : Certification Status : Quantity of Product : Harvest Year : Production Year : Product Origin : Contract : Invoice No and Date : Waybill No and Date : Quantity and Type of Packaging: Party (lot) Number and Calibration : C N CODE : Purchaser Country : Purchaser Entrepreneur Name And Address : Sender Country : Name of Sender Entrepreneur and Address : Certificate Ratification Date:
<ul><li>Sanctions and Penalties for Infringements </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed provisions in the Law and the By-Law on OF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative fines from 10.000TL-50.000TL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancellation of authorization and licences (in case such an infringement repeated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double administrative fine working license cancelled permanently and so on </li></ul></ul>
Black Sea Region 12,9 % Central Anatolia Region 3,5 % Eastern Anatolia Region 45,6 % Mediterranean Region 6,4 % Aegean Region 12,1 % South Eastern Anatolia Region 6,1 % Marmara Region 1,5 % The Distribution of Organic Farming Areas in Turkey According to the Regions (20 10 )
Organic Agricultural Production in Turkey Source: Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock Years Operators (000) Area (1000 ha ) Production (1000 ton ) Number of Products 2002 12,4 89,8 310,1 150 2005 14,4 203,8 421,9 205 2010 42,0 501,0 1.343,7 216
Organic Production in 20 10 Source : MARA Product Production ( 0 00 t) Product Production (000 t) Apple 39.3 Plum 1.2 Wheat 23.9 Barley 2.3 Cotton 18.0 C a r o b 3.1 Tomato 12.1 Hazelnut 7.9 Dried Fig 9.6 Pear 1.7 Dried Grape 25.6 Maize 18.3 Lentil 8.3 Strawberry 3.4 Olive 17.8 Chickpea 5.6 Dried Apricot 13.5 Cherry 5.6 Pomegranate 6.1
<ul><li>Training Model </li></ul><ul><li>Educators </li></ul><ul><li>Academicians </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry m embers </li></ul><ul><li>Experts </li></ul>Organic Farming Unit Section Directorate for Farmer Training and Extension in M FAL Provincial Directorate Operators ( Non-Formal Education) Total 1516 technical staff’s Training ( 2004-20 11) ( Extension ) Total 70 625 Operators’ training in 3 261 courses 2004-2011
Project t o Develop and Control Organic Farming <ul><li>In the scope of Project to Develop and Control Organic Farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24 research institutes and 9 demo activities in provincial offices are performed in respect to crop, animal and aqua cultural products. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>EU Action Plan, in the sensitive a reas </li></ul><ul><li>In Turkey, dam basins sensitive areas </li></ul><ul><li>Organic production in dam basins started , 30 Dec 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>The studies on going in 1 8 dam basin s </li></ul>Source: Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock OF OF Years Training Farmer Trained Farmer Producing Area (ha) 2004 147 1,885 83 300 2005 100 1, 691 457 2, 300 2010 129 1,886 769 2,084
<ul><li>Information System </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey has been also Member of MOAN (Mediterranean Organic Agriculture Network), 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Software prepared by MFAL in order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide complete data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to exchange data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between authorized institutions M FAL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Information System for Organic Market Membership , Feb 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey, member of EISFOM established to improve European Information System for Organic Markets </li></ul>EIS f OM
Data Flowchart OF OF Broadcasting <ul><li>Article 8 of the Law on </li></ul><ul><li>National, regional and local radio and TV broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Promotional programs about for at least 30 minutes / month </li></ul>81 Provincial Directorate of MFAL MFAL Database
List of Third Countries <ul><li>The technical file sent to Brussels </li></ul><ul><li>in order to be in cluded in the list of third states </li></ul>
Organic Agriculture Support <ul><li>Oganic plant production support is area based… </li></ul><ul><li>Organic animals are supported as additional 50% to conventional animal supports… </li></ul>
<ul><li>F or entrepreneurs producing organic </li></ul><ul><li>products and inputs </li></ul><ul><li>By Cabinet Decision of 28 February 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>investment credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for maximum seven -year period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>business credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for 2 year period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>supports on- going since 200 4 -2011 </li></ul>Organic Agricultural Support a discount of 50 % from current interest ,
Importer Countries <ul><li>There are many importer countries </li></ul><ul><li>EU is our main market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As Germany, England, Holland, and France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>also Switzerland ,Japan, Canada, USA, India and others </li></ul>
Targets (1) <ul><li>To increase product range </li></ul><ul><li>T o make market-oriented production </li></ul><ul><li>To increase the added value of organic products and producers ’ income through processing organic products </li></ul><ul><li>To increase domestic consumption </li></ul>
Targets (2) <ul><li>To increase training activities and awareness-raising on organic agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>To clean polluted areas /environment and to protect clean areas against pollution </li></ul><ul><li>To promote improvement by extending organic to animal husbandry </li></ul><ul><li>To extend organic agriculture in environmentally sensitive areas </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><ul><li>In Turkey: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rich bio-diversity wide range of crop variety in agricultural production </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable climatic condition </li></ul><ul><li>Highly experience in farming practices </li></ul><ul><li>High rate of labor force population required by organic agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Less pollution of Turkey’s geography opportunities for organic agriculture </li></ul>
<ul><li>Thanks for your attention </li></ul>By Vildan KARAARSLAN Head of Department