chapter 02 week 2 lecture 1
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  • 1. PTHA 1513 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY Week 2: Lecture 1 Elaine Wilson, PT
  • 2. Today’s Theme Song 
  • 3. Goals for Today
    • Describe the components of the axial versus appendicular skeleton
    • Define the primary components found in bone
    • Describe the 5 types of bones found in the human skeleton
    • Describe the 3 primary classifications of joints and give an anatomic example of each
    • Identify the components of a synovial joint
  • 4. Goals for Today - cont’d
    • Describe the seven different classifications of synovial joints in terms of mobility (degrees of freedom) and stability
    • Provide an anatomic example of each of the 7 different classifications of synovial joints
    • Describe the 3 primary materials found in connective tissue
    • Explain how tendons and ligaments support the structure of a joint
    • Explain how muscles help to stabilize a joint
    • Describe the effects of immobilization on the connective tissues of a joint
  • 5. CHAPTER 2 Structure & Function of Joints
  • 6. Axial versus Appendicular Skeleton
    • Axial skeleton
      • Skull, hyoid bone, ribs, and vertebral column
      • Forms central, semi-rigid bony axis of body
    • Appendicular skeleton
      • Bones of appendages—or extremities
      • Includes scapula in upper extremity and pelvis in lower extremity
  • 7. Bone Tissue Types
    • Cortical (compact) bone
      • Dense and extremely strong
      • Typically lines outermost bone portion
      • Absorbs compressive forces
    • Cancellous bone
      • Porous and lightweight
      • Typically composes inner bone portions
      • Redirects forces toward weight-bearing sources
  • 8. Bone Anatomy
    • Diaphysis
      • Central shaft of bone, a thick hollow tube
      • Composed mostly of cortical bone
    • Epiphyses
      • Portions of bone arising from diaphysis
      • Primarily composed of spongy bone
      • Transmits weight-bearing forces across body
  • 9. Bone Anatomy – cont’d
    • Articular cartilage
      • Lines articular surface of each epiphysis
      • Acts as shock absorber between joints
    • Periosteum
      • Thin, tough membrane covering long bones
      • Secures attachment of muscles and ligaments to bone
  • 10. Bone Anatomy – cont’d
    • Medullary canal
      • Central hollow tube within long bone diaphysis
      • Stores bone marrow; provides passage for arteries
    • Endosteum
      • Membrane that lines medullary canal surface
      • Houses cells important for forming and repairing bones
  • 11. Bone Types
    • Long bones
      • Contains an obvious axis or shaft
      • Expanded bone portion at each shaft end
      • Examples include femur, humerus, and radius
    • Short bones
      • Length, width, and height are about equal
      • An example includes carpal bones of the hand
  • 12. Bone Types – cont’d
    • Flat bones
      • Typically flat or slightly curved
      • Often base for expansive muscular attachments
      • Examples include scapula and sternum
    • Irregular bones
      • Wide variety of shapes and sizes
      • Sesamoid (appear similar to sesame seed)
        • Encased within muscle tendons
        • Protect the tendon and increase the muscle’s leverage
  • 13. Joint Classification
    • Synarthrosis
      • Junction between bones allowing little to no movement
      • Primary function: firmly bind bones together and transmit forces from one bone to another
    • Amphiarthrosis
      • Formed primarily by fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage
      • Allow limited amounts of motion
      • Primary function: provide shock absorption
  • 14. Joint Classification – cont’d
    • Diarthrosis (synovial joint)
      • Articulation that contains a fluid-filled joint cavity between two or more bones
      • Includes seven uniquely functioning categories
      • All synovial joints share seven common attributes
  • 15. 7 Common Elements of Synovial Joints
    • 1. Synovial fluid: provides joint lubrication and nutrition
    • 2. Articular cartilage: dissipates and absorbs compressive forces
    • 3. Articular capsule: connective tissue that surrounds and binds the joint together
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 16. 7 Common Elements of Synovial Joints – cont’d
    • 4. Synovial membrane: produces synovial fluid
    • 5. Capsular ligaments: thickened regions of connective tissue that limit excessive joint motion
    • 6. Blood vessels: provide nutrients to the joint
    • 7. Sensory nerves: transmit signals regarding pain and proprioception
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 17. Synovial Joint Classification
    • Hinge joint
      • Allows motion in only one plane about a single axis of rotation, similar to the hinge of a door
      • Ex- the humeroulnar joint (elbow)
    • Pivot joint
      • Allows rotation about a single longitudinal axis of rotation, similar to the rotation of a doorknob
      • Ex- the proximal radioulnar joint
  • 18. Synovial Joint Classification – cont’d
    • Ellipsoid joint
      • Convex elongated surface mated with a concave surface
      • Allows motion to occur in two planes
      • Ex- radiocarpal (wrist) joint
    • Ball-and-socket joint
