content analysis

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Basics To General Concepts

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content analysis

  1. 1. CH1: Content Analysis Basics To General Concepts Dr. Essam Obaid essamobaid@gmail.com
  2. 2. What is content analysis? Content analysis in general:  Content Analysis is: "a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of manifest content of communications such as books, journals, websites, paintings and laws ....etc.“
  3. 3. Content Analysis is: • It is a research tool or technique that help to analyze the actual content and it is features of any kind , whether it was a word, picture, themes, text , and try to present the content in objective and quantitative manner . 3
  4. 4. 4 Content analysis is a research tool focused on the actual content and internal features of media. It is used to determine the presence of certain words, concepts, themes, phrases, characters, or sentences within texts or sets of texts and to quantify this presence in an objective manner.
  5. 5.  Texts can be defined broadly as books, book chapters, essays, interviews, discussions, newspaper headlines and articles, historical documents, speeches, conversations, advertising, theater, informal conversation, films, photos, websites or really any occurrence of communicative language.
  6. 6. • Content analysis is a term sometimes used to describe both quantitative and qualitative approaches to analyzing content. 6
  7. 7. How conduct a content analysis ? • To conduct a content analysis on a text, the text is coded, or broken down, into manageable categories on a variety of levels--word, word sense, phrase, sentence, or theme-- and then examined using one of content analysis' basic methods: conceptual analysis or relational analysis. • The results are then used to make inferences about the messages within the text(s), the writer(s), the audience, and even the culture and time of which these are a part. 7
  8. 8. For example  Content Analysis can indicate pertinent features such as comprehensiveness of coverage or the intentions, biases, prejudices, and oversights of authors, publishers, as well as all other persons responsible for the content of materials. • Content analysis is a product of the electronic age. 8
  9. 9. The process of a content analysis six questions must be addressed in every content analysis: • Which data are analyzed? • How are they defined? • What is the users from which they are drawn? • What is the context relative to which the data are analyzed? • What are the boundaries of the analysis? • What is the target of the inferences? 9
  10. 10. Why use content analysis? • Due to the fact that it can be applied to examine any piece of writing or occurrence of recorded communication. • Content analysis is used in large number of fields, ranging from marketing and media studies, to literature , rhetoric, information studies, sociology and political science, psychology science, as well as other fields of inquiry. 10
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  12. 12. The following goals summarizes the reasons for using content analysis. To reduce large amounts of unstructured content. To describe characteristics of the content.  To Identify important aspects of the content.  To present important aspects of the content clearly and effectively. To support of some argument. 12
  13. 13. The goals of content analysis:  To examine trends and relationships in the text and multimedia produced or used in the fields context to provide an insight into it.  To identify the intentions, focus or communication trends of an individual, group or institution.  To describe attitudinal and behavioral responses to communications  To determine psychological or emotional state of persons or groups. 13
  14. 14. Summary • The goals : • To reduce large amounts of unstructured content. • To Identify and present important aspects of the content. • To focus on groups or individual intention . • To support some argument by understanding the characteristic of the content . • To determine the behavioral and psychology . 14
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  16. 16. There are two general categories of content analysis: conceptual analysis and relational analysis:- Conceptual analysis: can be thought of as establishing the existence and frequency of concepts in a text. Relational analysis: builds on conceptual analysis by examining the relationships among concepts in a text.
  17. 17. Conceptual analysis vs. Relational analysis • Conceptual analysis can be thought of as establishing the existence and frequency of concepts “ most often represented by words of phrases “ in a text. • For instance, in text often writes about information. With conceptual analysis you can determine how many times words such as “information, informational, inform, or formation” . • In contrast, relational analysis goes one step further by examining the relationships among concepts in a text. • Returning to the information example, with relational analysis, you could identify what other words or phrases information or security information or network information appear next to and then determine what different meanings emerge as a result of these groupings. 17
  18. 18. Conceptual analysis vs. Relational analysis • Relational analysis, like conceptual analysis, begins with the act of identifying concepts present in a given text or set of texts. • However, relational analysis seeks to go beyond presence by exploring the relationships between the concepts identified. Relational analysis has also been termed semantic analysis. • In other words, the focus of relational analysis is to look for semantic, or meaningful, relationships. • Individual concepts, in and of themselves, are viewed as having no inherent meaning. Rather, meaning is a product of the relationships among concepts in a text. 18
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  20. 20. Advantages of Content Analysis • Content analysis offers several advantages to researchers who consider using it. In particular, content analysis: looks directly at communication via texts or transcripts, and hence gets at the central aspect of social interaction. can allow for both quantitative and qualitative operations. can provides valuable historical/cultural insights over time through analysis of texts. 20
  21. 21. can be used to interpret texts for purposes such as the development of expert systems (since knowledge and rules can both be coded in terms of explicit statements about the relationships among concepts). is an unobtrusive means of analyzing interactions. provides insight into complex models of human thought and language use. when done well, is considered as a relatively "exact" research method.
  22. 22. Disadvantages of Content Analysis 22
  23. 23. Disadvantages of Content Analysis can be extremely time consuming. is subject to increased error, particularly when relational analysis is used to attain a higher level of interpretation. is often devoid of theoretical base, or attempts too liberally to draw meaningful inferences about the relationships and impacts implied in a study . 23
  24. 24. Disadvantages of Content Analysis is inherently reductive, particularly when dealing with complex texts. tends too often to simply consist of word counts. often disregards the context that produced the text, as well as the state of things after the text is produced . 24
  25. 25. The End https://sites.google.com/site/essamobaid/ 25

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