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    chapter 02 week 2 lecture 1 chapter 02 week 2 lecture 1 Presentation Transcript

    • PTHA 1513 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY Week 2: Lecture 1 Elaine Wilson, PT
    • Today’s Theme Song 
    • Goals for Today
      • Describe the components of the axial versus appendicular skeleton
      • Define the primary components found in bone
      • Describe the 5 types of bones found in the human skeleton
      • Describe the 3 primary classifications of joints and give an anatomic example of each
      • Identify the components of a synovial joint
    • Goals for Today - cont’d
      • Describe the seven different classifications of synovial joints in terms of mobility (degrees of freedom) and stability
      • Provide an anatomic example of each of the 7 different classifications of synovial joints
      • Describe the 3 primary materials found in connective tissue
      • Explain how tendons and ligaments support the structure of a joint
      • Explain how muscles help to stabilize a joint
      • Describe the effects of immobilization on the connective tissues of a joint
    • CHAPTER 2 Structure & Function of Joints
    • Axial versus Appendicular Skeleton
      • Axial skeleton
        • Skull, hyoid bone, ribs, and vertebral column
        • Forms central, semi-rigid bony axis of body
      • Appendicular skeleton
        • Bones of appendages—or extremities
        • Includes scapula in upper extremity and pelvis in lower extremity
    • Bone Tissue Types
      • Cortical (compact) bone
        • Dense and extremely strong
        • Typically lines outermost bone portion
        • Absorbs compressive forces
      • Cancellous bone
        • Porous and lightweight
        • Typically composes inner bone portions
        • Redirects forces toward weight-bearing sources
    • Bone Anatomy
      • Diaphysis
        • Central shaft of bone, a thick hollow tube
        • Composed mostly of cortical bone
      • Epiphyses
        • Portions of bone arising from diaphysis
        • Primarily composed of spongy bone
        • Transmits weight-bearing forces across body
    • Bone Anatomy – cont’d
      • Articular cartilage
        • Lines articular surface of each epiphysis
        • Acts as shock absorber between joints
      • Periosteum
        • Thin, tough membrane covering long bones
        • Secures attachment of muscles and ligaments to bone
    • Bone Anatomy – cont’d
      • Medullary canal
        • Central hollow tube within long bone diaphysis
        • Stores bone marrow; provides passage for arteries
      • Endosteum
        • Membrane that lines medullary canal surface
        • Houses cells important for forming and repairing bones
    • Bone Types
      • Long bones
        • Contains an obvious axis or shaft
        • Expanded bone portion at each shaft end
        • Examples include femur, humerus, and radius
      • Short bones
        • Length, width, and height are about equal
        • An example includes carpal bones of the hand
    • Bone Types – cont’d
      • Flat bones
        • Typically flat or slightly curved
        • Often base for expansive muscular attachments
        • Examples include scapula and sternum
      • Irregular bones
        • Wide variety of shapes and sizes
        • Sesamoid (appear similar to sesame seed)
          • Encased within muscle tendons
          • Protect the tendon and increase the muscle’s leverage
    • Joint Classification
      • Synarthrosis
        • Junction between bones allowing little to no movement
        • Primary function: firmly bind bones together and transmit forces from one bone to another
      • Amphiarthrosis
        • Formed primarily by fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage
        • Allow limited amounts of motion
        • Primary function: provide shock absorption
    • Joint Classification – cont’d
      • Diarthrosis (synovial joint)
        • Articulation that contains a fluid-filled joint cavity between two or more bones
        • Includes seven uniquely functioning categories
        • All synovial joints share seven common attributes
    • 7 Common Elements of Synovial Joints
      • 1. Synovial fluid: provides joint lubrication and nutrition
      • 2. Articular cartilage: dissipates and absorbs compressive forces
      • 3. Articular capsule: connective tissue that surrounds and binds the joint together
      Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
    • 7 Common Elements of Synovial Joints – cont’d
      • 4. Synovial membrane: produces synovial fluid
      • 5. Capsular ligaments: thickened regions of connective tissue that limit excessive joint motion
      • 6. Blood vessels: provide nutrients to the joint
      • 7. Sensory nerves: transmit signals regarding pain and proprioception
      Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
    • Synovial Joint Classification
      • Hinge joint
        • Allows motion in only one plane about a single axis of rotation, similar to the hinge of a door
        • Ex- the humeroulnar joint (elbow)
      • Pivot joint
        • Allows rotation about a single longitudinal axis of rotation, similar to the rotation of a doorknob
        • Ex- the proximal radioulnar joint
    • Synovial Joint Classification – cont’d
      • Ellipsoid joint
        • Convex elongated surface mated with a concave surface
        • Allows motion to occur in two planes
        • Ex- radiocarpal (wrist) joint
      • Ball-and-socket joint