      • Articulation between spherical convex surface and cup-like socket
      • Allows wide ranges of motion in all three planes
      • Ex- hip joint
  • 19. Synovial Joint Classification – cont’d
    • Plane joint
      • Articulation between two relatively flat bony surfaces
      • Allows limited amount of motion; may slide and rotate in many different directions
      • Ex- intercarpal joints of the hand
    • Saddle joint
      • One concave and one convex surface
      • Allows extensive motion, primarily in two planes
      • Ex- carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
  • 20. Synovial Joint Classification – cont’d
    • Condyloid joints
      • Articulation between a large, rounded, convex member and a relatively shallow concave member
      • Most often these joints allow 2 degrees of freedom
      • Ex- tibiofemoral (knee) joint
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 21. Composition of Connective Tissues
    • All connective tissues supporting the joints of the body are composed of fibers, ground substance, and cells
    • These biologic materials are blended in various proportions on the basis of the joint’s mechanical demands
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 22. Fiber Types
    • Type I collagen fibers
      • Thick, rugged fibers that resist elongation
      • Compose ligaments, tendons, and fibrous capsules
    • Type II collagen fibers
      • Thinner and less stiff than type I fibers
      • Provide a flexible woven framework for maintaining the general shape and consistency of structures
  • 23. Fiber Types – cont’d
    • Elastin
      • Elastic in nature
      • Resist (tensile) forces but have more “give” when elongated
      • Can be useful in preventing injury because they allow the tissue to “bend, but not break”
  • 24. Ground Substance and Cells
    • Ground substance
      • Composed primarily of glycosaminoglycans (gags), water, and solutes
      • Allows body fibers to exist in a fluid-filled environment, dispersing repetitive forces
    • Cells
      • Responsible for the maintenance and repair of tissues that constitute joints
  • 25. Types of Connective Tissue
    • Four basic types of connective tissue form the structure of joints:
      • Dense, irregular connective tissue
      • Articular cartilage
      • Fibrocartilage
      • Bone
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 26. Dense, Irregular Connective Tissue
    • Binds bones together and restrains unwanted movement of joints
    • Composes ligaments and the tough external layer of joint capsules
    • Primarily type I collagen fibers, low elastin fiber content
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 27. Articular Cartilage
    • Resists and distributes compressive and shear forces transferred through articular surfaces
    • Covers the ends of articulating bones in synovial joints
    • High type II collagen fiber content; fibers help anchor the cartilage to bone
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 28. Fibrocartilage
    • Provides support and stabilization to joints
    • Provides shock absorption by resisting and dispersing compressive and shear forces
    • Composes the intervertebral discs of the spine and the menisci of the knee
    • Multidirectional bundles of type I collagen
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 29. Bone
    • Forms primary supporting structure of the body and provides a rigid lever to transmit muscle force to move and stabilize the body
    • Forms internal levers of musculoskeletal system
    • Specialized arrangement of type I collagen providing a framework for hard mineral salts
  • 30. Functional Considerations: Tendons and Ligaments
    • The fibrous composition of tendons and ligaments is similar , but arrangement and functions differ significantly
    • Tendons connect muscle to bone and convert muscular force into bony motion, with parallel alignment of collagen fibers
    • Ligaments connect bone to bone and maintain a joint’s structure, with irregular crossing patterns of collagen fibers
  • 31. Functional Considerations: Active Joint Stabilization
    • Bony conformation and ligamentous networks provide static stability
    • Muscles function as active stabilizers
    • Muscles cannot respond as quickly as ligaments to external force, but allow a graded and more controlled response
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 32. Immobilization and Connective Tissues
    • Joint immobilization increases stiffness and decreases tissue ability to withstand forces
    • Immobilization may be necessary but makes joints susceptible to injury/instability
    • Rehabilitation programs involve a relatively quick return to weight bearing and possibly specific strengthening exercises
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 33. Summary
    • Each type of joint has specific functional capabilities
    • Range of motion and relative stability of a joint depend on bony structure, surrounding muscles, and connective tissues
    • Trade-off between stability and mobility of a joint
    • Every joint in the body must find the balance between mobility and stability to function properly
  • 34. Homework
    • Please read Chapter 3 in textbook prior to lecture/lab on Thursday 01/26/12
    • Quiz #2: Chapters 3 & 4 – Tuesday 01/31/12 