        • Articulation between spherical convex surface and cup-like socket
        • Allows wide ranges of motion in all three planes
        • Ex- hip joint
    • Synovial Joint Classification – cont’d
      • Plane joint
        • Articulation between two relatively flat bony surfaces
        • Allows limited amount of motion; may slide and rotate in many different directions
        • Ex- intercarpal joints of the hand
      • Saddle joint
        • One concave and one convex surface
        • Allows extensive motion, primarily in two planes
        • Ex- carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
    • Synovial Joint Classification – cont’d
      • Condyloid joints
        • Articulation between a large, rounded, convex member and a relatively shallow concave member
        • Most often these joints allow 2 degrees of freedom
        • Ex- tibiofemoral (knee) joint
      Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
    • Composition of Connective Tissues
      • All connective tissues supporting the joints of the body are composed of fibers, ground substance, and cells
      • These biologic materials are blended in various proportions on the basis of the joint’s mechanical demands
      Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
    • Fiber Types
      • Type I collagen fibers
        • Thick, rugged fibers that resist elongation
        • Compose ligaments, tendons, and fibrous capsules
      • Type II collagen fibers
        • Thinner and less stiff than type I fibers
        • Provide a flexible woven framework for maintaining the general shape and consistency of structures
    • Fiber Types – cont’d
      • Elastin
        • Elastic in nature
        • Resist (tensile) forces but have more “give” when elongated
        • Can be useful in preventing injury because they allow the tissue to “bend, but not break”
    • Ground Substance and Cells
      • Ground substance
        • Composed primarily of glycosaminoglycans (gags), water, and solutes
        • Allows body fibers to exist in a fluid-filled environment, dispersing repetitive forces
      • Cells
        • Responsible for the maintenance and repair of tissues that constitute joints
    • Types of Connective Tissue
      • Four basic types of connective tissue form the structure of joints:
        • Dense, irregular connective tissue
        • Articular cartilage
        • Fibrocartilage
        • Bone
      Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
    • Dense, Irregular Connective Tissue
      • Binds bones together and restrains unwanted movement of joints
      • Composes ligaments and the tough external layer of joint capsules
      • Primarily type I collagen fibers, low elastin fiber content
      Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
    • Articular Cartilage
      • Resists and distributes compressive and shear forces transferred through articular surfaces
      • Covers the ends of articulating bones in synovial joints
      • High type II collagen fiber content; fibers help anchor the cartilage to bone
      Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
    • Fibrocartilage
      • Provides support and stabilization to joints
      • Provides shock absorption by resisting and dispersing compressive and shear forces
      • Composes the intervertebral discs of the spine and the menisci of the knee
      • Multidirectional bundles of type I collagen
      Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
    • Bone
      • Forms primary supporting structure of the body and provides a rigid lever to transmit muscle force to move and stabilize the body
      • Forms internal levers of musculoskeletal system
      • Specialized arrangement of type I collagen providing a framework for hard mineral salts
    • Functional Considerations: Tendons and Ligaments
      • The fibrous composition of tendons and ligaments is similar , but arrangement and functions differ significantly
      • Tendons connect muscle to bone and convert muscular force into bony motion, with parallel alignment of collagen fibers
      • Ligaments connect bone to bone and maintain a joint’s structure, with irregular crossing patterns of collagen fibers
    • Functional Considerations: Active Joint Stabilization
      • Bony conformation and ligamentous networks provide static stability
      • Muscles function as active stabilizers
      • Muscles cannot respond as quickly as ligaments to external force, but allow a graded and more controlled response
      Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
    • Immobilization and Connective Tissues
      • Joint immobilization increases stiffness and decreases tissue ability to withstand forces
      • Immobilization may be necessary but makes joints susceptible to injury/instability
      • Rehabilitation programs involve a relatively quick return to weight bearing and possibly specific strengthening exercises
      Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
    • Summary
      • Each type of joint has specific functional capabilities
      • Range of motion and relative stability of a joint depend on bony structure, surrounding muscles, and connective tissues
      • Trade-off between stability and mobility of a joint
      • Every joint in the body must find the balance between mobility and stability to function properly
    • Homework
      • Please read Chapter 3 in textbook prior to lecture/lab on Thursday 01/26/12
      • Quiz #2: Chapters 3 & 4 – Tuesday 01/31/12 